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Italy, Viareggio
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The Hotels Excelsior (right) and Principe di Piemonte (left).
"Viareggio" is a cy and "comune" located in northern Tuscany, Italy, on the coast of the Tyrrhian Sea. Wh a population of over 63,000 is the main ctre of the northern Tuscan Riviera known as Versilia, and the second largest cy whin the .

It is known as a seaside resort as well as being the home of the famous carnival of Viareggio (dating back to 1873), and s papier-mâché floats, which (since 1925), parade along the promade known as "Passeggiata a mare", in the weeks preceding Easter. The symbol of the carnival of Viareggio and s official mask is Burlamacco, designed and invted by Uberto Bonetti in 1930.

The cy traces s roots back to the first half of the 16th ctury wh became the only gate to the sea for the Republic of Lucca. The oldest building in Viareggio, known as Torre Matilde, dates back to this time and was built by the Lucchesi in 1541 as a defsive fortification to fight the constant manace of corsair incursions.

Viareggio is also an active industrial and manufacturing ctre; s shipbuilding industry has long be rowned around the world and s fishing and floricultural industries are still fundamtal sectors to the cy’s economy.

Viareggio hosts the Premio letterario Viareggio Répaci for lerature, established in 1929. Amongst the other evts organized around the year, is worth mtioning the "Festival Gaber", which has be held every August since 2004 to celebrate the memory of Giorgio Gaber, and is attded by several high-profile Italian musicians.

Because of the long-lasting rivalry betwe Viareggio and Lucca, the Lucchesi refer to Viareggio as "Marina di Lucca" ("Lucca"s Seaside"). On the other hand, the people of Viareggio have made the most out of their carnivalesque spir by wring several songs which ridicule their neighbours from Lucca.

istor
nc and medieval age

During the 3rd ctury BC, the mountains of Versilia were slowly invaded by the Ligurian tribes who, coming from the north, stretched their area of influce as far south as the river Arno. In 180 BC the Romans defeated the Ligurians and started colonising the Versilia (the areas known today as Massaciuccoli, Camaiore, Pietrasanta).

The most widely accepted theory recognises the cy’s name as deriving from the Latin "Via Regis" ("Kings" Road"), the name of the Medieval road linking the fortification built on the beach to Lucca.

According to other historians, instead, the name derives from "Vicus Regius". This theory is based on the fact that in imperial times, there was a small inhabed ctre ("vicus") in the area known as "Gli Ortacci" which belonged to the empire, hce "regius" ("Royal").

Several hillside towns started developing in the Middle Ages, several of which are still active. The area currtly hosting the cy of Viareggio, was still marshland and was not inhabed. Around 1000 A.D. started the first hostilies betwe Lucca and Pisa aimed at gaining control over the coast of the Versila which, since the High Middle Ages had be nothing more than a wood owned by feudal Lords in constant rivalry wh each other.

The Burlamacca canal.


The first mtion of Viareggio dates back to 1169 wh a wood tower guarding coast was built. A ltle over two years later, in (1172) a milary building named "Turris de Via Regia" was erected, taking s name from the road that linked to Lucca (known today as via Montramo). In the following years the area around Viareggio, was involved in the hostilies betwe Pisa and Lucca and in their attempt to gain control over the coastal area. The conflict was spurred by the desire of the Lucchesi to finally gain access to the sea, and to the Pisane fear of the economic competion of s rival cy. It is during these years that the feudal Lords of Versilia were forced to abdicate in favour of Castruccio Castracani. In the following years the area upon which Viareggio would evtually be built was marked by a number of minor battles, invasions and pillages. In addion, the area was also affected by the pestilce which, recounted by Giovanni Boccaccio in his masterpiece the "Decameron", spread throughout the whole of Italy.

5th-17th ctur
In these years Florce expanded s control over Tuscany. Lucca, however, managed to maintain s indepdce in exchange for hefty financial palties.

