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Great Britain, Worcester
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| post_town= WORCESTER
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| postcode_district= WR1-WR5
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| dial_code= 01905
| constituency_westminster= Worcester
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| shire_county= Worcestershire
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"Worcester" ( ) is a city and county town of Worcestershire, in the West Midlands of England. Worcester is situated some 30 miles (48 km) southwest of Birmingham, 29 miles (47 km) north of Gloucester, and has an approximate population of 94,000 people. The River Severn runs through the middle of the city, overlooked by the 12th century Worcester Cathedral.

The site of the final battle of the Civil War, Worcester was where Oliver Cromwell"s New Model Army defeated King Charles I"s Cavaliers, resulting in a ten-year period where England and Wales became a republic. Worcester is also the home of Royal Worcester Porcelain and was the birthplace of the composer Sir Edward Elgar.

Occupation of the site of Worcester can be dated back to Neolithic times, a village surrounded by defensive ramparts having been founded on the eastern bank of the River Severn here in around 400 BC. The position, which commanded a ford on the river, was in the 1st century used by the Romans to establish what may at first have been a fort on the military route from Glevum (Gloucester) to Viroconium (Wroxeter) but which soon developed — as the frontier of the empire was pushed westwards — into an industrial town with its own pottery kilns and iron-smelting plants.
A map of Worcester in 1806.
Tudor Buildings Friar Street
Tudor Building New Street

Roman Worcester (which may have been the "Vertis" mentioned in the 7th century Ravenna Cosmography) was a thriving trading and manufacturing centre for some three hundred years, though by the time of the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 407 it had dwindled considerably in size and is not recorded again until the mid-7th century when documents mention the Anglo-Saxon settlement Weorgoran ceaster (settlement of the people by the winding river). The fact that Worcester was chosen at this time—in preference to both the much larger Gloucester and the royal centre of Winchcombe—to be the Episcopal See of a new diocese covering the area suggests that there may have been a well established, and powerful, Christian community living on the site when it fell into English hands.

The town was almost destroyed in 1041 after a rebellion against the punitive taxation of Harthacanute. The town was attacked several times (in 1139, 1150 and 1151) during "The Anarchy", i.e. civil war between King Stephen and Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I. This is the background to the well-researched historical novel "The Virgin in the Ice", part of Ellis Peters" "Cadfael" series, which begins with the words:
"It was early in November of 1139 that the tide of civil war, lately so sluggish and inactive, rose suddenly to wash over the city of Worcester, wash away half of its lifestock, property and women, and send all those of its inhabitants who could get away in time scurrying for their lives northwards away from the marauders". (These are mentioned as having arrived from Gloucester, leaving a long lasting legacy of bitterness between the two cities.)

By late medieval times the population had grown to around 10,000 as the manufacture of cloth started to become a large local industry. The town was designated a county corporate, giving it autonomy from local government.

Worcester was the site of the Battle of Worcester (September 3, 1651), when Charles II"s attempt to regain the crown by force was decisively defeated, in the fields a little to the west and south of the city, near the village of Powick. After being defeated, Charles returned to his headquarters in what is now known as King Charles house in the Cornmarket, before fleeing in disguise to Boscobel House in Shropshire and his eventual escape to France. Worcester was one of the cities loyal to the King in that war, for which it was given the epithet "Fidelis Civitas" ("The Faithful City"). This motto has been incorporated into the city"s coat of arms.

In 1670 the River Severn broke its banks and the subsequent flood was the worst ever seen by Worcester. A brass plate can be found on a wall on the path to the cathedral by the path along the river showing how high this flood went, and other flood heights of more recent times are also shown in stone bricks. The closest flood height to what is known as The Flood of 1670 was when the Severn flooded in the torrential rains of July 2007.

The Royal Worcester Porcelain Company factory was founded by Dr John Wall in 1751, although it no longer produces goods. A handful of decorators are still employed at the factory and the Museum is still open.

During the 18th century Worcester"s trade languished compared to more modern towns of the West Midlands. The Worcester and Birmingham Canal opened in 1815 allowing Worcester goods to be transported to a larger conurbation.

The British Medical Association (BMA) is reputed to have been founded in the Board Room of the old Worcester Royal Infirmary building in Castle Street around 1860. This building has now been closed and (as of 2006) will be redeveloped as the University of Worcester city campus.

During World War II, the city was chosen to be the seat of an evacuated government in case of mass German invasion. The War Cabinet, along with Winston Churchill and some 16.000 state workers, would have moved to Hindlip Hall (now part of the complex forming the Headquarters of West Mercia Police), 3 miles north of Worcester, and Parliament would have temporarily seated in Stratford-upon-Avon.

In the 1950s and 1960s large areas of the medieval centre of Worcester were demolished and rebuilt as a result of decisions by town planners. There is still a significant area of medieval Worcester remaining, but it is a small fraction of what was present before the redevelopments.

The current city boundaries date from 1974, when the Local Government Act 1972 transferred the parishes of Warndon and St. Peter the Great County into the city.


The Conservatives had a majority on the council from 2003 to 2007, when they lost a by-election to Labour meaning the council had no overall control. The Conservatives remained with the most seats overall with 17 out of 35 seats after the 2008 election. Worcester has one member of Parliament, Michael Foster of the Labour Party, who represents the Worcester constituency since 1997.


