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Vilnius

Lithuania, Vilnius
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Demographic
According to the census of 14 December 1916 by the occupying German forces at the time, there were a total of 138.794 inhabitants in Vilnius. This number was made up of the following nationalities: Poles 53.67% (74.466 inhabitants), Jews 41.45% (57.516 inhabitants), Lithuanians 2.09% (2.909 inhabitants), Russians 1.59% (2.219 inhabitants), Germans 0.63% (880 inhabitants), Belarusians 0.44% (644 inhabitants) and others at 0.13% (193 inhabitants).

A census of 9 December 1931 reveals that Poles made up 65.9% of the total Vilnius population (128.600 inhabitants), Jews 28% (54.600 inhabitants), Russians 3,8% (7.400 inhabitants), Belarusians 0.9% (1.700 inhabitants), Lithuanians 0.8% (1.579 inhabitants), Germans 0.3% (600 inhabitants), Ukrainians 0.1% (200 inhabitants), others 0.2% (approx. 400 inhabitants).

According to the 2001 census by the Vilnius Regional Statistical Office, there were 542,287 inhabitants in the Vilnius city municipality, of which 57.8% were Lithuanians, 18.7% Poles, 14% Russians, 4.0% Belarusians, 1.3% Ukrainians and 0.5% Jews; the remainder indicated other nationalities or refused to answer.
volutio



ultur

Vilnius is a cosmopolitan city with diverse architecture. There are more than 40 churches in Vilnius. The Virgin Mary, Mother of Mercy is venerated in a chapel at the medieval gate at the top of this street.
Like most medieval towns, Vilnius was developed around its Town Hall. The main artery, Pilies Street, links the Royal Palace with Town Hall. Other streets meander through the palaces of feudal lords and landlords, churches, shops and craftsmen"s workrooms. Narrow, curved streets and intimate courtyards developed in the radial layout of medieval Vilnius.
Vilnius Old Town, the historical centre of Vilnius, is one of the largest in Europe (3.6 km²). The most valuable historic and cultural sites are concentrated here. The buildings in the old town — there are nearly 1,500 — were built over several centuries, creating a blend of many different architectural styles. Although Vilnius is known as a Baroque city, there are examples of Gothic (e.g. St Anne"s Church), Renaissance, and other styles. Their combination is also a gateway to the historic centre of the capital. Owing to its uniqueness, the Old Town of Vilnius was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994. In 1995, the world"s first bronze cast of Frank Zappa was installed in the Naujamiestis district with the permission of the government.

The flag of Vilnius
The Vilnius Castle Complex, a group of defensive, cultural, and religious buildings that includes Gediminas Tower, Cathedral Square, the Royal Palace of Lithuania, and the remains of several medieval castles, is part of the National Museum of Lithuania. Lithuania"s largest art collection is housed in the Lithuanian Art Museum. The House of the Signatories, where the 1918 Act of Independence of Lithuania was signed, is now a historic landmark. The Museum of Genocide Victims is dedicated to the victims of the Soviet era.

The Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania, named for the author of the first book printed in the Lithuanian language, holds 6,912,266 physical items.

On 10 November 2007, the Jonas Mekas Visual Arts Centre was opened by avant-garde film-maker Jonas Mekas. Its premiere exhibition was entitled "The Avant-Garde: From Futurism to Fluxus". The Guggenheim-Hermitage museum, designed by Zaha Hadid, is scheduled to open in 2011. The museum will host exhibitions featuring works from Saint Petersburg"s Hermitage Museum and the Guggenheim Museums, along with non-commercial avant-garde cinema, a library, a museum of Lithuanian Jewish culture, and collections of works by Jonas Mekas and Jurgis Mačiūnas.

The biggest book fair in Baltic States is annually held in Vilnius.. Retried in 2009-02-14

conom

Vilnius is the major economic centre of Lithuania and one of the largest financial centres of the Baltic states. Even though it is home to only 15% of Lithuania"s population, it generates approximately 25% of Lithuania"s GDP. Vilnius Financial Centre Its estimated GDP per capita, based on purchasing power parity, in 2005 is approximately $33,100, above the European Union average.

Vilnius contributed over 10,015 billion litas to the national budget in 2008. That makes about 37% of the budget.