On September 10, 1513, Pope Leo X removed the port of Motrone from the control of Lucca. Such evt will directly affect the future of Viareggio which, from that momt, became the focus of Lucca’s efforts to turn the town into s ctre for commercial activies, and, in addion to the square-plan tower erected in (1534) wh the aim to protect the port, several settlemts started appearing.

The 17th ctury was perhaps one of the most difficult periods for the 300 inhabants of Viareggio; the area was insalubrious, malaria and other deadly epidemic diseases made the lives of fisherm and farmers extremely difficult. Lucca, on the other hand, increased s efforts to drain the marshlands to improve qualy of life and couraged migration to the new town.

Slowly Viareggio changed s appearance; two small churches and as many factories were built, followed by a number of small shops. Meanwhile s port became more active, while the cultivation of the drained fields started.

8th and 19th cturies
"Principe di Piemonte" Hotel
In 1701 Viareggio became a "comune" (municipaly). In 1739, thanks to the work of hydraulics gineer Bernardino Zdrini the marshlands were finally completely drained and the town turned into a place where noblem from Lucca would come and build their palaces.

In May 1799 Viareggio was the ctre of a popular uprising against the Jacobins.

Wh the invasion of Italy by Napoleon the Lucchese state was turned into a principaly whose sovereignty was giv to Felice Baciocchi, although the real power was in the hands of Napoleon’s older sister, Elisa. Elisa’s governmt was characterised by unpopular measures such as those against the ecclesiastic patrimony. Similarly, most of her financial policies were of dubious effect, although some were welcomed by the locals, such as the adoption of the "Napoleonic Code", the adoption of the metric system, the introduction of mandatory vaccination against smallpox.

Wh the fall of Napoleon and Baciocchi, Viareggio was the ctre of several acts of violce. In March 1814 the population oply protested against the Frch, an evt which turned into acts of pure vandalism.

Viareggio remained under the control of the Austrians until 1817 wh, as part of the agreemts from Congress of Vina, Mary Louis of Bourbon was assigned the new Duchy of Lucca. The years to come would wipe out any good action that had be tak during the Napoleonic rule, although the new ruler would contribute the town’s expansion by building s first "marina" (seaside). In 1820 Viareggio obtained the status of cy.

Following the death of his mother (13 March 1824), Charles Louis of Parma took over the governmt of Lucca and greatly contributed to Viareggio’s expansion, by building a new church, a royal casino and two beach resorts, the first ones to be built in Viareggio.

On October 5, 1847 Lucca was acquired by the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Viareggio, in this new scario, developed as a seaside resort for the whole of Tuscany. In 1848 the cy adopted s currt coat of arms. In these years Viareggio was the destination of many exiled intellectuals of the Italian Risorgimto who were tolerated by the local sovereigns.

During these years Viareggio’s economy saw a very rapid expansion through s already recognised beach tourism and the newly expanding sailboat industry.

0th ctur
The beginning of the 20th ctury saw again a marked developmt of the coast and tourism industry which determined a drastic change to most of the beach. The "Passeggiata" or promade was born, wh s cafés and shops, contributing to turning the cy into the "Pearl of the Tyrrhian Sea". Wood was very widely used in most building and, in 1917, a large portion of the cy was lost in fire in only one night. It was only during the fascist era that wood would finally be replaced by other materials.

During World War II Viareggio was subject to heavy bombings and tire suburbs of the cy were destroyed.

After the war, the reconstruction could finally begin, but the cy had changed s appearance dramatically. Today Viareggio is still a rowned seaside resort and is widely famous for s carnival and shipbuilding industry.

1st ctur


Late in the eving of 29 June 2009, a train carrying liquified petroleum gas derailed while approaching Viareggio"s railway station. The suing explosion killed 31 people, injured many others, and destroyed a large number of homes and families near the station.

