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Valletta

Malta, Valletta
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|parts_type = Borders
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|leader_title = Mayor
|leader_name = Alexiei Dingli
|leader_party = PN
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|population_as_of =November 2005
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|population_total =6300
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|population_demonym =Belti (m), Beltija (f), Beltin (pl)

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|latd=35 |latm=53 |lats=52 |latNS=N
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|area_code = 356
|blank_name = Patron Saints
|blank_info = Saint Dominic, Our Lady of Mount Carmel, Saint Paul, , Saint Augustine
|blank1_name = Feast Days
|blank1_info = August 3 & February 10
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| Type = Cultural
| Criteria = i, vi
| ID = 131
| Region = Europe and North America
| Year = 1980
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"Valletta" is the capital city of Malta, colloquially known as "Il-Belt" () in Maltese. It is located in the central-eastern portion of the island of Malta and the city proper has a population of 6,315.Official estimate for 2005

Valletta contains buildings from the 16th century onwards, built during the rule of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem (the Knights Hospitaller). The city is essentially Baroque in character, with elements of Mannerist, Neo-Classical and Modern architecture in selected areas, though World War II left major scars on the city. The City of Valletta was officially recognised as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.

The city is named for Jean Parisot de la Valette, who succeeded in defending the island from an Ottoman invasion in 1565. The official name given by the Order of Saint John was "Humilissima Civitas Valletta" — The Most Humble City of Valletta, or "Città Umilissima" in Italian. The bastions, curtains and ravelins along with the beauty of its Baroque palaces, gardens and churches, led the ruling houses of Europe to give the city its nickname "Superbissima" — "Most Proud".

overnmen
Alexiei Dingli has been the Mayor of Valletta since 2008. He was elected on the Nationalist Party Ticket "(PN)", an affiliate of the European People"s Party, which holds the majority of the Council.

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The city shares its early history with the island of Malta. Immediately after the end of the Siege of Malta in 1565, the Order decided to found a new city on the "Xiberras" peninsula to fortify the Order"s position in Malta and bind the Knights to the island. The foundation stone of Valletta was laid by the Grandmaster of the Order of Saint John, Jean Parisot de la Valette on 28 March 1566. La Valette placed the first stone in Our Lady of Victories Church.

In his book "Dell’Istoria della Sacra Religione et Illustrissima Militia di San Giovanni Gierosolimitano" (), written between 1594 and 1602, Giacomo Bosio writes that when the cornerstone of Valletta was placed, a group of Maltese elders said "Iegi zimen en fel wardia col sceber raba iesue uquie" (Which in modern Maltese reads, "Jiġi żmien li fil-Wardija kull xiber raba’ jiswa uqija," and in English, "There will come a time when every piece of land on Sciberras Hill will be worth its weight in gold").

Grand Master La Valette died on 21 August 1568 at age 74 and never saw the completion of his city. Originally interred in the church of Our Lady of the Victories, his remains now rest in St. John"s Co-Cathedral among the tombs of other Grand Masters of the Knights of Malta. Francesco Laparelli was the city"s principle designer and his plan departed from medieval Maltese architecture, which exhibited irregular winding streets and alleys. He designed the new city on a rectangular grid, and without any "collacchio" (an area restricted for important buildings). The streets were designed to be wide and straight, beginning centrally from the City Gate and ending at Fort Saint Elmo overlooking the Mediterranean; certain bastions were built tall. The Maltese architect Gerolamo Cassar was responsible for a number of the buildings.

After the Knights" departure and the brief French occupation, building projects in Valletta resumed under British rule. These projects included widening gates, demolishing and rebuilding structures, widening newer houses over the years, and installing civic projects.

Nazi and Fascist air raids throughout World War II caused much destruction. The Royal Opera House, constructed at the city entrance in the 19th century, was one of the buildings lost to the raids.

In 1980, the 24th Chess Olympiad took place in Valletta.

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The Valletta peninsula has two natural harbours, Marsamxett and the Grand Harbour. The Grand Harbour is Malta"s major port, with unloading quays at Marsa. A cruise-liner terminal is located along the old seawall of the Valletta Waterfront that Grandmaster Manuel Pinto de Fonseca built.









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View of Valletta from Sliema
Valletta"s streets and piazzas contain architecture ranging from the early 16th century to Modernist in design. The city serves as the island"s principal cultural centre and its unique collection of churches, palaces and museums attract visitors from around the world.

