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Zrenjanin

Serbia, Zrenjanin
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City Hall and monument of king Peter I of Serbia
Court House
"Zrenjanin" (Serbian Cyrillic: Зрењанин, , , ) is a city and a municipality located in Serbia. It is situated in the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina. It is the administrative centre of the of Serbia. In 2002, the city"s population was 79,773, while the Zrenjanin municipality had 132,051 inhabitants.

Zrenjanin is the largest City in the Serbian Banat, the third largest city in the Vojvodina province (after Novi Sad and Subotica) and the sixth largest city in Serbia.

am
Zrenjanin got its present name in 1946 in honour of the revolutionary hero Žarko Zrenjanin Uča (1902–1942). Žarko Zrenjanin was a leader of the Vojvodina Communists and wartime Partisans who during the World War II endured torture and months of incarceration by the Nazis, was released and later killed while trying to escape recapture.

Old Serbian name for the city was "Bečkerek" (Бечкерек) or "Veliki Bečkerek" (Велики Бечкерек). In Hungarian, the city is known as "Nagybecskerek", in German as "Großbetschkerek" or "Betschkerek", in Romanian as "Becicherecul Mare" or "Zrenianin", in Slovak as "Zreňanin", in Rusin as "Зрењанин", in Croatian as "Zrenjanin", and in Turkish as "Beştelek" (meaning "five melons") or "Beçkerek".

It is assumed that Zrenjanin"s original name, Bečkerek/Becskerek, comes from Hungarian word "kerek" ("forest, grove") and the surname of the 14th century nobleman, Imre Becsei, who had large estates in the area. Therefore the name would be translated into English as "Becsei"s Forest". The original name gained a modificated meaning "great/big/major" in the languages of the Banat ( or "Велики", Danube Swabian: "Groß", , ), as opposed to a village of the same name in the Romanian Banat, that is usually referred to as small Bečkerek (cf. Serbian: "Mali Bečkerek" or "Мали Бечкерек", Danube Swabian: "Kleinbetschkerek", , ).

In 1935 the city was renamed to "Petrovgrad" in honour of king Peter I of Serbia.

istor
A Neolithic Tiszapolgár-Bodrogkeresztúr culture necropolis was found in Crna Bara, near Zrenjaninhttp://www.rastko.rs/arheologija/ntasic-eneolit.html.

The town of (Veliki) Bečkerek / (Nagy) Becskerek was first settled in the 14th century, the first mention of it dates from 1326. The merchant town on the Begej river became a property of the Serbian prince Stefan Lazarević in the 14th century. The town was ruled by the Kingdom of Hungary until 1551 when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire.

Mehmed-paša Sokolović, the founder of the vakuf of Bečkerek
The Ottoman army that conquered Bečkerek was led by Mehmed-paša Sokolović, an Ottoman statesman of Serb origin, hence the local Serbs from Bečkerek helped him to conquer the town. After the town fell, Mehmed-paša met with the leaders of local Serbs, and nominated beg Malković for administrator of Bečkerek. As a gratitude to Serbs for their help, Mehmed-paša later (in 1570) turned the town into his vakuf (foundation), built there many beautiful buildings, and granted local autonomy to it. During the Ottoman rule, the town of Bečkerek was divided into two parts (mahalas) - one Serb and another Muslim and was sanjak centre in Province of Temeşvar.

In 1716, Bečkerek was conquered by the Habsburg Monarchy and it developed significantly by Maria Theresia"s order of 1769. According to the 1753 data, the town was mostly populated by Serbs and Germans. According to the 1773 data, the population of the town numbered 721 houses, of which 625 were Orthodox Christian, and 96 Roman Catholic.

In 1779, Bečkerek became a seat of Torontal county. It was occupied by Ottoman troops between 1788-1789 during Ottoman-Habsburg war.

Since great fire destroyed almost whole town in 1807, county seat was temporarly moved to Nagyszentmiklós, until new county building was finished in 1820.