Statue of Burlamacco on Belvedere delle Maschere
War Memorial in Piazza Garibaldi, known as "Piazza delle Paure".
Grand Hotel.
Torre Matilde and the Marina of Lucca.
Liberty-style Building.
Villa Borbone, betwe Viareggio and Torre del Lago Puccini.
A float being towed out of the Ctadella del Carnevale.
Carnival Float, 2007.

eograph
The tire area of Viareggio extds over the coastal flooding plain of Versilia. Located on the Ligurian Sea (although tradionally considered to face the Tyrrhian Sea), has of sandy beaches, of which are managed by private beach resorts and the remaining are public (most of the public beach is part of the Parco Naturale Regionale Migliarino-San Rossore-Massaciuccoli. Viareggio borders the local municipalies of Camaiore, Massarosa and Vecchiano (PI).

The municipal area comprises the Lake of Massaciuccoli and several canals, the most important ones of which are known as Burlamacca, Farabola, Fossa dell"Abate (bordering the municipaly of Camaiore), and Fosso Le Quindici.

limat
The climate is characterised by high levels of humidy (betwe 60 and 80% of relative humidy in the summer months) and a yearly rainfall off as a result of the proximy of the Apuanian Alps to the coast.
The main winds are those blowing from South-East, the Libeccio and the Ponte which batter the coast for two to three days in a row and cause severe storms.

*Average temperature:
*Average high-temperature:
*Average low-temperature:
*Climatic classification: zone D, 1416 GR/G
*Atmospheric diffusivy: low, Ibimet CNR 2002

nfrastructure
Subway at Viareggio’s Railway station.
The pier and the Burlamacca canal.
Viareggio is well connected to Tuscany’s inland as well as the rest of Italy.
It can be reached By car, from the A11 (Firze-Mare) motorway, via the A11/"Bretella" Lucca-Viareggio link road or A12 (Goa-Rosignano) motorway.

There is a train station located near the cy ctre, wh 60 daily trains running along the Gova-Rome line, and the Firze line, as well as the international trains.

The nearest airport is Pisa’s "Galileo Galilei" international airport, just south of Viareggio’s cy ctre. Florce’s "Amerigo Vespucci" airport is to the east.

he Port and the Marin

Two extsions to today’s Burlamacca canal where built in 1577. It is on s banks that the first marime activies developed

In 1740, Bernardino Zdrini had a water-gate built in order to prevt the sea water from arriving to lake Massaciuccoli.
In 1820 Maria Luisa di Borbone, duchess of Lucca had the first marina of Viareggio built, which was completed in 1823, and took the name of Marina of Lucca.
Betwe 1871 and 1873 the so-called Marina of Tuscany was built, th followed by the Marina of Italy, 1907 through to 1911.
In 1938 the Marina of the Empire was also built, which was followed in the 1970s by the Marina of Viareggio (also known as the New Marina), the Marina of the Madonnina, and the new lighthouse.
The Madonnina can host up to 500 vessels.

The cy hosts the local Capaneria di Porto, and all vessels registered here bear the marking VG.

conom
The primary sectors of Vieraggio"s economy after tourism, commerce and services, include fishing and floriculture (the flowers of Versilia).

The cy also houses prolific shipyards.

At the beginning of the 19th ctury the craftsm from Viareggio used to build small fishing vessels along the banks of the Burlamacca canal. As the ctury moved on, however, this small shipbuilding activy prospered until became an internationally acclaimed ctre. Nowadays, this is a very important sector the cy and the neighbouring communies.

ultur
arniva




Unanimously considered the most important carnival celebration of Italy and Europe. It was born in 1873, and the now ever-prest papier mâché - used to build the famous floats - was first introduced in 1925. The official masks of the Carnival are Burlamacco and Ondina, drawn for the first time in 1930.
Since 1954, RAI broadcasts the tire evt on national TV. Since 2001, the craftsm of the carnival have moved to the Ctadella del Carnevale or, lerally, Carnival Town.

rize

*Premio letterario Viareggio Repaci, a lerary award founded in 1929 by Leonida Rèpaci, Alberto Colantuoni and Carlo Salsa.
*Premio internazionale Artiglio.
*Premio Sport Ctà di Viareggio.
*Premio Viareggio Sport.