When Benjamin Disraeli, future British Prime Minister, visited the city in 1830, he described it as "a city of palaces built by gentlemen for gentlemen," and remarked that "Valletta equals in its noble architecture, if it does not excel, any capital in Europe," and in other letters called it "comparable to Venice and Cádiz" and "full of palaces worthy of Palladio."

Buildings of historic importance include St John"s Co-Cathedral, formerly the Conventual Church of the Knights of Malta. It has the only signed work and largest painting by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. The Auberge de Castille et Leon, formerly the official seat of the Knights of Malta of the Langue of Castille, Léon and Portugal, is now the office of the Prime Minister of Malta. The Magisterial Palace, built between 1571 and 1574 and formerly the seat of the Grand Master of the Knights of Malta, now houses the Maltese Parliament and offices of the President of Malta.

The National Museum of Fine Arts is a Rococo palace dating back to the late 1570s, which served as the official residence of the Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet during the British era from 1789 onwards. The Manoel Theatre () was constructed in just ten months in 1731, by order of Grand Master Antonio Manoel de Vilhena, and is one of the oldest working theatres in Europe. The Mediterranean Conference Centre was formerly the Sacra Infermeria. Built in 1574, it was one of Europe"s most renowned hospitals during the Renaissance. The fortifications of the port, built by the Knights as a magnificent series of bastions, demi-bastions, ravelins and curtains, approximately high, all contribute to the unique architectural quality of the city.

View of Valletta from Senglea
Public housing is located within Valletta"s walls. Originally the Order planned to construct for its navy a man-made anchorage in the area known as "Manderaggio" (), but never completed this plan. Instead, the area became a jumble of buildings with dark alleyways. In the 1950s, the city partially demolished the Manderaggio and rebuilt it as a housing estate.

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Within St John"s Co-Cathedral
Our Lady of Victories Church was the first building completed in Valletta, built by the Knights of Malta between 1573 and 1578. The body of Jean Parisot de la Valette was entombed there until the construction of St. John"s Co-Cathedral. It was commissioned in 1572 by Grand Master Jean de la Cassière as the conventual church of the Knights of Malta. The Church was designed by the Maltese military architect Gerolamo Cassar, architect of the Knights of St John.

St Francis of Assisi Church () was erected in 1598 but significantly rebuilt through the munificence of Grand Master Gregorio Carafa in 1681. The Parish Church of St Augustine () is contemporary to the creation of Valletta and its foundation stone was laid in 1571. It was built according to the plan and guidance of Geralomo Cassar. The church was rebuilt in 1765 by Giuseppe Bonnici and was elevated to parish church in 1968.

St Barbara Church
Maltese Jesuit Fra Andrea opened a conservatory for girls in 1692. Fr Andrea received charitable collections from the Knights of Malta and wealthy Maltese. Christ the Redeemer Church (), commonly known as "Sagaramentini Church for the Perpetual Adoration", is part of this building. The Church of the Jesuits () is amongst the oldest churches in the City. St Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus in 1534, had considered founding a college in Malta as early as 1553. Through a letter dated 1592-03-28, Pope Clement XIII solicited the setting up of the Jesuit College and its church.

The Collegiate Parish Church of St Paul"s Shipwreck () contains the wooden statue of St. Paul the Apostle carved in 1657 by Melchiorre Gafà, brother of Lorenzo Gafà who renovated the church in 1680. The church contains two first-class relics, the right wrist-bone of St. Paul and part of the column on which he was beheaded in Rome.

The Franciscan Church of St Mary of Jesus is popularly known as "Ta" Ġieżu" in Maltese. It was built in 1571, following the design of Gerolamo Cassar. The facade was replaced in 1680 by Mederico Blondel. Numerous Grandmasters contributed lavishly towards the embellishment of the church, which hosts various works of art. These include the Miraculous Crucifix brought to Malta from Sicily[ in 1630 and a painting of Our Lady of Sorrows by Stefano Erardi. The Blessed Nazju Falzon is entombed within the Franciscan Church.

Numerous other Roman Catholic churches within Valletta include Our Lady of Pilar Church, the Carmelite Church, Our Lady of Liesse Church, St. James Church, St. Barbara Church (offering services in French and German), Our Lady of Damascus (offering services in Greek), St. Lucy Church, St. Roch Church, St. Catherine of Italy Church (offering services in Italian), St. Nicholas Church (known as the "Church of All Souls"), St. Catherine of Alexandria Church and the Parish Church of Saint Mary of Porto Salvo and Saint Dominic, accredited the first basilica in Malta in the Bolla Pont by Pope Pius V.

