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Toulouse

France, Toulouse
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|population = 437715
|population ranking = 4th in ance
|urban area km2 = 808|urban area date = 1999
|urban pop = 850,873
|urban pop date = 1 January 2006
|metro area km2 = 4015
|metro area date = 1999
|metro area pop = 1,102,882
|metro area pop date = 1 January 2006
|intercom details = Urban community of Greater Toulouse
|website = http://www.toulouse.fr/
}}

"Toulouse" (pronounced in standard ench, and locally with Toulouse accent) (in Occitan: "Tolosa", pronounced , primarily "Tholoza") is a city in southwest ance on the banks of the River Garonne, 590 km away from Paris and half-way between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. With 1,102,882 inhabitants as of Jan. 1, 2006, the Toulouse metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in ance.

Toulouse is the home base of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, and CNES"s Toulouse Space Centre (CST), the largest space centre in Europe. Thales Alenia Space, Europe"s largest satellite manufacturer, and EADS Astrium Satellites, EADS"s satellite system subsidiary, also have a significant presence in Toulouse. Its world renowned university is one of the oldest in Europe (founded in 1229) and, with more than 97,000 students, is with Lille the third-largest university campus of ance after Paris and Lyon Consulté le 11/09/2007.

Toulouse was the capital of the former province of Languedoc (provinces were abolished during the ench Revolution). It is now the main city of the Midi-Pyrénées region, the largest region in metropolitan ance. It is also the main city of the Haute-Garonne department.

istor


Toulouse is an old and ornate city in ance with a long and rich history.


emographic

The population of the city proper (ench: "commune") was 437,715 at the Jan. 1, 2006 census, with 1,102,882 inhabitants in the metropolitan area (ench: "aire urbaine") at the Jan. 1, 2006 census, up from 964,797 at the March 1999 census, which means a record 1.98% population growth per year between 1999 and 2006 for the metropolitan area.

Toulouse is the fourth largest city in ance, after Paris, Marseille and Lyon, and the fifth-largest metropolitan area after Paris, Lyon, Marseille and Lille.

Fueled by booming aerospace and high-tech industries, population growth of 1.5% a year in the metropolitan area in the 1990s (compared with 0.37% for metropolitan ance), and a record 1.98% a year in the 2000s (0.69% for metropolitan ance), means the Toulouse metropolitan area hit the 1,000,000 inhabitants mark in 2000 or 2001. Boasting the highest population growth of any ench metropolitan area larger than 500,000 inhabitants, Toulouse is on its way to overtake Lille as the fourth-largest metropolitan area of ance (if the Belgian part of the Lille metropolitan area is not included).

eograph
limat
Toulouse has a temperate climate, usually classified as oceanic ("Cfb") under the Köppen climate classification. Toulouse is located at the junction with the Mediterranean climate, but uniform precipitation prevents it from being classified this way. A plausible argument can be made that under the Köppen climate classification, Toulouse has a humid subtropical climate ("Cfa").




ydrograph
The town is traversed by the Canal de Garonne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne, Touch.

overnment and politic
ommunity of the Agglomeration of Greater Toulous


The Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse ("Communauté d"agglomération du Grand Toulouse") was created in 2001 to better coordinate transport, infrastructure and economic policies between the city of Toulouse and its immediate independent suburbs. It succeeds a previous district which had been created in 1992 with less powers than the current council. It combines the city of Toulouse and 24 independent "communes", covering an area of 380 km² (147 sq. miles), totaling a population of 583,229 inhabitants (as of 1999 census), 67% of whom live in the city of Toulouse proper. As of February 2004 estimate, the total population of the Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse was 651,209 inhabitants, 65.5% of whom live in the city of Toulouse. Due to local political feuds, the Community of Agglomeration only hosts 61% of the population of the metropolitan area, the other independent suburbs having refused to join in.

ocal politic



|Wilson Square
|-
|Augustins cloister
|-
|The Capitol (Town hall) by night
|}
One of the major political figures in Toulouse was Dominique Baudis, the mayor of Toulouse between 1983 and 2001, member of center-right UDF. First known as a journalist famous for his coverage of the war in Lebanon, 36 year-old Dominique Baudis succeeded his father Pierre Baudis in 1983 as mayor of Toulouse. (Pierre Baudis was mayor from 1971 to 1983.) The Baudis dynasty succeeded in turning Toulouse into a center-right stronghold, whereas historically the city had been left-leaning since the 19th century. Dominique Baudis is also known as a writer who wrote historical novels about the ancient counts of Toulouse, their crusade in the Middle East, and the Albigensian Crusade.

