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Viljandi

Estonia, Viljandi
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"Viljandi" () is a town and municipality in southern Estonia with a population of 19,870 (2007). It is the capital of Viljandi County. The town was first mentioned in 1283, upon being granted its town charter by Wilhelm von Endorpe.

In 1211 the hill-fort of the Estonians in Viljandi was besieged by a joint army of Germans, Latvians, and Livs. The Livonian Sword Brethren captured the hill-fort in August 1223 from a contingent of the people of Rus, who joined forces with the insurgent Estonians. The following year the Grand Master Volquin led the construction of the castle at the site of the former hill-fort. The Viljandi (Fellin) castle was one of the largest in the Baltic region. It was a major fortification of the Livonian Order and was appointed a commander from 1248. The fortress was continually rebuilt and modernized over the next two-hundred years.

In 1283, the town received a charter from Wilhelm von Endorpe, the master of the Order. The town became a member of the at the beginning of the 14th century, and is one of five Estonian towns and cities in the league.
St. John"s church
In 1470, Johann Wolthus von Herse, then master of the order, took up residence in the castle. In 1481, Ivan III of Russia laid siege to the castle but could not take it. However, during the Livonian War, Muscovite Russia succeeded in seizing it in 1560. During the Polish–Swedish War at the beginning of the 17th century the castle changed hands several times and fell into ruins. The same goes for the town, which was deprived of its privileges.

After the Great Northern War the Russians revoked local autonomy until 1783, when in the course of the regency reforms of the Empress Catherine the Great Viljandi became a district town. This involved the re-establishment of town bylaws. The economic and political importance of Viljandi started to increase. The population, after decreasing in population and wealth, started to rise again, as handicraft, trading, and cultural life were revived.

The popular Estonian newspaper "Sakala" was founded in Viljandi in 1878.

ymbol

The flag of Viljandi is bi-coloured, its upper part light blue and lower part white. The city"s shield-shaped coat of arms is light blue, with a white rose in the middle. Viljandi is the white rose city – in midsummer there are 720 white roses flowering in front of the city hall, planted for the town"s anniversary in 2003. In summer, the White Rose Day is celebrated in Viljandi.

istor

St. Paul"s church
First records of civilization in the surroundings of Viljandi date back to the 5th millennium B.C. The first written record of the earthen stronghold of Viljandi was in the year 1154 in the commentaries to al-Idrisi"s world atlas "Geography".

In the 12th century, a permanent settlement emerged around the stronghold of Viljandi, which also became the economic centre of the ancient Sakala district.

After the fight for freedom in the first quarter of the 13th century, Viljandi fell under the rule of the Order of the Brethren of the Sword (later the Livonian Order) and in place of the Sakala wooden stronghold a powerful Order Centre was started in 1224.

In the 13th century, a medieval town arose on the northern side of the stronghold. The Hamburg-Riga town bylaws, lands and population of it were first recorded in 1283. During the first half of the 14th century, Viljandi joined the influential – the town had become an important stop for merchants on their way to Russia and back. In 1365, the town council was party when peace between Denmark and Hansa was concluded.

In the Middle Ages, Viljandi was a typical small commercial town, which got its main income from transit trade. The local trade and handicraft played an equally important role. The decline of Viljandi started during the Livonian War. In 1560, the forces of Prince Kurbski demolished the town and the stronghold.

During the Polish–Russian War in the first quarter of the 17th century, the town and the stronghold were completely destroyed. Under the Swedish rule in the 17th century the town bylaws of Viljandi were cancelled.

After the Great Northern War, Russians seized the power and Viljandi was without laws until the year 1783, when in the course of the regency reforms of Catherine II Viljandi became a district town. This involved the re-establishment of town bylaws. The economic and political importance of Viljandi started to increase. The population, meanwhile, having decreased to the minimum, started to rise again; handicraft, trading and cultural life were enlivened.

anseatic Tow

Viljandi is one of the 5 Estonian Hanseatic towns.
is a historical mercantile union of Northern European towns. Many of them are still cooperating.
Every year the Hanseatic Days are taking place in different towns in Europe.

The Viljandi Hanseatic Days are traditionally held in June every year. The program covers different activities and events like Hanseatic fair, where people can buy and sell traditional goods. The Viljandi Hanseatic Days also offer concerts and live performances from local and foreign performers. Different workshops are opened. Medieval sports games take place by the Lake Viljandi. Viljandi Hanseatic Days are held every year and the European Hanseatic Days will be held there in 2015.

eograph

The city is situated on the north-western coast of Lake Viljandi, which lies in the primeval valley. Green zones cover 27% of the city area. Public green areas cover about 418 ha, including 92 ha of parks. The largest is the nature-protected Castle Park, but also Valuoja Park, Kiigepark, Uueveski Park are worth mentioning. The main tree species are oak, lime, birch, and pine. The grandest tree-lined avenues are Maramaa (named after August Maramaa, twice the mayor of Viljandi) and Lembitu avenues. Among foreign species, American larch can be found in Köler avenue and Douglas fir in Uus street.

ultur

Viljandi is sometimes called the cultural capital of Estonia, partly due to the Viljandi Culture Academy being located there.