There are several Protestant churches in Valletta, catering to the needs of minority denominations. St Paul"s Anglican Cathedral is a Pro-Cathedral commissioned by Queen Adelaide on a visit to Malta, when she discovered there was no permanent place of Anglican worship on the island. St. Andrew"s Scots Church is a joint congregation (a "Local Ecumenical Partnership") of the Church of Scotland and the Methodist Church of Great Britain. For Church of Scotland purposes it is part of the Presbytery of Europe and is the only Reformed Church in Malta.

alace
Valletta contains a great number of palaces, as befits its Renaissance nickname, "Superbissima" (The proudest, the most illustrious). Some of these palaces served as the "auberge" for a particular "langue" of Knights, although some knights also had their own private residences. Other palaces were built by members of the Maltese nobility or foreign aristocracy.

The Magisterial Palace of the Grandmaster currently houses the House of Representatives of Malta and the office of the President of Malta. The palace is built around two courtyards, one of which is dominated by a statue of Neptune. There are two entrances in the front and one entrance from Piazza Regina just west of the National Library. The Armoury, housing one of the finest collections of Medieval and Renaissance weapons in all of Europe, runs the width of the back of the palace. The palace also features Gobelin tapestries and frescos by Matteo Perez d"Aleccio (a student of Michelangelo) amongst other treasures.
The Grandmaster"s Palace

The Auberge de Castille was the official seat of the knights of the Langue of Castille, Léon and Portugal – one of the most powerful of the Order, its Head being the Grand Chancellor. The Knights of this Langue were responsible for the defence of part of the fortifications of Valletta known as the "St Barbara Bastion". The original Auberge was built by the renowned Maltese architect Girolamo Cassar in 1574. It was extensively re-modelled and virtually rebuilt in 1741, the present plan of the imposing structure attributed to Andrea Belli.

The Auberge d"Aragon is a palace also designed by Girolamo Cassar, in 1571 five years after the establishment of the city. The residents of the palace were initially knights of Aragon, Navarre, and Catalonia. The Auberge de Provence is another of Cassar"s masterpieces of Renaissance architecture, built between 1571-75. The Auberge was the residence of the Langue de Provence, its Head, the “Gran Commandeur” being the Treasurer of the Order. From 1824 to 1954 the building housed the British officers’ Union Club, and is now the National Museum of Archeology.

Construction for the Auberge d’Italie was begun in 1574. The building was constructed around an arcaded courtyard and received considerable alteration in the 17th century. Situated in the upper part of Merchants street and in front of another notable building, Palazzo Parisio, it has a fine facade designed by Romano Carapecchia. It now houses the Malta Tourism Authority.

Opposite the Jews" Sally Port () in Valletta is the Auberge de Bavière built in 1696). Originally intended as a private palace, from 1784 on it was used to accommodate Bavarian and English knights. It now houses Malta"s Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs.

Casa Rocca Grande was built by Fra Pietro La Rocca, Prior of Santo Stefano, towards the end of the 16th century and formed part of a magnificent palace with double entrances in the style of the Grandmaster"s Palace. It was later divided into two palaces, Palazzo Marina and Messina Palace. For a short time the palace used by the Maltese Government as the Department of Education and later as the Ministry of Education. Messina Palace was leased to the German-Maltese Circle in 1975 until it was purchased by the Circle with the financial assistance of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1989.

Casa Rocca Piccola"s dining room
Casa Rocca Piccola is one of the last remaining unconverted palaces in which members of the Maltese nobility still live, in the case the de Piro family. The palace is open to the public; it is the only occupied aristocratic residence in Valletta open to the public.

Opposite the ruins of the Royal Opera House stands Palazzo Ferreria. Its façade resembles a Venetian palace. Popularly known as Palazzo Francia, surname of the family that built and owned it, it originally housed the Knights" foundry - hence the name "Ferreria". It today houses a number of offices and retail outlets.

In the early 18th century Bishop Sceberras built the Palazzo Parisio, Valletta on the site of two former houses in Merchants" Street, then known as "Strada San Giacomo". Palazzo Parisio consists of three elements, each two storeys high, enclosing a central courtyard, all in a Neo-Classical style.