Bečkerek got a theatre hall in 1839 and a gymnasium in 1846, as well as a City Hall in 1820 and the Palace of Justice in 1908.

During the Revolution of 1848-1849, the town was one of de facto capitals of Serbian Vojvodina, a Serbian autonomous region within Habsburg Empire. Between 1849 and 1860, it was part of a separate Austrian crownland known as the Vojvodina of Serbia and Tamiš Banat. After the abolishment of this province, the town was included into Torontal County, and was the administrative center of this county. After 1867, Bečkerek was located within the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary.
The end of the 19th century, the town was mostly populated by Hungarian and Germans.

Small bridge, Reformation church and Court House
Monument of Žarko Zrenjanin
According to the 1910 census, the city had 26,006 inhabitants, of which 9,148 most frequently spoke Hungarian language, 8,934 Serbian language, 6,811 German language, 456 Slovak language, and 339 Romanian language. The municipal area of the city had 54,715 inhabitants, of which 16,485 most frequently spoke German language, 14,445 Serbian language, 10,581 Romanian language, 8,573 Hungarian language, and 3,265 Slovak language. It is not certain whether Hungarians or Serbs were largest ethnic group in the city in this time, since 1910 census is considered partially inaccurate by most historians because this census did not recorded the population by ethnic origin or mother tongue, but by the "most frequently spoken language", thus the census results overstated the number of Hungarian speakers, since this was official language at the time and many non-Hungarian native speakers stated that they most frequently speak Hungarian language in everyday communication. The city was also home to 1,232 Jews, of whom many were native Hungarian speakers. Another problem is that the city and its municipal area were administered separatelly, thus the total population of the city and its municipal area counted together was 80,721 people, of whom 23,379 most frequently spoke Serbian language, 23,296 German language, 17,721 Hungarian language, 10,920 Romanian language, and 3,721 Slovak language.

After World War I, the city became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed to Yugoslavia). In 1921, the population of the city included 39% Serbs and Croats, 28% Germans, 27% Hungarians, and 6% Romanians. Between 1918 and 1922, it was a centre of a county within the Kingdom, between 1922 and 1929, it was part of the Belgrade oblast, and between 1929 and 1941 part of the Danube Banovina.

Between 1941 and 1944, it was under Axis occupation, and was part of the autonomous Banat within German-occupied Serbia. Beginning in 1945, Zrenjanin was part of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina within the new Socialist Yugoslavia, and from 1992 to 2003 it was part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was then transformed into the state union of Serbia and Montenegro. Since the 2006 independence of Montenegro, Zrenjanin has been part of an independent Serbia.

On 1 April 2009, the D.S. Mayor was charged with abuse of office. The Special Prosecution stated that the Zrenjanin municipal budget suffered damages to the tune of EUR 1.6mn, as a result.

nhabited place
Map of Zrenjanin municipality
Begej River in Zrenjanin (the bridge shown on the picture is located at same place were the former Eiffel Bridge used to stand)
Catholic church in Zrenjanin
Small bridge, Protestant church and Court House
Zrenjanin Cathedral
Zrenjanin municipality includes the city of Zrenjanin and the following villages:
*Aradac
*Banatski Despotovac
*Belo Blato
*Botoš
*Elemir
*Ečka
*Jankov Most
*Klek
*Knićanin
*Lazarevo
*Lukino Selo
*Lukićevo
*Melenci
*Mihajlovo
*Orlovat
*Perlez
*Stajićevo
*Taraš
*Tomaševac
*Farkaždin
*Čenta

ity quarter
*Lesnina
*Zeleno Polje
*Centar
*Gradnulica
*Čontika
*Četvrti Jul
*Dolja
*Duvanika
*Mala Amerika
*Šumica
*Bagljaš
*Nova Kolonija
*Mužlja, a former village, joined with Zrenjanin in 1981
*Ruža Šulman
*Brigadira Ristića
*Duvanika
*Berbersko
*Putnikovo
*Bolnica
*Šećerana
*Dunavska

emographics (2002 census
thnic groups in the municipalit
The population of the Zrenjanin municipality is composed of:
* Serbs = 98,794 (74.81%)
* Hungarians = 14,211 (10.76%)
* Yugoslavs = 2,559 (1.93%)
* Romanians = 2,511 (1.9%)
* Roma = 2,471 (1.87%)
* Slovaks = 2,403 (1.81%)
* others.