Prior to its disestablishment, FlyLal (Lithuanian Airlines) had its head office in Vilnius."." FlyLal. 11 May 2006. Retrieved on 25 October 2009.

ducatio
The Alumni Yard at Vilnius University The city has many universities. The largest and oldest is Vilnius University in Old Town with 23,000 students. Vilnius University offers summer programs in Yiddish through its on-campus Vilnius Yiddish Institute. Other major universities include Mykolas Romeris University (19,000 students), Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (13,500 students), and Vilnius Pedagogical University (12,500 students). Specialized higher schools with university status include General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania and Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre. The museum associated with the Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts holds about 12,000 artworks.

The National M. K. Čiurlionis School of Art, European Humanities University, Vilnius Academy of Business Law, Vilnius University International Business School, and ISM University of Management and Economics offer post-secondary degrees in several areas.

eligio
St. Anne"s Church is a prominent example of Gothic architecture.
Vilnius is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vilnius, with the main church institutions and Archdiocesan Cathedral located here. There are a number of other active Roman Catholic churches in the city, along with small enclosed monasteries and religion schools. Church architecture includes Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical styles, with important examples of each found in the Old Town. Vilnius is considered one of the main centres of the Polish Baroque movement in ecclesiastical architecture. Additionally, Eastern Rite Catholicism has maintained a presence in Vilnius since the Union of Brest. The Baroque Basilian Gate is part of an Eastern Rite monastery.
St. Nicholas Catholic Church is the oldest surviving church in Lithuania, built before 1387

Vilnius has been home to an Eastern Orthodox Christian presence since the 13th or even the 12th century. A famous Russian Orthodox monastery, named for the Holy Spirit, is located near the Gate of Dawn. St. Paraskeva"s Orthodox Church in the Old Town is the site of the baptism of Hannibal, the great-grandfather of Pushkin, by Tsar Peter the Great in 1705. Many Old Believers, who split from the Russian Orthodox Church in 1667, settled in Lithuania. Today a is based in Vilnius.

A number of Protestant and other Christian groups are represented in Vilnius, most notably the Lutheran Evangelicals and the Baptists.
Holocaust.
Once widely known as "Yerushalayim De Lita" (the "Jerusalem of Lithuania"), Vilnius since the 18th century was comparable only to Jerusalem, Israel, as a world centre for the study of the Torah, and for its large Jewish population. That is why one part of Vilnius was named "Jeruzalė". At the end of the 19th century, the number of synagogues in Vilnius exceeded one hundred. The Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum A major scholar of Judaism and Kabbalah centred in Vilnius was the famous Rabbi Eliyahu Kremer, also known as the Vilna Gaon. His students have significant influence among Orthodox Jews in Israel and around the globe. Jewish life in Vilnius was destroyed during the Holocaust; there is a memorial stone dedicated to victims of Nazi genocide located in the centre of the former Jewish Ghetto — now Mėsinių Street. The Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum is dedicated to the history of Lithuanian Jewish life.

The Karaim are a Jewish sect who migrated to Lithuania from the Crimea to serve as a military elite unit in the 14th century. Although their numbers are very small, the Karaim are becoming more prominent since Lithuanian independence, and have restored their kenesa.

Islam came to Lithuania in the 14th century from Crimea and Kazan, through the Tatars. Tatars in Lithuania have maintained their religious practices: currently, about 3,000 Tatar Muslims live in Lithuania. The Lukiškės mosque of the Lithuanian Tatars was a prominent 19th century feature of suburban Vilnius, but was destroyed during the Soviet era.

The pre-Christian religion of Lithuania, centred around the forces of nature as personified by deities such as Perkūnas (the Thunder God), is experiencing some increased interest. Romuva established a Vilnius branch in 1991.

arks, squares, and cemeterie
Vingis Park, the city"s largest, hosted several major rallies during Lithuania"s drive towards independence in the 1980s. Concerts, festivals, and exhibitions are held at Sereikiškės Park, near Gediminas Tower. Sections of the annual Vilnius Marathon pass along the public walkways on the banks of the Neris River.

Cathedral Square in Old Town is surrounded by a number of the city"s most historically significant sites. Lukiškės Square is the largest, bordered by several municipal buildings. An oversized statue of Lenin in its centre was removed in 1991. Town Hall Square has long been a centre of trade fairs, celebrations, and events in Vilnius, including the Kaziukas Fair. The city Christmas tree is decorated there. State ceremonies are often held in Daukantas Square, facing the Presidential Palace.

