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Ulm

Germany, Ulm
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"Ulm" () is a city in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River . The city, whose population is estimated at 120,000 (2006), forms an urban district of its own () and is the administrative seat of the Alb-Donau district. Ulm, founded around 850, is rich in history and traditions as a former Free Imperial City (). Today, it is an economic centre due to its varied industries, and it is the seat of a university (University of Ulm, founded in 1967). Internationally, Ulm is primarily known for the tallest church in the world, the Gothic minster (Ulm Minster, German: Ulmer Münster) and as the birthplace of Albert Einstein.

Geography
Ulm lies at the point where the rivers Blau and Iller join the , at an altitude of 479 m above sea level. Most parts of the city, including the old town, are situated on the left bank of the ; only the districts of Wiblingen, Gögglingen, Donaustetten and Unterweiler lie on the right bank. Vis-à-vis of the old town, on the other side of the river, lies the twin city of Neu-Ulm in the state of Bavaria, smaller than Ulm and until 1810 a part of it (population ~50,000). Except for the in the south, the city is surrounded by forests and hills which rise to altitudes of over 620 m, some of them part of the Swabian Alb. South of the , plains and hills finally end in the northern edge of the Alps, which is approximately 100 km from Ulm and is visible from the city on clear days.

The city is divided into eighteen districts (): Ulm-Mitte, Böfingen, Donaustetten, Donautal, Eggingen, Einsingen, Ermingen, Eselsberg, Gögglingen, Grimmelfingen, Jungingen, Lehr, Mähringen, Oststadt, Söflingen (mit Harthausen), Unterweiler, Weststadt, and Wiblingen.

Geology
The city of Ulm is situated in the northern part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin, where the basin reaches the Swabian Alb. The Turritellenplatte of Ermingen ("Erminger Turritellenplatte") is a famous palaeontological site of Burdigalian age.

Münster towards Hirschstraße.

History
The oldest traceable settlement of the Ulm area began in the early Neolithic period, around 5000 BC. Settlements of this time have been identified at the villages of Eggingen and Lehr, today districts of the city. In the city area of Ulm proper, the oldest find dates from the late Neolithic period. Ulm was first mentioned in 854 and declared an Imperial City () by Friedrich Barbarossa in 1181.

At first, Ulm"s significance was due to the privilege of a "Königspfalz", a place of accommodation for the medieval German kings and emperors on their frequent travels. Later, Ulm became a city of traders and craftsmen. One of the most important legal documents of the city, an agreement between the Ulm patricians and the trade guilds (), dates from 1397. This document, considered an early city constitution, and the beginning of the construction of an enormous church (Ulm Minster, 1377), financed by the inhabitants of Ulm themselves rather than by the church, demonstrate the assertiveness of Ulm"s mediæval citizens. Ulm blossomed during the 15th and 16th centuries, mostly due to the export of high-quality textiles. The city was situated at the crossroads of important trade routes extending to Italy. These centuries, during which many important buildings were erected, also represented the zenith of art in Ulm, especially for painters and sculptors like Hans Multscher and Jörg Syrlin the Elder. During the Reformation, Ulm became Protestant (1530). With the establishment of new trade routes following the discovery of the New World (16th century) and the outbreak and consequences of the Thirty Years" War (1618–48), the city began to decline gradually. Around 1700, it was alternately invaded several times by French and Bavarian soldiers.

Thirty Years" War
|date_event3 =  1647
|event_end = Mediatised to Bavaria
|date_end =
|event_post = Annexed by Württemberg
|date_post = 1809
|p1 = Duchy of Swabia
|image_p1 = Duchy of Swabia
|s1 = Electorate of Bavaria
|flag_s1 = Flag of Bavaria (lozengy).svg
|capital = Ulm
|image_map = Ulm-Wiblingen-Fugger.png
|image_map_caption = Map with Imperial Free City of Ulm (shaded area), with the (black diagonal) running below the area.
}}
In the wars following the French Revolution, the city was alternately occupied by French and Austrian forces, with the former ones destroying the city fortifications. In 1803, it lost the status of Imperial City and was absorbed into Bavaria. During the campaign of 1805, Napoleon managed to trap the invading Austrian army of General Mack and forced it to surrender in the Battle of Ulm. In 1810, Ulm was incorporated into the Kingdom of Württemberg and lost its districts on the other bank of the , which came to be known as Neu-Ulm (New Ulm).