In Viljandi, several international festivals and other cultural events take place: Viljandi Folk Music Festival, The Early Music Festival, Hansa Days, Young Dance Festival, Winter Folk Dance Festival, the "Theatre in Suitcase" puppet theatre festival, and others.

Since 1920, Viljandi has had the Ugala drama theatre. The tradition of open-air performances dates back to the same year. The Viljandi Puppet Theatre also works there.

In 2002, a new library was built, which is also a venue for exhibitions, meetings with famous people, culture seminars, etc. There are several exhibition halls and galleries in Viljandi. A meeting place for artistic people is the Kondas Centre, dedicated to Estonian naïve artist Paul Kondas.

Viljandi is famous for Viljandi Folk Music Festival – a music festival with a focus on European folk music. It is traditionally held in the end of July. In the year 2006, over 24,000 people attended the concerts. As such, it is the largest annual music festival in Estonia. Due to this, Viljandi is sometimes called the Estonian Capital of Folk Music. A manor house on Kirsimägi in the Castle ruins was restored and holds the Estonian Traditional Music Center (or Traditional Music Storehouse). The mission of the Center is to promote and teach traditional music.

conom

There are 871 businesses in Viljandi (as of 1 May 2005), 50% of them in service, 45% in trade, and 5% in production areas. The major industries represented are the construction materials industry, textile industry, and food and bakery industry. In 2005, the Investor of the Year title was awarded to the waterworks operator AS Viljandi Veevärk, the Employer award to AS Toom Tekstiil, and the Sponsor of the Year title to AS Viljandi Metall. Unemployment rate among the working-age population in Viljandi was about 3%.

In 2005, Estonian Match, the successor of the 100-year old Viljandi Match Factory, made a six-metre match, which was registered as the largest match in the world in the Guinness Book of Records.

At the moment, 2 modes of transport can be used – road and rail.

ducatio

There are 7 schools and 7 kindergartens in Viljandi. Vocational education can be acquired at Viljandi Joint Vocational Secondary School and professional higher education at Viljandi Culture Academy. Special interests are catered for by the Music School, Sports School and the Youth Hobby Centre. The Youth Centre of Viljandi County is successful in offering various information and consulting services.

chools in Viljand
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* Viljandi Vaba Waldorfkool

port

There are sports events in Viljandi for both top athletes and amateurs. Family sports events, Sunday skiing trips, cycling tours in spring and autumn are very popular. In the city there are 53 sports clubs, a large sports hall and the new sports hall of Maagümnaasium. Soon, the jogging and cycling track around Lake Viljandi will be completed. A new skateboarding and roller-skating area has been built in Männimäe. At the lakeside are tennis courts and the city stadium.

Several races are held in Viljandi – around Lake Viljandi and Lake Paala and up and down the Trepimägi stairs. The longest tradition – the race around Lake Viljandi has been organised since 1928. This race takes place annually on 1 May, with the number of participants being about 1300 in the recent years. The winners" names are cut into stone columns. The legendary Hubert Pärnakivi, whose monument is also a tribute to the race, was an 11-time winner of the race.

Other popular fields of sport in Viljandi are football, volleyball, basketball, wrestling, archery and rowing.

egend
oatman of Viljand

Often the popular song is sung about the Boatman of Viljandi or the legend of him is told. Long-long ago, as a young man he had once taken a young girl across the lake on a summer evening and fallen hopelessly in love with the girl"s blue eyes. Nobody knows what happened on the lake, but on the other side, the girl just waved him good-bye and left... However, the Boatman, a grey old man now, is said to row on the lake to this day, longing to see those wonderful blue eyes again.

According to another story, it was a boatman from Gauja who had dedicated a song to his loved one. As the young woman had moved near Viljandi, the song had changed, too.

nternational relation

win towns – sister citie
Viljandi is twinned with:


ee als
*Lake Viljandi
*Viljandi castle

xternal link

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eference

* see also Chronicle of Henry of Livonia








Category:Cities and towns in Estonia
Category:Municipalities of Estonia

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ko:빌랸디
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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 23.02.2020 09:29 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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dministrative district200pxFor local government purposes, is subdivided into 8 administrative districts (, singular "linnaosa"). The district governments are city institutions that fulfill, in the territory of their district, the functions assigned
dministrative district200pxFor local government purposes, is subdivided into 8 administrative districts (, singular "linnaosa"). The district governments are city institutions that fulfill, in the territory of their district, the functions assigned
overnmenEmajõe Centre commercial building.There are 49 members on the town council, elected by residents every four years using a proportional system of representation. The executive branch of the town government consists of a mayor and five deputy
overnmenEmajõe Centre commercial building.There are 49 members on the town council, elected by residents every four years using a proportional system of representation. The executive branch of the town government consists of a mayor and five deputy
overnmenEmajõe Centre commercial building.There are 49 members on the town council, elected by residents every four years using a proportional system of representation. The executive branch of the town government consists of a mayor and five deputy
overnmenEmajõe Centre commercial building.There are 49 members on the town council, elected by residents every four years using a proportional system of representation. The executive branch of the town government consists of a mayor and five deputy
 
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