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Tobolsk

Russia, Tobolsk
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St. Sofia Cathedral.
The Governor"s Mansion in Tobolsk, where the Russian Imperial family was held in captivity between August 1917 and April 1918.

"Tobolsk" (; ) is a historic capital of Siberia, now part of the Tyumen Oblast, Russia. It is located at the confluence of rivers Tobol and Irtysh. The population of the city was 92,880 in the 2002 Russian Census.

istor
Tobolsk was founded by Yermak Timofeyevich"s Cossacks in 1585-1586 during the first Russian advance into Siberia near the ruins of the Siberia Khanate"s capital, Qashliq. It became the seat of the Viceroy of Siberia and prospered on trade with China and Bukhara. It was there that the first school, theatre, and newspaper in Siberia were established. In "The Further Adventures of Robinson Crusoe", Daniel Defoe made his Robinson Crusoe character stay in Tobolsk from September 1703 to June 1704. After the Swedish defeat at Poltava in 1709, large numbers of that war"s prisoners were sent to Tobolsk. They numbered perhaps 25 % (sic) of the population. This probably has to do with the "Swedish Chamber", see below. Many POWs were not repatriated until the 1720s, and some of them settled permanently in Tobolsk.
A map from a 1773 atlas showing Tobolsk as the center of a large Tobolsk "okrug" (district) and of an even larger Province of Tobolsk, as well as the "Capital of Siberia".

After administrative division of the territory, Tobolsk remained the seat of the Governor-General of Western Siberia until the seat was moved to Omsk in the 1820s or 1830s. Bowing to the city"s authority, many Siberian towns, including Omsk, Tyumen, and Tomsk, had their original arms display the Tobolsk insignia. Omsk honors the legacy to this day.

Until the Russian Revolution of 1917, the city served as the capital of the Tobolsk guberniya. The chemist Dmitri Mendeleev and the painter Vasily Perov are the most famous natives of the city. Some of the Decembrists were exiled and lived there as well. The city"s importance declined when the Trans-Siberian Railway bypassed it in the 1890s.
In August 1917, after the February Revolution, Tsar Nicholas II and his family were brought here to live in relative luxury in the former house of the Governor-General. After the White Army approached the city in spring of 1918, the royal family was moved to Yekaterinburg and shot there, ending the imperial Romanov dynasty.

The economy of modern Tobolsk centers on a major oil refinery. Some traditional crafts, such as bone-carving, are also preserved.

ain sight
Tobolsk is the only town in Siberia and one of the few in Russia which has a standing stone "kremlin", or elaborate city-fortress, from the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. Its white walls and towers with an ensemble of churches and palatial buildings spectacularly sited on a high river bank were proclaimed a national historical and architectural treasure in 1870.

The principal monuments in the kremlin are the Cathedral of St. Sophia (1683-1686), a merchant courtyard (1703-1705), an episcopal palace (1773-1775) (now it is a museum of local lore), and the so-called Swedish Chamber, with six baroque halls (1713-1716). The city contains some remarkable baroque and Neoclassical churches from the 18th and 19th centuries. Also noteworthy is a granite monument to Yermak, constructed to a design by Alexander Brullov in 1839.The city"s neighbourhood is rich in ancient kurgans and pagan shrines. Some of these date back to the 10th century BC.

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Tobolsk is twinned with:
* Council Bluffs, USA.
* Peć, Serbia.

eference


xternal link
*http://mytob.ru/
*http://etobolsk.ru/
*http://news.tob.ru/
*http://www.towns.ru/towns/tobolsk.html




Category:
Category:Settlements established in 1587

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bg:Тоболск
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eo:Tobolsk
fr:Tobolsk
ko:토볼스크
hr:Tobolsk
os:Тобольск
it:Tobol"sk
la:Tobolium
lt:Tobolskas
hu:Tobolszk
nl:Tobolsk
ja:トボリスク
no:Tobolsk
nn:Tobolsk
pl:Tobolsk
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ro:Tobolsk
ru:Тобольск
sk:Toboľsk
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fi:Tobolsk
sv:Tobolsk
tt:Тубыл
tg:Тоболск
uk:Тобольськ
wa:Tobolsk
zh:托博爾斯克
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 29.06.2022 21:58 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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