During his time as mayor, Toulouse"s economy and population boomed. He tried to strengthen the international role of Toulouse (such as its Airbus operations), as well as revive the cultural heritage of the city. The Occitan cross, flag of Languedoc and symbol of the counts of Toulouse, was chosen as the new flag of the city, instead of the traditional coat of arms of Toulouse (which included the fleur de lis of the ench monarchy). Many cultural institutions were created, in order to attract foreign expatriates and emphasise the city"s past. For example, monuments dating from the time of the counts of Toulouse were restored, the city"s symphonic concert hall ("Halle aux Grains") was refurbished, a city theater was built, a Museum of Modern Art was founded, the Bemberg Foundation (European paintings and bronzes from the Renaissance to the 20th century) was established, a huge pop music concert venue ("Zénith", the largest in ance outside Paris) was built, the space museum and educational park "Cité de l"Espace" was founded, etc.

To deal with growth, major housing and transportation projects were launched. Perhaps the one for which Baudis is most famous is the Toulouse Metro: line A of the underground was opened in 1993, and Baudis succeeded in having work started on line B (which opened in 2007), despite strong local opposition to the anticipated costs. The creation of a system of underground car parking structures in Toulouse city centre was sharply criticised by the Green Party.

Despite all these massive undertakings, the city"s economy proved so strong that Dominique Baudis was able to announce, in 1999, that the city had finished repaying its debt, making it the only large city in ance ever to achieve solvency. In Europe, typical per capita city debt for a city the size of Toulouse is around 1,200 euros. Achieving solvency was a long-standing goal for Baudis, who had said that he would extinguish city debt before leaving office. Local opposition, however, has criticised this achievement, saying that the task of governments is not to run zero-deficit, but to ensure the well-being of citizens, through social benefits, housing programs for poor people, etc.

In 2000, Dominique Baudis was at the zenith of his popularity, with approval rates of 85%. He announced that he would not run for a fourth (6-year) term in 2001. He explained that with 3 terms he was already the longest-serving mayor of Toulouse since the ench Revolution; he felt that change would be good for the city, and that the number of terms should be limited. He endorsed Philippe Douste-Blazy, then UDF mayor of Lourdes as his successor. Baudis has since been appointed president of the CSA ("Conseil supérieur de l"audiovisuel") in Paris, the ench equivalent of the American FCC.

Philippe Douste-Blazy narrowly won in the 2001 elections, which saw the left making its best showing in decades. Douste-Blazy had to deal with a reinvigorated political opposition, as well as with the dramatic explosion of the AZF plant in late 2001.

In March 2004 he entered the national government, and left Toulouse in the hands of his second-in-command Jean-Luc Moudenc, elected mayor by the municipal council. In March 2008, Moudenc was defeated by the Socialist Party"s candidate Pierre Cohen.

ight
Hôtel d"Assézat
Hôtel Bagis, also called Hôtel de Pierre
The romanesque Saint-Sernin Basilica and its tower.
Notre-Dame de la Dalbade church (15th-16th century)
* Capitole de Toulouse (mainly 18th century), housing the Hôtel de Ville, the Théâtre du Capitole (opera house), and the Donjon du Capitole (16th century), located on the Place du Capitole.
* Banks of the Garonne (mainly 18th century)
* Bazacle
* "Jardin des Plantes", "Grand-Rond", "Jardin Royal"
* Pont Neuf (16th century)
* Hôpital de la Grave, featuring a copper dome of the 18th century
* Hôpital Saint-Raymond, 16th century hospital
* Hôtel-Dieu Saint Jacques, former 16th and 17th century hospital on the banks of the Garonne
* Château d"eau (19th century)
* Canal du Midi
* Many Hôtels particuliers (palaces), notably of the 16th century like the Hôtel d"Assézat, the Hôtel du Vieux-Raisin, the Hôtel de Bernuy and the Hôtel de Bagis.
* Saint-Pierre bridge, 19th century iron bridge
* Wilson Square
* Halles aux grains (19th century)
* Gare de Toulouse Matabiau, railroad station
* Médiathèque José Cabanis
* Institut national des sciences appliquées