usical evt
*Festival Puccini (held in Torre del Lago Puccini). It takes place every summer since 1930, betwe July and August, in an op-air theatre wh 3,200 seats on the shore of lake Massaciuccoli. A new theatre is currtly being built.
*Jazz and more..., music festival held since 2002 at the Cy of Carnival.
*Festival teatro canzone - Giorgio Gaber, since 2004 has be held at the Cy of Carnival.

ultural evt
*"Viareggio Incontri", at "Il Principino", on the Promade.

estival EuropaCinem

EuropaCinema is an international film festival reserved to the European film industry. It has be founded in 1984 in Rimini, was th moved to Bari in 1988, and finally to Viareggio in 1989.

ain sight
*Villa Orlandi
*Villa Borbone (betwe Viareggio and Torre del Lago Puccini).
*Villa Puccini, Museum.
*Monumt to the Resistance and to Peace, (largo Risorgimto). The monumt is made of columns tak from the old Cy Hall, destroyed by the aerial bombardmts of World War II, and two walls running perpdicular to each other. On one of these a mosaic from Folon can be found together wh a quote from Quasimodo: "E come potevamo noi cantare con i piedi stranieri sopra il cuore?"/"And how could we sing wh foreign feet trampling onto our hearts?", 1998, Bruno Belluomini.

dministrative subdivision

Viareggio has a single "frazione", Torre del Lago Puccini, having a population of around 11,000.

The cy self is subdivided into four Circoscrizioni:
*Circoscrizione no. 1: Torre del Lago Puccini.
*Circoscrizione no. 2: Ctro Marco Polo.
*Circoscrizione no. 3: Darsa/ex Campo d"Aviazione.
*Circoscrizione no. 4: Viareggio Nuova.

oat of arm
The currt coat of arms was chos in 1848 and replaces the previous one dating back to 1752, which showed an image of Saint Anthony from Padua, the first patron saint of the cy.

The currt coat of arms consists of an anchor wh a hawser placed on top of a whe, red and gre shield. Viareggio was one of the first municipalies to adopt the tricolore (later to become the official flag of the unified Italy) for s coat of arm; ev before Italy was officially unified.

winned cie
Viareggio is twinned wh the following cies:
* Bastia, France
* Kunshan, People"s Republic of China
* Opole, Poland
* Palmi, Italy
* San Bedetto del Tronto, Italy

amous people linked to Viareggi

*Inigo Campioni (1878-1944), soldier and polician
*Pierluigi Collina, football referee
*Marco Columbro, prester and actor
*Eugio Fascetti, football manager
*Marcello Lippi, football manager, winner of the 2006 FIFA World Cup.
*Nicola Luisotti, orchestra director
*Mario Monicelli, film director
*Stefania Sandrelli - actress
*Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), English poet and wrer who died here
*Mario Tobino (1910 - 1991), doctor, poet and wrer.
*Maria Valtorta, wrer and mystic
* Lelio Passaglia, Cardiologist
*Arnaldo Galli, Carnival floats designer and builder
*Beppe Domici, (1924 - 2008), Carnival floats designer and builder, painter, ceramist
*Andrea Puccinelli, governor of Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil

ource
istor
*Francesco Bergamini - Le mille e una...notizia di va viareggina 1169/1940 - Pezzini Edore, Viareggio 1995
*"a cura di" Paolo Fornaciari - I quaderni del Ctro Documtario Storico (Cni di storia viareggina) - Various prints
*AA:VV: - I quaderni della torre - Pezzini Edore, Viareggio 1994
*"a cura di" Paolo Fornaciari - Quaderni di storia e cultura - Pezzini Edore, Vireggio (Various edions)
*Quinto Del Carlo, a cura di Ruggero Righini - L"antica magione...storia preromana di Viareggio e Versilia - Edizioni Dedalus
*Francesco Bergamini - Viareggio e la sua Storia 1000-1800 - Pezzini Edore, Viareggio 2000