ettlements by ethnic majorit
Settlements with Serb ethnic majority are: Zrenjanin, Banatski Despotovac, Botoš, Elemir, Ečka, Klek, Knićanin, Lazarevo, Lukićevo, Melenci, Orlovat, Perlez, Stajićevo, Taraš, Tomaševac, Farkaždin, and Čenta. Settlements with Hungarian ethnic majority are: Lukino Selo and Mihajlovo. Settlement with Romanian ethnic majority is Jankov Most. Ethnically mixed settlements are: Aradac (with relative Serb majority) and Belo Blato (with relative Slovak majority).

thnic groups in the tow
The population of the Zrenjanin town is composed of:
* Serbs = 56,560 (70.9%)
* Hungarians = 11,605 (14.55%)
* Yugoslavs = 1,948 (2.44%)
* Roma = 1,577 (1.98%)
* others.

eligio
According to the 2002 census, most of the inhabitants of the Zrenjanin municipality are Orthodox Christians (77.28%). Other religions include Roman Catholic (12.01%), Protestant (2.13%), and other. Orthodox Christians in Zrenjanin belong to the Eparchy of Banat of the Serbian Orthodox Church with seat in Vršac. Zrenjanin is also the centre of the Roman Catholic diocese of the Banat region belonging to Serbia.

ain sight
View of synagogue, which was demolished in 1941 by Nazis.
Main facade of the National museum building
Trade academy decorated with sgraffito technique
*City Hall, built in 1816, re-constructed in 1887, neobaroque, Gyula Partos and Ödön Lechner.
*Finance palace, today National museum, built in 1894 in Neorenaissance style by István Kiss.
*Theatre, built in 1839, classicism, the oldest theatre building in Serbia.
*Court House, built between 1906 and 1908, romanticism, Sandor Eigner and Marcus Rehmer.
*Cathedral, built between 1864 and 1868, romanesque, Stevan Đorđević.
*Bukovac palace, built in 1905, neorenaissance.
*Old Vojvodina hotel, built in 1886, neorenaissance, Bela Peklo.
*Grammar School, built in 1846, re-constructed in 1937 and later.
*Uspenska church, built in 1746, baroque, the oldest church in the city.
*Small bridge, built in 1904, the oldest bridge in the city.
*Trade academy, built in 1892, neorenaissance, István Kiss.
*Bence"s house, built in 1909, secession.
*Vavedenska church, built in 1777 in Baroque style.
*Evangelic church, built in 1837, classicism.
*Protestant church, built in 1891, neogothic, Ferenc Zaboretzky.
*Dry Bridge, built in 1962, without river since 1985.
*Eiffel Bridge, built in 1904, replaced by a new bridge in 1969.
*Dunđerski palace, built in 1910, secession.
*Zrenjanin Synagogue, built in 1896, Moorish Revival, Lipót Baumhorn, demolished in 1941 by Nazis.
*House of Soko, built in 1927, academism, Dragiša Brašovan.

Tourism
Zrenjanin has many places of interest like City Hall, the Cathedral, Freedom Square, King Aleksandar I Street, etc.

Hotel "Vojvodina" is situated on Liberty Square (**** category). There is a Tourist Information Office in the building of National Museum (Subotićeva 1).

Sports

Zrenjanin has a long sports tradition. First clubs were established during 1880s.