In the mid-19th century, the city was designated a fortress of the German Confederation with huge military construction works directed primarily against the threat of a French invasion. The city became an important centre of industrialisation in southern Germany in the second half of the 19th century, its built-up area now being extended beyond the medieval walls. The construction of the huge minster, which had been interrupted in the 16th century due to economic reasons, was resumed and eventually finished (1844–91) in a wave of German national enthusiasm for the Middle Ages.

;Nazi Germany: From 1933 to 1935, a concentration camp primarily for political opponents of the regime was established on the Kuhberg, one of the hills surrounding Ulm. The Jews of Ulm, around 500 people, were first discriminated against and later persecuted; their synagogue was torn down after Kristallnacht in November 1938. The sole RAF strategic bombing during World War II against Ulm occurred on December 17, 1944, against the 2 large lorry factories of "Magirius-Deutz" and "Kässbohrer", as well as other industries, barracks, and depots in Ulm. The Gallwitz Barracks and several military hospitals were among 14 Wehrmacht establishments destroyed. The raid killed 707 Ulm inhabitants and left 25,000 homeless and after all the bombings, over 80% of the medieval city centre lay in ruins.

Most of the city was rebuilt in the plain and simple style of the 1950s and 1960s, but some of the historic landmark buildings have been restored. Due to its almost complete destruction in 1944, the Hirschstraße part of the city primarily consists of modern architecture. Ulm experienced substantial growth in the decades following World War II, with the establishment of large new housing projects and new industrial zones. In 1967, Ulm University was founded, which proved to be of great importance for the development of the city. Particularly since the 1980s, the transition from classical industry towards the high-tech sector has accelerated, with, for example, the establishment of research centres of companies like Daimler, Siemens and Nokia and a number of small applied research institutes near the university campus. The city today is still growing, forming a twin city of 170,000 inhabitants together with its neighbouring Bavarian city of Neu-Ulm, and seems to benefit from its central position between the cities of Stuttgart and Munich and thus between the cultural and economic hubs of southern Germany.

Economy
Saint George"s Catholic church, Ulm
The city has very old trading traditions dating from medieval times and a long history of industrialisation, beginning with the establishment of a railway station in 1850. The most important sector is still classical industry (machinery, especially motor vehicles; electronics; pharmaceuticals). The establishment of the University of Ulm, one of the best research universities in Germany and in the world too, which focuses on biomedicine, sciences and engineering, helped support the transition to high-tech industry in close connection to academic research, especially after the crisis of classical industries in the 1980s.

Companies with headquarters in Ulm include:
* Ebner & Spiegel GmbH (book printing)
* Gardena AG (gardening tools)
* J. G. Anschütz (firearms for sports and hunting)
* Müller Ltd. & Co. KG (major German trade company)
* Ratiopharm (pharmaceuticals)
* Carl Walther GmbH (fire arms, especially pistols)
* Wieland-Werke AG (non-ferrous semi-finished products)
* Britax Roemer Kindersicherheit GmbH (Child safety products)

Companies with important plants in Ulm include:
* Daimler: Daimler Forschungszentrum (research centre) and EvoBus (production of buses)
* EADS, European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company
* Nokia (telecommunication, research centre)
* Siemens AG
* Atmel
* Intel
* AEG
* Iveco Magirus

Ecology

In 2007 the city of Ulm was awarded the European Energy Award for their remarkable local energy management and their efforts against climate change website of the city of Ulm, European Energy Award. Examples of these efforts are a biomass power plant operated by the "Fernwärme Ulm GmbH" (10 MW electrical output), and the world"s biggest passive house office building, the so-called "Energon", located in the "Science City" near the university campus. Moreover, the city of Ulm boasts the second largest solar power production in Germany . For all new buildings, a strict energy standard (German KFW40 standard) is mandatory since April 2008. The Ulm Minster is powered fully by renewables since January 2008, Stadtwerke Ulm, visited 15. Mai 2008. Till the end of 2011 as a European pilot project a self-sustaining data-center well be constructed in the west-city of Ulm Press release at Gruene-IT.de. There is a solar-powered ferry that crosses the 7 days a week in the summer.