Rasos Cemetery, consecrated in 1801, is the burial site of Jonas Basanavičius and other signatories of the 1918 Act of Independence, along with the heart of Polish leader Józef Piłsudski. Two of the three Jewish cemeteries in Vilnius were destroyed during the Soviet era; the remains of the Vilna Gaon were moved to the remaining one. About 18,000 burials have been made in the Bernardine Cemetery, established in 1810; it was closed during the 1970s and is now being restored. Antakalnis Cemetery, established in 1809, contains various memorials to Polish, Lithuanian, German and Russian soldiers, along with the graves of those who were killed during the January Events.

por
Siemens Arena Several teams are based in the city. The largest is the basketball club BC Lietuvos Rytas, which participates in European competitions such as the Euroleague and Eurocup, the domestic Lithuanian Basketball League, and the Baltic Basketball League, winning the ULEB Cup (predecessor to the Eurocup) in 2005 and the Eurocup in 2009. Its home arena is the 1,700-seat Lietuvos Rytas Arena; all European matches and important domestic and Baltic matches are played in the 11,000-seat Siemens Arena. Another team participating in LKL is BC Sakalai. The major football teams in Vilnius are FK Žalgiris Vilnius and FK Vėtra, all of the A Lyga. Only Žalgiris Vilnius has won the A Lyga, doing so on three occasions - in 1991, 1992, and 1999. The city is home to the Lithuanian Bandy Association.http://www.internationalbandy.com/viewNavMenu.do?menuID=61

ranspor
Solaris Trollino 15AC trolleybus in Vilnius

The river Neris is navigable, but no regular water routes exist.

Vilnius International Airport serves most Lithuanian international flights to many major European destinations.

The Vilnius railway station is an important hub serving direct passenger connections to Moscow and Saint-Petersburg as well as being a transit point of Pan-European corridor IX.

otorway
Vilnius is the starting point of the Vilnius-Kaunas-Klaipėda motorway that runs across Lithuania and connects the three major cities as well as is the part of European route E85. The Vilnius-Panevėžys motorway is a branch of the Via-Baltica.

ublic transpor
Vilnius has a well-developed public transportation system; 45% of the population take public transport to work. There are over 60 bus and 20 trolleybus routes, the trolleybus network is one of the most extensive in Europe. Over 250 buses and 260 trolleybuses transport about 500,000 passengers every workday. Students, elderly, and the disabled receive large discounts (up to 80%) on the tickets. The first regular bus routes were established in 1926, and the first trolleybus was introduced in 1956.

At the end of 2007, a new electronic monthly ticket system was introduced. It is possible to buy an electronic card in shops and newspaper stands and have it credited with an appropriate amount of money. The monthly e-ticket cards are bought once and might be credited with an appropriate amount of money in various ways including the Internet. Previous paper monthly tickets were in use until August 2008.
Vilnius Transport "E-Ticket"

The public transportation system is dominated by the low-floor Volvo and Mercedes-Benz buses as well as Solaris trolleybuses. The new Solaris vehicles (built in Poland) are 15 m long, three-axle vehicles. There are also plenty of the traditional Skoda vehicles built in the Czech Republic still in service, and many of these have been extensively refurbished internally. All is a result of major improvements that started in 2003 when the first brand-new Mercedes-Benz buses were bought. In 2004, a contract was signed with Volvo Buses to buy 90 brand-new over the next 3 years.

Along with the official public transportation, there are also a number of private bus companies. They charge about the same as the municipal buses and sometimes follow the same routes. There are also a number of different routes, for example from various neighborhoods to the Gariūnai market. In addition, there are about 400 share taxis that are usually faster but less comfortable and more expensive than regular buses.

An electric tram system through the city (Vilnius Tram Project) was proposed in the 2000s; its future remains uncertain.

nternational relation

win towns - Sister citie

Vilnius has 14 twin towns and sister cities. In addition, agreements on cooperation have been signed with 16 other cities.


rother citie

Vilnius has a brother city:
* Tbilisi, Georgia

overnanc

The city is governed by the Vilnius City Municipality, which includes the nearby town of Grigiškės, three villages, and some rural areas. A 51-member council is elected to four-year terms; the candidates are nominated by registered political parties. As of the 2011 elections, independent candidates will also be permitted. The Council elects a mayor, four deputy mayors, and a city clerk at its first meeting.
As of February 2009, the mayor of Vilnius is Vilius Navickas from the Conservative Party. Elderships, a state-wide administrative division, function as municipal districts.