Napoleon Bonaparte stayed there briefly after taking Valletta on June 11, 1798. He made it his headquarters for five days during his brief plundering stay en route to the Egyptian campaign. Left dilapidated by the late 19th century, it was sold to the Government and fully restored and refurbished. Palazzo Parisio formally opened its doors to the public under the British on 8 May 1886, as Malta’s General Post Office. Today it holds the Ministry of Commonwealth and Foreign Affairs. This palace is not to be confused with Palazzo Parisio in Naxxar, a private property owned by the Barony of Tabria.

Palazzo Castellania is also located along Merchants" Street and was begun to the designs of Maltese architect Francesco Zerafa in 1748. It replaced an earlier building and housed the Civil and Criminal Courts. Zerafa died in 1758 and Giusseppe Bonici was called in to complete the building, which he did by 1760. The building"s centrepiece shows stone figures of Justice and Truth. It is now the Ministry of Social Policy.

The National Museum of Fine Arts is housed within an elegant palace in South Street. It was known as "Admiralty House" when it became the official residence of the Commander-in-Chief of the British Mediterranean fleet. The building dates back to the late 1570s. The palace was the private residence of a succession of knights of the Order of St John. It was opened as a museum in 1974, as a repository of Malta"s permanent national art collection.

useum

The National Museum of Fine Arts is home to works of art that were originally displayed in buildings of the Order, such as the Grand Master"s palaces and churches, as well as paintings by Mattia Preti and J. M. W. Turner. Prior to its conversion into a museum, it was a residence. The Order acquired the building in the mid-18th century and transformed it into a Rococo palace. After the departure of the Order from Malta in 1798, the State took over the administration of the building and its contents.

Turner"s depiction of the Grand Harbour, National Museum of Fine Arts
Paintings and sculptures were brought together in the early years of the 20th century and formed the core of the Fine Arts Collection within the National Museum by 1922. Subsequently, individuals and organisations made important donations and bequests to the collection, in addition to acquisitions made throughout the years. The highlight of the 19th century collection is a watercolour by J. M. W. Turner of the Grand Harbour. A number of Old Master works, including as drawings by Pietro Perugino (1450-1523), Vittore Carpaccio (1465-1526) and Mattia Preti (1613-1699), may be viewed under controlled lighting.

The Grandmaster"s Palace Armoury Museum exhibits a collection of full suits of armour, arms and guns dating back to the 15th century. During the 1850s, the British Government intended to remove the collection to London. Although they removed some items, local opposition blocked the complete looting of the collection. Instead, in 1860 the Armory was officially opened as Malta’s first public museum. The collection of Renaissance weapons and armour is unique and includes suits of armor that belonged to grandmasters Fra Martin Garzes and Fra Alof de Wignacourt, as well as suits of parade armour that expert armourers had created. The museum displays Italian, German, French and Spanish arms and a number of ornate bronze cannons.

The National War Museum is located within Fort Saint Elmo, a focal point during the Great Siege that rose to prominence once again during World War II. The Museums Department and the National War Museum Association established the museum, which opened to the public in 1975; the museum reopened in 2008 after having been closed for more than a year for refurbishment. The museum building was originally a powder magazine; during the Second World War anti-aircraft gun crews trained there. The Museum highlights Malta’s military role in the post-1800 period under British rule, and memorializes especially the suffering and the heroism that characterised Malta during the Second World War.

The museum offers a walking tour through history, from World War One to the Inter-Wars period, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1942 and so on. It includes a Memorial area, with photographic panels that depict the conditions that prevailed in Malta during the War years 1940-1943. These photographs show the hardships the civilian population endured, the extent of war damage, the unhealthy living conditions within underground shelters and above all, the people who withstood the siege.

The museum"s main hall has several World War II relics: an Italian E-Boat, a Bofors anti-aircraft gun, the Willys Jeep ‘Husky’, and the Gloster Gladiator ‘Faith’. Also on display are the George Cross, awarded to the people of Malta by King George VI, the Book of Remembrance of civilians and servicemen killed during the years 1940-43 and the illuminated Scroll that President Franklin D. Roosevelt presented to the “People and Defenders of Malta” in 1943. Also on display are awards and decorations to individual Maltese servicemen and civilians during the War for their acts of bravery and sacrifice above and beyond the call of duty.