Notable suburbs in Worcester include Claines, Northwick, St Peter the Great, Red Hill and Ronkswood. Most of Worcester is on the eastern side of the River Severn; Henwick, Lower Wick and St. John"s are on the western side.


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emography and religio
The 2001 census recorded Worcester"s population at 93,353. About 96.5% of Worcester"s population was white; of which 94.2% were White British, greater than the national average. The largest religious group are Christians, whom made up 77% of the city"s population. People who reported having no religion or did not state their religion made up 21% of the city"s population. Other religions totaled less than 2% of the population. Ethnic minorities include people of Chinese, Indian, Pakistani, Italian and Polish origin, with the largest single minority group being the British Pakistanis, whom numbered around 1,200 persons and made up around 1.3% of Worcester"s population. This has led to Worcester containing a small but diverse range of religious groups; as well as the commanding Worcester Cathedral (Church of England), there are also Catholic and Baptist churches, a large center for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), an Islamic mosque, and a number of smaller interest groups regarding Eastern Religions such as Buddhism and the Hare Krishnas. (ISKCON)

Worcester is the seat of a Church of England bishop. His official signature is his Christian name followed by "Wigorn", which is also occasionally used as an abbreviation for the name of the county.

Industry is now quite varied. In the 19th and early twentieth century, Worcester was a major centre for glove manufacture, but this has declined greatly. The late-Victorian period saw the growth of ironfounders, like Heenan & Froude, Hardy & Padmore and McKenzie & Holland.

The inter-war years saw the rapid growth of engineering, producing machine tools James Archdale, H.W. Ward, castings for the motor industry Worcester Windshields and Casements, mining machinery MECO and open-top cans Williamsons.

Worcester Porcelain operated in Worcester until 2008 when the factory was closed down due to the recession. However, the site of Worcester Porcelain still houses the Worcester Porcelain Museum which is open daily to visitors.

One of Worcester"s most famous products, Lea & Perrins Worcestershire sauce is made and bottled in the Midlands Road factory in Worcester, which has been the home of Lea & Perrins since 16 October 1897. Mr Lea and Mr Perrins originally met in a chemist"s shop on the site of the now Debenhams store in the Crowngate Shopping Centre.

The surprising foundry heritage of the city is represented by Morganite Crucible at Norton which produces graphitic shaped products and cements for use in the modern industry.

The Kays mail order business was founded in Worcester in the 1880s and operated from numerous premises in the city and was held as usual on Pitchcroft Race Course. On entry there is a choice between a (free) half or pint glass, with this year"s having orange writing.

The Worcester Beer, Cider and Perry festival is the largest beer festival within the West Midlands with the 2009 event being attended by 11,000 people. An extensive range of beers, ciders and perries are provided as well as a range of food and soft drinks. Bands perform on the Thursday and Friday evening sessions and throughout the day on Saturday.

Famous 18th century actress Sarah Siddons made her acting debut here at the Theatre Royal in Angel Street. Her sister, the novelist Ann Julia Kemble Hatton, otherwise known as Ann of Swansea, was born in the city. Matilda Alice Powles, better known as Vesta Tilley, a leading male impersonator and music hall artiste was born in Worcester.

In present-day Worcester the Swan Theatre stages a mixture of professional touring and local amateur productions. The Countess of Huntingdon"s Hall is a historic church now used as venue for an eclectic range of musical performances, while the Marrs Bar is a venue for gigs and stand-up comedy. Worcester also boasts two multi-screen cinemas (a six screen Vue Cinema complex located on Friar Street and an Odeon Cinema, boasting seven screens, at the heart of the city on Forgate Street).

In the northern suburb of Northwick is the Art Deco Northwick Cinema. Built in 1938 it contains one of the only two remaining interiors in Britain designed by John Alexander (the original perspective drawings are still held by RIBA). It was a Bingo Hall from 1966 to 1982 and then empty until 1991; it was then run as a music venue until 1996, and was empty again until Autumn 2006 when it became an antiques and lifestyle centre, owned by Grey"s Interiors, who were previously located in The Tything.

There are also a number of Arts organisations in Worcester, one of which is C&T. Based at the University and also Bishop Perowne Performing Arts College is C&T . C&T is an educational theatre company that specialises in theatre for young people tackling topical issues through a unique blend of drama and new media technologies.

winning and planned twinnin
Worcester is twinned with the German city of Kleve, the Parisian commune of Le Vésinet, and its larger American namesake Worcester, Massachusetts.

In February 2009, Worcester City Council"s Twinning Association began deliberating an application to twin Worcester with the Palestinian city of Gaza. Councillor Alan Amos introduced the application, which was passed at its first stage by a majority of 35-6. However, the proposal was later rejected by the Executive Committee of the City of Worcester Twinning Association for reasons of lack of funding due to its present commitment to existing twinning projects.

ee als
*List of Bishops of Worcester
*Worcester Cathedral


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Category:Towns on the River Severn
Category:County towns in England
Category:Local government in Worcestershire
Category:Shire districts

es:Worcester (Inglaterra)
id:Worcester, Inggris
nl:Worcester (Engeland)
no:Worcester (England)
pl:Worcester (Anglia)
sv:Worcester, Storbritannien
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 18.07.2019 05:22 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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