Transportation
Ulm is situated at the crossroads of the A8 motorway (connecting the principal cities of southern Germany, Stuttgart and Munich) and the A7 motorway (one of the main motorways running from northern to southern Europe). It is thus in easy reach of both Stuttgart (50 mins) and Munich (90 mins), whose international airports also serve the Ulm area.

The city"s railway station is served, among other lines, by one of the principal European train lines (Paris – Strasbourg – Stuttgart – Ulm – Munich – Vienna – Budapest). Direct connections to Berlin are also available.

Ulm features a good public transportation system, based on several bus lines and a streetcar line. Park and ride is available, as well as parking garages in the city centre. Several streets in the old town are restricted to pedestrians and bicycles only.

Education and culture
The Ulm Public Library
The University of Ulm was founded in 1967 and focuses on the sciences, medicine, engineering, and mathematics / economics. With 7,246 students in 2005–06, it belongs to the smaller universities in Germany.

Ulm is also the seat of the city"s University of Applied Sciences (), founded in 1960 as a public school of engineering. The school also houses numerous students from the around the world as part of an international study abroad programme.

In 1953, Inge Aicher-Scholl, Otl Aicher and Max Bill founded the Ulm School of Design, (German: Hochschule für Gestaltung - HfG Ulm), a design school in the tradition of the Bauhaus, which was however closed in 1968.

Ulm"s public library ("Stadtbibliothek Ulm") features over 480,000 print media. The city has a public theatre with drama, opera and ballet, several small theatres, and a professional philharmonic orchestra.

Sport

*SSV Ulm 1846, multi-sports club, former football Bundesliga club, now Regionalliga Süd
*Ratiopharm Ulm, basketball club, Basketball Bundesliga

Sights
Ulm Marktplatz (market square) with town hall (right) and public library (center)
Town hall
minster
Historic
* Ulm Minster (German: Ulmer Münster, built 1377-1891) with the world"s highest church steeple (161.53m high and 768 steps). Choir stalls by Jörg Syrlin the Elder (1469–74), famous sculpture "Schmerzensmann" (Man of Sorrows) by Hans Multscher (1429).
* The old "Fischerviertel" (fishermen"s quarter) on the River Blau, with half-timbered houses, cobblestone streets, and picturesque footbridges. Interesting sights here are the "Schiefes Haus" (crooked house), a 16th-century house today used as a hotel, and the "Alte Münz" (Old Mint), a mediæval building extended in the 16th and 17th centuries in Renaissance style.
* The remaining section of the city walls, along the river, with the 14th-century "Metzgerturm" (butchers" tower) (36m high).
* The "Rathaus" (Town Hall), built in 1370, featuring some brilliantly-coloured murals dating from the mid-16th century. On the gable is an astronomical clock dating from 1520. Restored after serious damage in 1944.
* The "Krone" inn, a medieval complex of several houses (15th / 16th century, extensions from 19th century), where German kings and emperors were accommodated during their travels.
* Several large buildings from the late Middle Ages / renaissance used for various purposes (especially storage of food and weapons), e.g. "Schwörhaus, Kornhaus, Salzstadel, Büchsenstadel, Zeughaus, Neuer Bau".
* The historic district "Auf dem Kreuz", a residential area with many buildings from before 1700.
* "Wiblingen Abbey", a former benedictine abbey in the suburb of Wiblingen in the south of Ulm. The church shows characteristics of late baroque and early classicism. Its library is a masterpiece of rococo.

Contemporary
* Building of the Ulm School of Design, (German: Hochschule für Gestaltung - HfG Ulm), an important school of design (1953–68) in the succession of the Bauhaus.
* "Stadthaus", a house for public events built by Richard Meier, directly adjacent to the minster.
* "Stadtbibliothek", the building of the public library of Ulm was erected by Gottfried Böhm in the form of a glass pyramid and is situated directly adjacent to the town hall.

Memorials
* Albert Einstein Memorial - A small memorial at the site of the house where Albert Einstein was born in the Bahnhofstraße, between the present-day newspaper offices and the bank. The house itself and the whole district was destroyed in the firebombing of 1944.
* Memorial for Hans and Sophie Scholl - A small memorial on Münsterplatz in memory of these two members of the Weiße Rose (White Rose, a resistance group opposed to the Nazi regime), who spent their youth in Ulm. Their family"s house near the memorial was destroyed in the firebombing of 1944.