The 3,000 year old "Sleeping Lady" of "Hal Saflieni"
The Auberge De Provence houses the National Museum of Archaeology. This palace once served knights from the "langue" of Provence. The Museum features artifacts from Malta"s Neolithic culture, displaying objects collected from the first free-standing structures built on Earth, 5,500 years ago.

The National Museum of Archaeology displays an exceptional array of artifacts from Malta’s prehistoric periods starting with the first arrival of man in the Ghar Dalam phase (5200 BC) and running up to the Tarxien phase (2500 BC). The collection includes obsidian cores and the Red Skorba figurines, which are predecessors of temple period objects and statuary, as well as pottery, worked flint, beads and other ornaments.

The museum"s main hall is devoted to temple carvings, in particular the giant statue and altar blocks from the Neolithic Tarxien Temples. The collection continues with representations of animals, temple models and human figures. There are statuettes of the "Sleeping Lady" () found in the Hypogeum, and the "Venus" () of Hagar Qim. There is also a large top floor salon with painted walls and a wooden beamed ceiling, currently displaying plans by Renzo Piano for the renovation of the entrance to Valletta. The building was inaugurated as the National Museum in 1958.

The nearby Manoel Theatre Museum presents the history of Valletta"s first playhouse, one of the oldest in Europe. It traces the history of theatre on the Maltese Islands through displays of memorabilia assembled from a wide range of sources, both public and private, including donations from private collectors. Works in the Maltese language are also displayed.

The Domus Pauli Museum is located within an extension of the Chapter Hall of the Collegiate Church of St. Paul’s Shipwreck. The museum, in "St Paul’s Street", exhibits antique and precious items from St Paul"s Shipwreck Church, including relics of St Paul.

St John"s Co-Cathedral Museum adjoins the Co-Cathedral and contains Medieval and Renaissance art objects, together with ecclesiastical artifacts. Amongst the contents of the museum are the tapestries of Grandmaster Fra Ramon Perellos de Roccaful, portraits of Grandmasters Fra Jean de la Cassiere, Fra Nicolas Cotoner and Fra Manuel Pinto da Fonseca and paintings that were once kept in the Co-Cathedral"s many side chapels such as "St George killing the Dragon" by Francesco Potenzano.

The museum displays a number of bronze and plaster sculptures by the Maltese artist Antonio Sciortino (1879-1947) and paintings by Edward Caruana Dingli (1876-1950). There is also a display of Maltese silverware from the national collection, including liturgical artifacts from churches that formerly belonged to the Order, as well as a collection of silver snuffboxes amongst other silverware. There are various other displays and exhibits.

Valletta"s Toy Museum contains an extensive collection of Corgi, Dinky and Matchbox cars. Its three floors house other Maltese and international toys, from the 1950s onward.

heatre
An old postcard of the Royal Opera House, bombed to the ground during World War II
Manoel Theatre () is Europe"s third-oldest working theatre. Located on Old Theatre Street, it is now Malta"s National Theatre and home to the National Orchestra of Malta. The Manoel is a small, six-hundred and twenty-three seat venue with a lavish, oval-shaped auditorium, three tiers of boxes constructed entirely of wood and decorated with 22-carat gold leaf and a pale blue, trompe-l"oeil ceiling that resembles a rounded cupola.

Countless celebrities have graced its stage, including Boris Christoff, Sir Yehudi Menuhin, John Neville, Magda Olivero, Michael Ponti, Mstislav Rostropovich, Dame Margaret Rutherford, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa and Sir Donald Wolfit. Visiting companies have included Nottingham Playhouse, the Comédie-Française and the Staatsoper Unter den Linden.

The Royal Opera House was an opera house and performing arts venue designed by English architect Edward Middleton Barry, erected in 1866. The theatre was bombed to the ground during World War II in 1942. The space is still used for present day performances and plans to re-build or somehow renovate the area are at a stalemate. The Maltese government has commissioned architect Renzo Piano to build a new Royal Opera House. This is part of a project to renovate the entrance to Valletta.http://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20090627/local/renzo-piano-unveils-his-plans-today However, Piano"s plans remain the subject of local controversy.http://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20090711/local/joseph-calleja-interviewed-at-royal-opera-house

St James Cavalier also serves as a theatrical space and is a popular venue for local performances. The Old University Theatre is sometimes used by Maltese troupes or drama institutions.

arden
The Upper Barrakka Gardens () offer a panoramic view of the Grand Harbour. They were first constructed in 1661 for the private use of knights from the Italian "langue". It was not before 1824 that the gardens were opened to the public. The garden suffered extensive damage throughout the Second World War.
The Lower Barrakka Gardens and its monuments of remembrance

The garden paths are lined with busts, statues and plaques illustrating various personalities and significant events from Maltese history. Of special interest are the bronze group by Maltese sculptor Antonio Sciortino, entitled Les Gavroches (). Its depiction of three running children reflects those extreme hardships faced by the people of Malta at the turn of the 20th century.