The 21 elderships are based on neighbourhoods:
Map of Vilnius elderships. Numbers on the map correspond with numbers in the list
#Verkiai — includes Baltupiai, Jeruzalė, Santariškės, Balsiai, Visoriai
#Antakalnis — includes Valakampiai, Turniškės, Dvarčionys
#Pašilaičiai — includes Tarandė
#Fabijoniškės — includes Bajorai
#Pilaitė
#Justiniškės
#Viršuliškės
#Šeškinė
#Šnipiškės
#Žirmūnai — includes Šiaurės miestelis
#Karoliniškės
#Žvėrynas
#Grigiškės — a separate town included in the Vilnius city municipality
#Lazdynai
#Vilkpėdė — includes Vingis Park
#Naujamiestis — includes bus and train stations
#Senamiestis (Old Town) — includes Užupis
#Naujoji Vilnia — includes Pavilnys, Pūčkoriai
#Paneriai — includes Trakų Vokė, Gariūnai
#Naujininkai — includes Kirtimai, Salininkai, Vilnius International Airport
#Rasos — includes Belmontas, Markučiai

ignificant depictions in popular cultur
*Vilnius is one of the locations featured in the video game "Tom Clancy"s Ghost Recon" (photographs comparing the game"s locations with their real-life counterparts can be found here ). However, although some of the architecture is relatively well-represented, it has to be said that most of the map is fictional, and it does not feel like a particularly accurate representation of the city of Vilnius.
*Robert Ludlum"s "The Bourne Conspiracy", a video game for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, features an assassination mission in Vilnius.
*Vilnius is mentioned in the movie The Hunt For Red October as being the boyhood home of the sub commander Marco Ramius, and as being where his grandfather taught him to fish; he is also referenced once in the movie as "The Vilnius Schoolmaster". Ramius is played by Sean Connery.
* Author Thomas Harris" character Hannibal Lecter is revealed to be from Vilnius and its aristocracy in the movie Hannibal Rising. Lecter is portrayed more popularly and often by Sir Anthony Hopkins, although Ronny Cox played Lecter in the movie Manhunter.

onour
A minor planet 3072 Vilnius discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1978 is named after the city.

ther towns named for Vilniu
*The rural town of Wilno, Ontario, Canada was named after the Polish name for Vilnius in the 1860s. The village of Vilna, Alberta was also named for Vilnius.

ee als
* History of Lithuania
* History of Poland
* Archdiocese of Vilnius
* Coat of arms of Vilnius
* List of Vilnians
* Vilna Ghetto
* List of monuments in Vilnius
* List of Vilnius Elderships in other languages

ootnotes and reference


xternal link

*
* in the Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland (1893)
*
*






Category:Capitals in Europe
Category:Cities in Lithuania
Category:Cities in
Category:Capitals of Lithuanian counties
Category:Historic Jewish communities

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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 27.10.2020 16:00 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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REISEPORTAL
DemographicAccording to the census of 14 December 1916 by the occupying German forces at the time, there were a total of 138.794 inhabitants in Vilnius. This number was made up of the following nationalities: Poles 53.67% (74.466 inhabitants), Jews
ootnotes and referenceote:"This article incorporates text from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and has been released under the GFDL."xternal link** by Jose Gutstein** City Guide (also a )***** and by Eilat Gordin Levitan*********United
ootnotes and referenceote:"This article incorporates text from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and has been released under the GFDL."xternal link** by Jose Gutstein** City Guide (also a )***** and by Eilat Gordin Levitan*********United
ootnotes and referenceote:"This article incorporates text from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and has been released under the GFDL."xternal link** by Jose Gutstein** City Guide (also a )***** and by Eilat Gordin Levitan*********United
ootnotes and referenceote:"This article incorporates text from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and has been released under the GFDL."xternal link** by Jose Gutstein** City Guide (also a )***** and by Eilat Gordin Levitan*********United
ootnotes and referenceote:"This article incorporates text from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and has been released under the GFDL."xternal link** by Jose Gutstein** City Guide (also a )***** and by Eilat Gordin Levitan*********United
 
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