Other landmarks
* The Botanischer Garten der Universität Ulm, the university"s botanical garden
* Silo tower of the mill company "Schapfenmühle" (Schapfen Mill Tower)
* Fernmeldeturm Ulm-Ermingen
* Mediumwave transmission mast Ulm-Jungingen
* FM and TV mast Ulm-Kuhberg

Notable inhabitants
orn in Ul
* Albert Einstein, physicist, philosopher, Nobel Prize winner.
* Otl Aicher, graphic designer, co-founder of Ulm School of Design, (German: Hochschule für Gestaltung - HfG Ulm), and creator of Rotis font
* Max Bentele, German mechanical engineer, jet-engine pioneer, and father of the Wankel rotary engine in the USA
* Albrecht Berblinger, flight pioneer
* Dieter Braun, Motorcycle Grand Prix racer
* Nikolaus Federmann (1505-1542), adventurer and conquistador in Venezuela and Colombia
* Johann Christoph Heilbronner, mathematical historian
* Dieter Hoeneß, former soccer player, general manager of Hertha BSC soccer club
* Uli Hoeneß, former soccer player, general manager of Bayern Munich soccer club
* Lienhart Holle, published the first Ptolemy atlas north of the Alps
* Hildegard Knef, actress, singer and writer
* Mike Krüger, German comedian
* Hans Maler zu Schwaz, painter of the 16th century
* Johannes Scultetus (Artz) (1595-1645) Infamous Renaissance surgeon who studied at the University of Padua
* Sam Rosen, American sportscaster (MSG Network)
* Claudia Roth, politician, chairperson of the German Green Party
* Siegfried Unseld, publisher, manager of Suhrkamp Verlag until his death in 2002
* Bernhard Willhelm, German fashion designer based in Paris, graduate of the prestigious fashion department of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts Antwerp, BE
* Reinhold Bogner, owner of Bogner Amplification, boutique guitar amp company situated in North Hollywood, CA.
* Sandro Marzo, prominent international development consultant and financier, based in Cambridge, MA.

therwise associated with Ul
* Max Bill (1908-1994), architect and artist, co-founder and director of the Ulm School of Design, (German: Hochschule für Gestaltung - HfG Ulm)
* Matthias Böblinger, stonemason and master builder, involved in the construction of the Ulm Münster
* Ulrich Ensinger, master builder, involved in the construction of the Ulm Münster and Strasbourg Münster
* Leonhard Hutter (born in Nellingen near Ulm)
* Herbert von Karajan, conductor, Kapellmeister in Ulm (1929-1934)
* Hans Multscher, 15th century sculptor
* Erwin Rommel (born in Heidenheim, his last residence was at Herrlingen near Ulm)
* Hans Scholl and Sophie Scholl, founders of the White Rose, spent their youth in Ulm
* Johann Gambolputty de von Ausfern- schplenden- schlitter- crasscrenbon- fried- digger- dingle- dangle- dongle- dungle- burstein- von- knacker- thrasher- apple- banger- horowitz- ticolensic- grander- knotty- spelltinkle- grandlich- grumblemeyer- spelterwasser- kurstlich- himbleeisen- bahnwagen- gutenabend- bitte- ein- nürnburger- bratwustle- gerspurten- mitz- weimache- luber- hundsfut- gumberaber- shönedanker- kalbsfleisch- mittler- aucher von Hautkopft of Ulm, a fictional German composer used as a sketch in Monty Python"s Flying Circus
* Robert Bosch industrialist, engineer and inventor, founder of Robert Bosch GmbH (Born in Albeck near Ulm)

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Ulm is officially not twinned. But there are relations with:


External links

*
*

Bibliography
* Johannes Baier: "Über die Tertiärbildungen im Ulmer Raum." In: "Documenta Naturae." 168; München, 2008. ISBN 978-3-86544-168-3

References









Category:1803 disestablishments
Category:States and territories established in 1181

Category:Tübingen region
Category:Cities in Baden-Württemberg
Category:Settlements on the
Category:Historic Jewish communities
Category:
Category:Hungarian German communities

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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 29.06.2022 20:50 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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