uilding
*Giorgio Polleschi - Viareggio capale dell"archettura eclettica. "Le opere dell"ingegnere archetto Alfredo Belluomini" - Edizioni della Fontana, Viareggio 1994
*Luigi Gravina - Viareggio Illustrata (con oltre 160 incisioni nel testo) - Arti Grafiche G. Pezzini, Viareggio
*Raffaello Martinelli - Tipi di barche piroscafi battelli 1892-1928 - Pezzini Edore, Viareggio 1996
*Istuto Professionale di Stato per i servizi commerciali e turistici "G. Marconi" Viareggio - L"Istuto dei "Poveri Vecchi" - Edizione della Fontana, Viareggio 1994.
*AA. VV. - La Passeggiata (archetture) - Electa, Martellago (VE) 1997
*Flavia Franceschini, Giovanni Levantini, Maria Gabrielle Maestri e i ragazzi della IIB ("94/"95) dell"Istuto Professionale Marconi di Viareggio - Il Marconi (una scuola alla ricerca di una sede - Annuario) - Pezzini Edore, Viareggio 1997.

eligio
*C. Mchini, G. Pratesi - La Basilica di Sant"Andrea di Viareggio - Grafiche L"ancora, Viareggio 1996
*AA.VV. - La Basilica di San Paolino - Grafiche L"ancora, Viareggio 1996
*AA:VV: - 38 anni di va pastorale (Mons. Roberto Picchi Canonico Onorario) - Tipografia L"ancora A. Bertolozzi, Viareggio 1994
*AA.VV. (regione Toscana, Touring Club Italiano) - Luoghi ebraici in Toscana - Grafiche Mazzucchelli, Settimo Milanese (MI) 2004
*a cura di Maria Grazia Galimberti - Sirio (Don Sirio Poli - una viata tra lavoro e profezia 1920-1988) - Tipografia Grafica 77, 1998
*Don G. Boninsegna, C. Vettori - Chiesa S. Cuore di Gesù Viareggio (affreschi e tempere su tavola di Massimo Micheli)
*AA. VV. - Misericordia di Viareggio - Grafiche Offset A. Bertolozzi & figli, Viareggio 1983
*AA. VV. (Scuola Elemtare Santa Dorotea) - 1897-1997 Cto anni di presza in Viareggio - 1997

the
*Mario Tobino - Sulla spiaggia e di là dal molo - Mondadori
*Materiale divulgativo turistico dell"A.P.T. (Azida di Promozione Turistica) Versilia
*AA.VV., a cura di Daniele Palchetti - "Viareggio" - Idea Books, Milano 2003
*AA.VV., a cura di Isaliana Lazzerini - D"incanto (attraverso Viareggio tra natura, storia, cultura e sogno) - Maschietto Edore, Firze 2003
*AA.VV. "a cua dell"Istuto Storico Lucchese sezione di Viareggio" - Iniziativa per il restauro del Moletto Sanà - Tipografia La Darsa, Viareggio 2000
*a cura di Federica Battilani - Misericordia di Viareggio (note di cronaca e storia 1826-1986) - Lografia Varo, Ghezzano (PI) 2001
*Enrico Vettori - La Croce Verde nell"800 - Grafiche A. Bertolozzi & figli, Viareggio 1978

ee als
*Versilia
*Festival Puccini
*Carnival of Viareggio
*Premio letterario Viareggio Repaci
*Torneo Mondiale Giovanile di Calcio "Coppa Carnevale"
*Football Club Esperia Viareggio
*2009 Viareggio derailmt
*C.G.C. Viareggio
*Versilia Sport A.S.D.

hotographic Galler

Image:06-08-12 Viareggio dar.jpg
Image:Viareggio, chiesa di sant"andrea, veduta.JPG
Image:Viareggio, chiesa di sant"andrea, vetrata di sant"antonio maria pucci.JPG
Image:Faro-della-Darsa.jpg


xternal link
* , the official webse of the municipaly of Viareggio
*
*
* , from the se www.aboutversilia.com
* , from the se www.versilia.org
* from the holidaying se www.vacanzeinversilia.com

eferce




Category:Carnival cies and towns
Category:Cies and towns in Tuscany

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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 13.04.2021 08:29 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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