Also overlooking the Grand Harbour and Breakwater, the Lower Barrakka Gardens () offer views of Fort Ricasoli, Bighi Palace, Fort St Angelo and the creeks of Vittoriosa and Kalkara. The gardens contain two major monuments, one dedicated to Sir Alexander Ball and another in remembrance of the Great Siege of Malta. Sir Alexander Ball led Maltese insurgents against the French in the 1798 uprising, and went on to become the first British Governor of Malta.

Located on top of the bastions on the west side of City Gate, Hastings Gardens () affords clear views of Sliema, Manoel Island and Marsamxett Harbour. The garden houses a monument built by the Hastings family dedicated to Francis, Marquis of Hastings, also Governor of Malta. He died in 1827 en route to Naples and his body was returned for burial in this garden.

ort
Fort Saint Elmo () stands on the seaward shore of the Sciberras Peninsula, dividing Marsamxett Harbour from the Grand Harbour. Since the mid-20th century, Fort Saint Elmo has housed Malta"s police academy. The War Museum also occupies part of the Fort. It commands the entrances to both harbours and prior to the arrival of the Knights of Malta in 1530, a watchtower existed on this point. Reinforcement of this strategic site commenced in 1533.

By the time of the Ottoman Siege of Malta in 1565, this fortification had been reinforced and extended into a modest star fort. Fort Saint Elmo was the scene of some of the most intense fighting of the siege, and withstood massive bombardment from Turkish cannon deployed from batteries on the north arm of Marsamextt Harbour, present site of Fort Tigne.
An historical reenactment held in Fort St Elmo

During the bombardment of the fort, a cannon shot from Fort St Angelo across the Grand Harbour struck the ground close to the Turkish battery. Debris from the impact mortally injured the corsair and Admiral Turgut Reis (), an Ottoman hero. Though the fort was reduced to rubble during the bombardments, when the Ottomans abandoned the siege the fort was rebuilt and reinforced, becoming partially incorporated into the seaward bastion of the fortress city of Valletta.

Faced with the continuing threat of Turkish attack and the weaknesses caused by the Great Siege of Malta (1565), the Knights of Malta were made to decide whether to abandon the island or attempt its restoration. Grandmaster Jean Parisot de la Valette preferred to stay and ask for aid, which promptly arrived from several quarters, most notably Pope Pius V, who sent not only financial assistance but also the famed military engineer Francesco Laparelli de Cortona. It is Laparelli, succeeded by Maltese architect Gerolamo Cassar, who masterminded the plan of Valletta as we see it today.

Saint James Cavalier () was designed by Laparelli and Cassar, as a raised platform on which guns were placed to defend the city against attacks from the land (Floriana) side. As well as prohibiting entry, St James could threaten those who had already breached the city"s defences. Under the British, St. James was converted into an officers" mess. During the latter part of British rule, St. James was turned into a food store, known as the NAAFI.

St James is now a "Centre for Creativity", hosting various theatrical and musical performances, also providing installation and gallery space. Its interior was extensively renovated by Maltese architect Richard England alongside Michael Ellul. The design received a mixed reception from the Maltese public. The national heritage organization Fondazzjoni Wirt Artna protested against the removal of a rare World War II gas shelter and other historical remains from the British period. While the restoration of St James Cavalier was intended as the first phase in a larger project aiming to radically alter Valletta, it has so far been halted at planning stages and is the subject of much local controversy.

ther site
A watchtower overlooking the Valletta Bus Terminus The Phoenicians erected a tower on the site now occupied by the city, a tower that the Greeks and Romans also used. Today, various sentry posts and lookout towers still exist across the city bastions. The Knights built the present watchtowers, which every succeeding conquering power since has used. The watchtowers are placed at strategic locations throughout the city, most prominently towards its rear and main entrance.