useum
* Musée Georges Labit
* Musée des Augustins, the fine arts museum of the city housed in a former gothic convent.
* Les Abattoirs, museum of modern and contemporary art.
* Fondation Bemberg, art museum housed in the 16th century Hôtel d"Assézat.
* Musée Saint-Raymond, housed in the former 16th century Saint-Raymond hospital.
* Cité de l"espace (City of Space, a theme park of space exploration).

eligious building
* Saint-Sernin Basilica (the largest romanesque church in Europe) which contains what is widely considered the most beautiful pipe organ in ance.
* Notre-Dame du Taur church, 14th century
* Church of the Jacobins and its cloister (burial of Saint Thomas Aquinas)
* Saint-Étienne cathedral, 13th to 16th century
* Daurade basilica, 18th-19th century
* Ursulines tower
* Saint Nicolas church, gothic church
* Notre-Dame de de la Dalbade church, 15th-16th century
* Saint-Pierre des Cuisines church, 11th and 12th century with a 4th century crypt.
* Carmelite chapel, chapel with 17th and 18th century frescoes.
* former Augustine Convent and its gothic cloister, which now houses the Musée des Augustins.

conom
The main Airbus factory in Toulouse lies just next to Toulouse Airport
The main industries are aeronautics, space, electronics, information technology and biotechnology. Toulouse hosts the Airbus headquarters and assembly-lines of Airbus A320, A330, A340, and A380, the others (A318, A319, A321 and A380 interior furnishing) being in Hamburg, Germany. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg, with A350 and A380 production going in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organization plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff."." "Forbes". 15 January 2007.

According to Newsweek Toulouse ranked as the fifth most dynamic city in the world in 2006.http://www.newsweek.com/id/46125/page/6

olleges and universitie
Toulouse has the third-largest student population in ance after Lyon and Paris with 97,000 students.

The University of Toulouse ("Université de Toulouse"), established in 1229, is located here (now split into three separate universities). Like the universities in Oxford and Paris, the University of Toulouse was established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Arabs of Andalus and Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology - inspiring scientific discoveries and advances in the arts - as society began seeing itself in a new way. These colleges were supported by the Church in hopes to reconcile Greek Philosophy and Christian Theology.
*Université Toulouse I
*Université de Toulouse - Le Mirail (Toulouse II)
*Université Paul Sabatier (Toulouse III)
and its engineering schools :
*ICAM Toulouse
*INSA Toulouse
*ISAE SUPAERO
*ISAE ENSICA
*ENAC
*INP ENSEEIHT
*INP ENSIACET
*INP ENSAT
*EPITECH
*IPSA

The most well known high schools in Toulouse are Lycée Pierre de Fermat and Lycée Saint-Sernin.

ranspor
In addition to an extensive bus system, the Toulouse Metro system is a VAL (Véhicule Automatique Léger) metro system made up of driverless (automatic) rubber-tired trains. Line A runs for 12.5 km from Balma-Gramont to Basso Cambo. Line B, which opened in June 2007, adds 20 stations and intersects line A at Jean Jaurès. Line E (tramway) is going to be finished in 2009, and will roll from Beauzelle to Toulouse passing through Blagnac. Line C has existed since line A was completed. It is not VAL but a classical railway line with SNCF trains; it connects to line A at Arènes. Another oft-used commuter train line (D) runs to the city of Muret.

