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"Trier" (; ; ; ; the Latin adjective associated with Trier is Treverensis) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. It is the oldest city in Germany, founded in or before 16 BC. Trier is not the only city claiming to be Germany"s oldest, but it is the only one that bases this assertion on having the longest history as a "city", as opposed to a mere settlement or army camp.

Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the German border with Luxembourg and within the important Mosel wine-growing region.

Trier is the oldest seat of a Christian bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop of Trier was an important ecclesiastical prince, as the Archbishopric of Trier controlled land from the French border to the Rhine. He was also one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire.

With an approximate population of 100,000, Trier was until 2005 ranked fourth alongside Kaiserslautern among the state"s largest cities, after Mainz, Ludwigshafen and Koblenz. The nearest large cities in Germany are Saarbrücken, some 80 km southeast, and Koblenz, about 100 km northeast. The closest city to Trier is the capital of Luxembourg, some 50 km to the southwest.

Trier is home to the University of Trier, the administration of the Trier-Saarburg district and the seat of the ADD ("Aufsichts- und Dienstleistungsdirektion"), which until 1999 was the borough authority of Trier. It is one of the five "central places" of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Along with Luxembourg, Metz and Saarbrücken, fellow constituent members of the QuattroPole union of cities, it also forms a central place of the greater region encompassing Saar-Lor-Lux (Saarland, Lorraine and Luxembourg), Rhineland-Palatinate and Wallonia.


Trier sits in a hollow midway along the Moselle valley, with the most significant portion of the city on the east bank of the river. Wooded and vineyard-covered slopes stretch up to the Hunsrück plateaux in the South and the Eifel in the North. The border with the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg is some 15 km distant.
Trier at night

Neighbouring municipalities
"Listed in clockwise order, beginning with the northernmost; all municipalities belong to the Trier-Saarburg district"

Schweich, Kenn and Longuich (all part of the "Verbandsgemeinde" Schweich an der Römischen Weinstraße), Mertesdorf, Kasel, Waldrach, Morscheid, Korlingen, Gutweiler, Sommerau and Gusterath (all in the Verbandsgemeinde Ruwer), Hockweiler, Franzenheim (both part of the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land), Konz (Verbandsgemeinde Konz), Igel, Trierweiler, Aach, Newel, Kordel (Eifel), Zemmer (all in the Verbandsgemeinde Trier-Land)

Organisation of city districts

The Trier urban area is divided into "19 city districts". For each district there is an "Ortsbeirat" (local council) of between 9 and 15 members, as well as an "Ortsvorsteher" (local representative). The local councils are charged with hearing the important issues that affect the district, although the final decision on any issue rests with the city council. The local councils nevertheless have the freedom to undertake limited measures within the bounds of their districts and their budgets.

The districts of Trier with area and inhabitants (July 2007):

Trier is a common surname for a group of traveling gypsies around the southern-half of Russia,
who settled in Russia in the 18th century.


The Porta Nigra
According to the "Gesta Treverorum", the city was founded by Trebeta, an Assyrian prince, centuries before ancient Rome. The Roman Empire subdued the Treveri in the 1st century BC and established "Augusta Treverorum" (Lit: August (Regal, noble) of the Treveri) in 30 BC. The name is likely to be taken from the title Augustus held by the Princeps or head of state at the time, Augustus Caesar. The city later became the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Belgica, as well as the Roman prefecture of Gaul. The Porta Nigra counts among the Roman architecture of the city. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor, Roman Trier was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose. In 395 the Roman administration abandoned the city, leaving the locals to their own defense; this marked the end of the effective authority of the Empire in Gaul.

The Franks occupied Trier from the Roman administration in 459 AD. In 870 it became part of Eastern Francia, which developed into the Holy Roman Empire. Relics of Saint Matthias brought to the city initiated widespread pilgrimages. The bishops of the city grew increasingly powerful, and the Archbishopric of Trier was recognized as an electorate of the empire, one of the most powerful states of Germany. The University of Trier was founded in the city in 1473.
The Cathedral of Trier

In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to Philippsburg Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, Trier was sought after by France, who invaded during the Thirty Years" War, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Spanish Succession, and the War of the Polish Succession. France succeeded in finally claiming Trier in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, and the electoral archbishopric was dissolved. After the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815, Trier passed to the Kingdom of Prussia. Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818.

Palace of Trier

As part of the Prussian Rhineland, Trier developed economically during the 19th century. The city rose in revolt during the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, although the rebels were forced to concede. It became part of the German Empire in 1871.

Trier was heavily bombed and bombarded in 1944 during World War II. The city became part of the new state of Rhineland-Palatinate after the war. The university, dissolved in 1797, was restarted in the 1970s, while the Cathedral of Trier was reopened in 1974. Trier officially celebrated its 2,000th anniversary in 1984.

|Type = Cultural
|Criteria = i, iii, iv, vi
|ID = 367
|Region = Europe and North America
|Year = 1986
|Session = 10th
|Link =
Old Jewish cemetery

Main sights
Trier Zurlauben
Trier is well known for its well-preserved Roman and medieval buildings, which include:

*the "Porta Nigra", the best preserved Roman city gate north of the Alps;
*ruins of three Roman baths, among them the largest Roman baths north of the Alps;
*the huge Constantine Basilica, a basilica in the original Roman sense, being the 67 m long throne hall of Roman Emperor Constantine; it is today used as a Protestant church.
* the Trier Cathedral ( or "Dom St. Peter"), a Roman Catholic church which dates back to Roman times and is home to the Holy Tunic, a garment with a recorded history back to the 12th century, in Catholic tradition said to be the robe Jesus was wearing when he died. It is only exhibited every few decades, at irregular intervals.
* The "Liebfrauenkirche" (German for "Church of Our Lady"), which is one of the most important early Gothic cathedrals in Germany and falls into the architectural tradition of the French Gothic cathedrals;
*the Roman amphitheatre;
*the 2nd century AD Roman bridge ("Römerbrücke") across the Moselle River, the oldest bridge north of the Alps still crossed by traffic;
*St. Matthias Abbey ("Abtei St. Matthias"), a still-in-use monastery in whose medieval church the only apostle north of the Alps is held to be buried
*St. Gangolf Church was the city"s market church that rivalled the Archbishop"s Trier Cathedral.
* the church of "St. Paulin", which is one of the most important Baroque churches in Rhineland-Palatinate and may have been in parts designed by the famous architect Balthasar Neumann
* two old treadwheel cranes, one being the Gothic "Old Crane" ("Alte Krahnen") or "Trier Moselle Crane" ("Trierer Moselkrahn") from 1413, and the other the 1774 Baroque crane called the "(Old) Customs Crane" ("(Alter) Zollkran") or "Younger Moselle Crane" ("Jüngerer Moselkran") (see List of historical harbour cranes)
* the old Jewish cemetery (DE) (Weidegasse)

*" Rheinisches Landesmuseum" (one of the two most important German archaeological museums for the Roman period, along with the "Römisch-Germanisches Museum" in Cologne)
* "Städtisches Museum Simeonstift" (history of Trier, displaying among other exhibits a model of the medieval city)
* Toy Museum of Trier
* Ethnological and open air museum Roscheider Hof, a museum in the neighboring town of Konz, right at the city limits of Trier, which shows the history of rural culture in the northwest Rhineland Palatinate and in the area where Germany, Luxembourg and Lorraine meet.
* Fell Exhibition Slate Mine; site in the municipality of Fell, 20 kilometers from Trier, containing an underground mine, a mine museum, and a slate mining trail
* Karl Marx House; a museum exhibiting Marx"s personal history, volumes of poetry, original letters, and photographs with personal dedications. There"s also a collection of rare first editions and international editions of his works, as well as exhibits on the development of socialism in the 19th century.

Trier is home to the University of Trier, founded in 1473, closed in 1796 and restarted in 1970. The city also has the Trier University of Applied Sciences.
There are various "Kindergärten", primary schools and secondary schools in Trier, such as the "Humboldt Gymnasium Trier", "Max Planck Gymnasium" and the "Pestalozzi-Hauptschule".

Annual events
* Every summer Trier hosts Germany"s biggest Roman festival, Brot und Spiele (German for Bread and Games).
* Trier has been the base for the German round of the World Rally Championship since 2000, with the rally"s presentation held next to the Porta Nigra.
* Trier holds a lavish Christmas street festival every year called the Trier Christmas Market near the Cathedral of Trier. The last one was held from 26 November to 22 December 2008.

Trier has direct railway connections to many cities. Nearest cities by train are Cologne, Saarbrücken and Luxemburg. Via the motorways A1, A48 and A64 Trier is linked with Koblenz, Saarbrücken and Luxemburg. Nearest international airports are in Luxemburg (0:40 h by car), Frankfurt-Hahn (1:00 h), Saarbrücken (1:00 h), Frankfurt (2:00 h) and Cologne/Bonn (2:00 h). The Moselle River is an important waterway and is also used for river cruises.

Major sports clubs in Trier include:
* SV Eintracht Trier 05, association football
* TBB Trier, basketball
* DJK/MJC Trier, women"s team handball
* Trier Cardinals, baseball
* PST Trier Stampers, American Football
* SG Turm Trier, chess

Notable residents

*Eucharius (died ~250), first bishop of Trier
*Valerius (†320), second bishop of Trier
*Helena (ca. 250-330), saint, mother of Constantine the Great
*Paulinus (†358), bishop of Trier
*Ausonius (ca. 310–395), roman consul and poet
*Ambrose (ca. 340–397), saint
*Kaspar Olevianus (1536–1587), theologian
*Karl Marx (1818–1883), social philosopher
*Frederick A. Schroeder (1833-1899), American politician, mayor of Brooklyn
*Oswald von Nell-Breuning (1890–1991), theologian
*Xavier Bout de Marnhac (born 1951), French general, former commander of KFOR
*Ernst Ulrich Deuker (born 1954), musician of Ideal
*Guildo Horn (born 1963), singer
*Eric Jelen (born 1965), tennis player
*Martin Bambauer (born 1970), church musician

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Trier is twinned with:
* Metz, France since 1957
* Ascoli Piceno, Italy, since 1958
* Gloucester, United Kingdom, since 1959
* "s-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands, since 1968
* Pula, Croatia, since 1971
* Fort Worth, Texas.
* Weimar, Germany since 1990
* Nagaoka, Japan, since 2006

* New Trier Township, Cook County, Illinois, originally settled by people from Trier.
** New Trier High School
* New Trier, Minnesota, settled by people from Trier circa 1856.


External links


Category:16 BC establishments
Category:Cities in Rhineland-Palatinate
Category:Landmarks in Germany
Category:Roman towns and cities in Germany
Category:Historic Jewish communities

fr:Trèves (Allemagne)
gl:Tréveris - Trier
la:Augusta Treverorum
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 22.05.2019 03:27 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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