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Weimar

Germany, Weimar
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|Stand = 2007-12-31
|PLZ = 99401–99441
|PLZ-alt = 5300
|Vorwahl = 03643, 036453
|Kfz = WE
|Gemeindeschlüssel = 16 0 55 000
|Gliederung = 12 districts
|Adresse = Schwanseestr. 1799421 Weimar
|Website =
|Bürgermeister = Stefan Wolf
|Bürgermeistertitel = Oberbürgermeister
|Partei = SPD
}}

| Type = Cultural
| Criteria = iii, vi
| ID = 846
| Region = Europe and North America
| Year = 1998
| Session = 22nd
| Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/846
}}
"Weimar" () is a city in Germany mostly known for its cultural heritage. It is located in the Bundesland of Thuringia (), north of the Thüringer Wald, east of Erfurt, and southwest of Halle and Leipzig. Its current population is approximately 65,000. The oldest record of the city dates from the year 899. Weimar was the capital of the Duchy (after 1815 the Grand Duchy) of Saxe-Weimar (German "Sachsen-Weimar"). Its cultural heritage includes the Weimar Classicism of Goethe and Schiller, the Bauhaus as well as the Weimar Republic.

istor
Grand-Ducal Palace.
Goethe and Schiller in front of the Deutsches Nationaltheater and Staatskapelle Weimar.


The oldest records about Weimar date back to the year 899. Its name changed over the centuries from "Wimares" through "Wimari" to "Wimar" and finally "Weimar".
In 1410 it received city rights, however the growth of the city was severely affected by the 1424 fires.

In 1552 Weimar became the capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar (German "Sachsen-Weimar") and remained so until 1918.

18th and 19th centuries
During the regencies of Anna Amalia (1758–1775) and her son Carl August (1809–1828), Weimar became an important cultural centre of Europe, having been home to such luminaries as Goethe, Schiller, and Herder; and in music the piano virtuosi Hummel (a pupil of Mozart, Liszt and Bach). It has been a site of pilgrimage for the German intelligentsia since Goethe first moved to Weimar in the late 18th century. The tombs of Goethe and Schiller, as well as their archives, may be found in the city. Goethe"s "Elective Affinities" (1809) is set around the city of Weimar.

Weimar Republic

The period in German history from 1919 to 1933 is commonly referred to as the Weimar Republic, as the Republic"s constitution was drafted here because the capital, Berlin, with its street rioting after the 1918 German Revolution, was considered too dangerous for the National Assembly to use it as a meeting place.

Weimar was, beside Dessau, the center of the Bauhaus movement. The city houses art galleries, museums and the German national theatre. The Bauhaus University and the Liszt School of Music Weimar attracted many students, specializing in media and design, architecture, civil engineering and music, to Weimar.

Nazi Germany
Buchenwald"s main gate, with the slogan "Jedem das Seine" (literally, "to each his own", but figuratively "everyone gets what they deserve")
In 1937, the Nazis constructed the Buchenwald concentration camp, only eight kilometers from Weimar"s city center. The slogan "Jedem das Seine" (literally "to each his own", but figuratively "everyone gets what he deserves") was placed over the camp"s main entrance gate. Between July 1938 and April 1945, some 240,000 people were incarcerated in Buchenwald by the Nazi regime, including 168 Western Allied POWs.Bartel, Walter: "Buchenwald—Mahnung und Verpflichtung: Dokumente und Berichte" (Buchenwald: Warnings and our obligation —Documents and reports), Kongress-Verlag, 1960. p. 87, line 8. The number of deaths at Buchenwald is estimated at 56,545. Episode 6 is about statistics for the number of deaths at Buchenwald. The Buchenwald concentration camp provided slave labour for local industry (arms industry of "Wilhelm-Gustloff-Werk").Edward Victor."Alphabetical List of Camps, Subcamps and Other Camps."www.edwardvictor.com/Holocaust/List %20 of %20 camps.htm World War II ended with Nazi Germany"s defeat and division into East and West Germany. From 1945 to 1950, the Soviet Union used the occupied Buchenwald concentration camp to imprison defeated Nazis and other Germans. The camp slogan remained Jedem das Seine. On 6 January 1950, the Soviets handed over Buchenwald to the East German Ministry of Internal Affairs.

German Democratic Republic (East Germany)
Weimar was part of the German Democratic Republic (DDR, East Germany) from 1949 to 1990.

Recent years
The European Council of Ministers selected the city as European Capital of Culture for 1999.

On 3 September 2004, a fire broke out at the Duchess Anna Amalia Library. The library contains a 13,000-volume collection including Goethe"s masterpiece "Faust", in addition to a music collection of the Duchess. An authentic Lutheran Bible from 1534 was saved from the fire. The damage stretched into the millions of dollars. The number of books in this historic library exceeded 1,000,000, of which 40,000 to 50,000 were destroyed past recovery. The library, which dates back to 1691, belongs to UNESCO world heritage, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe. The fire, with its destruction of much historical literature, amounts to a huge cultural loss for Germany, Europe, and indeed the world. A number of books were shock-frozen in the city of Leipzig to save them from rotting.

Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 11.12.2017 10:34 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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