Zrenjanin was the home town of Proleter football club from 1947 until 2005. Today, FK Banat plays it"s games at Karađorđev Park Stadium in Serbian Premier League.

Transportation
Taxi station in Petrovgrad (today Zrenjanin) in 1938, nearby Cathedral
Zrenjanin has a public transport which consists of buses. operates as a public transport company and between nearby cities (Novi Sad, Belgrade, Kikinda, Vršac).
Transport has a long tradition in Zrenjanin. In the past river traffic on the Begej river used to be most developed sort of goods transport.
Veliki Bečkerek got railway in 1883, when it had been connected to Velika Kikinda.
There are many taxi operators in Zrenjanin. Main taxi station is located just across "Vojvodina" hotel.

Notable citizens
*Dezső Antalffy-Zsiross, Hungarian organist and composer
*Branko Cuic, Serbian basketball player
*Dejan Bodiroga, Serbian basketball player
*Žarko Čabarkapa, Serbian basketball player
*Mirko Milosevic, Serbian handball player
*Konstantin Danil, Serbian painter of Romanian origin
*Vladimir Grbić, born in Zrenjanin, lived in Klek
*Nikola Grbić, born in Zrenjanin, lived in Klek
*Dejan Govedarica, Serbian football player
*Vladimir Ivić, Serbian football player
*Đura Jakšić, Serbian painter, studying painting as a student of Danil
*Vilmos Lázár, Hungarian general
*Željko Lučić, operatic baritone
*Todor Manojlović, Serbian writer
*Miodrag Popov,Serbian journalist
*Olivera Kovacevic, Serbian journalist
*Zorica Novaković, Serbian poet
*Emil Petrovics, Hungarian composer of South Slavic origin
*Joe Penner (József Pintér) American radio and film comedian
*Snežana Perić, Serbian professional karate competitor
*Mario Szenessy, Hungarian-German author
*Duško Tošić, Serbian football player
*Zoran Tošić, Serbian football player
*Zvonimir Vukić, Serbian football player
*Rudolf Wegscheider, Austrian chemist
*Dragan Ahmedovic, Serbian composer
*Ivan Boldirev, hockey player
*Ivan Lenđer, Serbian swimmer

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Zrenjanin is twinned with:
* Békéscsaba, Hungary
* Arad, Romania
* Timişoara, Romania

Trivia
* Zrenjanin is home to the oldest continually operating post office in Serbia, founded in 1737.
* During World War II, Zrenjanin might have been bombed by the Allies. The pilot mistook it for Timişoara (both cities lie on the Begej river and are "only" 100 km apart).
* Zrenjanin is sometimes referred to as The City of Bridges. There are 11 bridges.
* Wild Bill Hickok once visited the city, as did Franz Liszt and Kirk Douglas.

See also
*Banat
*Zrenjanin Airport

References

*Milan Tutorov, Banatska rapsodija - istorika Zrenjanina i Banata, Novi Sad, 2001.

xternal link
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* - Public Transport Official Site
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Notes





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Category:Places in Serbian Banat
Category:Cities, towns and villages in Vojvodina
Category:Settlements established in the 14th century
Category:Municipalities of Vojvodina

bs:Zrenjanin
bg:Зренянин
ca:Zrenjanin
cs:Zrenjanin
da:Zrenjanin
de:Zrenjanin
el:Ζρένιανιν
es:Zrenjanin
eo:Zrenjanin
fr:Zrenjanin
hr:Zrenjanin
id:Zrenjanin
it:Zrenjanin
lt:Zrenianinas
hu:Nagybecskerek
nl:Zrenjanin
ja:ズレニャニン
no:Zrenjanin
nn:Zrenjanin
pl:Zrenjanin
ro:Becicherecu Mare
ru:Зренянин
sl:Zrenjanin
sr:Зрењанин
sh:Zrenjanin
sv:Zrenjanin
zh:兹雷尼亚宁
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 23.07.2018 02:25 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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