Airports include:
* Toulouse Blagnac, the principal local airport
* Toulouse Lasbordes
Railway stations include:
* Toulouse-Matabiau

ommunication
Toulouse is the home of Bonhoure Radio Tower, a 61-metre high lattice tower used for FM and TV transmission. In 2001 a large (100 km) optical fiber (symmetric 360Gb/s) network named
"Infrastructure Métropolitaine de Télécommunications" has been deployed around the city and suburbs http://www.garonne-networks.com/.

ultur
A typical "Pink City" street at sunset
16th century Hôtel Dahus
Toulouse, known as the "Ville Rose" ("Pink City") for its distinctive brick architecture , is host to a rich and diverse culture. It has a thriving scene of unusually beautiful graffiti, with the painter Miss Van at its forefront.

It is the seat of the Académie des Jeux Floraux, the equivalent of the ench Academy for the Occitan-speaking regions of southern ance, making Toulouse the unofficial capital of Occitan culture. The traditional Occitan cross was adopted as the symbol of both the City of Toulouse and the newly-founded Midi-Pyrénées "région".

The city"s gastronomic specialties include "Saucisses de Toulouse", a type of herb sausage, "cassoulet" Toulousain, a bean and pork stew, and "garbure", a cabbage soup with poultry. Also, foie gras, the liver of an overfed duck or goose, is a delicacy mainly made in the Midi-Pyrénées.

por
In sports, it boasts a highly respected rugby union team, Stade Toulousain, which has been a five-time finalist, three-time winner in Europe"s top club competition in the sport, the Heineken Cup and 17 times ench champions. Toulouse hosted games at the 2007 Rugby World Cup. The city also has a professional football team Toulouse FC who play in ligue 1, the top level of football in ance.
Toulouse Olympique represents the city in rugby league"s Co-operative Championship.

The city also hosted games during the 1998 FIFA World Cup and the EuroBasket 1999.

otable births and deaths in Toulous
* Gaël Clichy, footballer
* Jean de Coras (1515-1572), judge and humanist
* Lucas Puig, Professional skateboarder
* Antony Rea, mixed martial artist
* Pierre de Fermat, lawyer and mathematician
* Carlos Gardel, (not confirmed) composer
* Philippe Mexès, footballer
* David Skrela, ench rugby union player.
* Fabien Pelous, rugby player
* édéric Michalak, rugby player
* Anne Munaretto, lacrosse player
* Laetitia Barlerin, veterinarian
* Claude Nougaro, "parolier", writer and singer, passionate of jazz and language.
* Solène Jambaqué, hemiplegic skier, multi-medal winner at the 2006 Winter Paralympic Games in Turin.
* Magyd Cherfi, singer of the band Zebda
* Pierre Seel, persecuted homosexual during the Holocaust.
* Patrice Alègre serial killer*
* Marine Delterme, actress
* Laurent Wolf, Disc Jockey

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Toulouse is twinned with:


: Atlanta, Georgia, United States
: Bologna, Italy
: Bristol, England, United Kingdom
: Chongqing, China

: Elche, Spain
: Kiev, Ukraine
: Tel Aviv, Israel
: Rosario, Argentina


Toulouse also has accords of cooperation with the following towns:


: Bydgoszcz, Poland
: Düsseldorf, Germany
: Hanoi, Vietnam
: N"Djamena, Chad

: Ses, Senegal
: São José dos Campos, Brazil
: Zaragoza, Spain


In addition, Toulouse has an adoption city:
: Câmpia Turzii, Romania

ee als

* 138 Tolosa, an asteroid
* Institut d"études politiques de Toulouse
* Toulouse Geese
* List of bishops of Toulouse
* Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec - famous artist born of nobility in Midi-Pyrénées région, but not born in the city of Toulouse

ote

eference
*

xternal link

* (in ench)
* (in ench)
* , with 360 °Fullscreen panoramas
* (in English)
* (in English)
* (in English)
*
* (in ench)
* (in ench)






Category:Cities in ance
Category:Midi-Pyrénées
Category:Communes of Haute-Garonne



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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 23.02.2020 08:01 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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REISEPORTAL
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
"Marseille" (in English also "Marseilles", ; ; locally ; in Occitan "Marselha" or "Marsiho", pronounced ), formerly known as "Massalia" (from ), is the 2nd most populous French city as well as the oldest city in France. It forms the third-largest
 
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