These watchtowers vary in design but are generally rounded and bear armorial or symbolic carvings on their exterior. One common motif, especially in restored examples, is the eye. One can also find this symbol on the sides of dgħajes and luzzijiet, traditional Maltese boats.

The present City Gate (Bieb il-Belt) is the fourth to have stood at the entrance to Valletta. The military engineer Francesco Laparelli de Carotona designed the original gate, known as Porta San Giorgio, which was erected between April 1566 and 1569. During the rule of Grand Master Antoine de Paule, the Maltese architect Tommaso Dingli designed a more ornate gate that replaced the Porta in 1632. In 1853, at the height of British rule, a certain Col. Thompson of the Royal Engineers designed and erected a new gate consisting of two central arches with two smaller ones. This gate, which survived for slightly more than a century, was known as "Porta Reale", "Putirjal" in Maltese and Kingsway in English. The Independence celebrations in 1964 inaugurated the present gate, whose Italian modernist design remains the source of much controversy.

The Triton Fountain is situated in the centre of Valetta"s main bus terminus, surrounded by shops and cafes. The Maltese sculptor Vincent Apap designed the fountain"s statues in 1959, modeling them after Classical and Baroque examples.

The Knights constructed the Castellania, which faces the harbour, as the city"s law courts. The architect Francesco Zerafa designed the building and construction began in 1760 during the reign of Grand Master Manuel Pinto de Fonseca, who died two years before the building"s completion. The facade includes florid stone-work and de Fonseca"s crescent emblem. On the sides of the first floor balcony there stand two statues that the Sicilian sculptor Maestro Gian created to represent Justice and Truth. A pillory stone resides in the apex of the building"s corner, for those convicted and sentenced to death after the Priest"s Revolt of 1775. Above the stone is a hook, used to lift the bells of St. John
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 22.08.2019 14:28 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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REISEPORTAL
"Malta" (), officially the "Republic of Malta" (), is a Southern European country and consists of an archipelago situated centrally in the Mediterranean, 93 km south of Sicily and 288 km east of Tunisia, with the Strait
__NOTOC__Qormi by night, as seen from Marsa."Qormi" or "Città Pinto" ( ) is a city in Malta with a population of 16,576 (as of November 2005), which makes it the third largest locality in Malta. The town is located southwest of Valletta, in the
"Cospicua" () is a double-fortified harbour city on the Mediterranean island of Malta. It is the largest of the Three Cities. It was also given a title as "Citta" Cottonera", but erroneously the title is now used to define the whole region. It is
"Birkirkara" or "B"Kara" is a city of 21,775 inhabitants (as of November 2005) in central Malta. It is the largest and most populous city on the island and consists of four autonomous parishes: St Helen, St Joseph, Our Lady of the Carmel and St Mary.
"Tarxien" (or "Ħal Tarxien") is a small village found in the southern part of Malta.tymolog"Tarxien" is a small village in the south east of Malta. The etymology of the village may be a corruption of one of two words: "Tirix", meaning a large
"Fgura" is a town in the south of Malta. It is one of the 68 local councils.On the surface, Fgura appears to be a new town built around the 1960s. But its outward appearance belies ancient origins. The town has prehistoric roots - there are several
 
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NACHRICHTEN
The former leader of Catalonia, who led the Spanish region to a declaration of independence last year and subsequently fled to Belgium, has said he will not seek to regain his former post "for the time being." Madrid (dpa) - Renouncing a
Ties between Germany and Turkey have become increasingly strained of late, as Berlin struggles to strike a balance between pressure to criticize President Recep Tayyip Erdogan's increasing authoritarianism, and maintaining good relations with the
German Chancellor Angela Merkel has paid a hefty price to end months of political deadlock and seal a coalition deal between her conservatives and the Social Democrats (SPD), but has weeks to go before forming a government. Merkel‘s Christian
An Austrian fraternity with links to the governing Freedom Party (FPOe) faces dissolution by the authorities, the government announced on Wednesday, reacting to revelations over Nazi-style texts in the group's songbook. Vienna (dpa) - The scandal has
With formal negotiations imminent on forming a new government with Chancellor Angela Merkel's conservatives, Germany's Social Democrats (SPD) are meeting on Thursday to plan their strategy for the tough talks ahead. Berlin (dpa) - The SPD is
The European Union has removed eight countries - including Panama, the United Arab Emirates and South Korea - from its 17-country blacklist of international tax havens, just seven weeks after the list was compiled. Brussels (dpa) - The eight
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