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Tiraspol

Moldavia, Tiraspol
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"Tiraspol" (; Russian: Тирасполь and Ukrainian: Тирасполь) is the second largest city in Moldova and is the capital and administrative centre of the de facto independent Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria). The city is located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River. Tiraspol is a regional hub of light industry, such as furniture and electrical goods production.

Tiraspol was founded by the Russian general Alexander Suvorov in 1792. World Window NGO. Retrieved 2006, 12-27 The city celebrates its anniversary every year on October 14. Tiraspol Times, Oct 14, 2006. Retrieved 2007, 2-20

am
The toponym consists of two words: "Tiras" — the ancient Greek name for the Dniester River, and "polis", i.e., a city.

limat

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History
Statue of Alexander Suvorov in Tiraspol
Transnistria parliament building in Tiraspol. In front is a statue of Lenin.
Soviet tank monument in Tiraspol
Soviet jet monument in Tiraspol
2006: Even the trolley buses of Tiraspol are patriotic

re-histor
Tyras, or "Tiras" was a colony of Miletus, probably founded about 600 BC, situated some 10 km. from the mouth of the Tiras River (Dniester). Of no great importance in early times, in the 2nd century BC it fell under the dominion of native kings whose names appear on its coins, and was destroyed by the Getae about 50 BC. In AD 56 it seems to have been restored by the Romans and since then formed part of the province of Lower Moesia. A series of its coins exists, featuring heads of Roman emperors from Domitian to Alexander Severus. Soon after the time of the latter it was destroyed again by the Goths. Its government was in the hands of five archons, a senate, a popular assembly and a registrar. The types of its coins suggest a trade in wheat, wine and fish. The few inscriptions are also mostly concerned with trade. Its remains are scanty, as its site has been covered by the great medieval fortress of Monocastro or Akkerman.See E. H. Minns, "Scythians and Greeks" (Cambridge, 1909); V. V. Latyshev, Inscriptiones Orae Septentrionalis Ponti Euxini, vol. I.

During the Middle Ages, the area around Tiraspol was a buffer zone between the Tatars and the Moldavians, inhabited by both ethnicities.

oundatio
The Russian Empire conquered its way to the Dniester river from Turks and in 1792, the Russian army built some fortifications to guard the western border near a Moldavian village named "Sucleia". Field Marshall Alexander Suvorov, who commanded Russian armies, is considered the founder of Tiraspol, and his statue is city"s most distinctive landmark. The name was given after the Latin name of the Dniester river ("Tyras") on which it was built.

June 15, 1828: A customs house was established in Tiraspol. The purpose of its creation became suppression of smuggling. This customs house was subordinated to the chief of Odessa customs region. It began operations with 14 employees. They inspected shipments of bread, paper, oil, wine, sugar, fruits and other goods.

X century - Soviet Tiraspo
The Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created in Ukraine in 1924, with Balta as its capital. The republic had Romanian, Ukrainian and Russian as its official languages. Its capital was moved in 1929 to Tiraspol, which remained the capital of the Moldavian ASSR until 1940.

In 1940, following the secret provisions of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the USSR forces Romania to cede Bessarabia and integrates Tiraspol, until then part of the Ukrainian SSR, into the newly-formed Moldavian SSR.

On August 7, 1941, following the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, the city was taken by Romanian troops. During the occupation, Tiraspol was under Romanian administration. During that period almost all its Jewish population perished. This same year (before the occupation), the newspaper “Dnestrovskaya pravda” was founded by the Tiraspol City Council of popular deputies. This is the oldest periodical publication in the region.

On April 12, 1944, the city was retaken by the Red Army and became again part of Moldavian SSR.



fter independenc
On January 27, 1990 A referendum declared that Tiraspol was an independent territory. The nearby city of Bendery also declared its independence. As the Russian-speaking independence movement gained momentum, the local governments banded together to resist pressure from the Moldovan government.
A street in Tiraspol.

On September 2, 1990, Tiraspol was proclaimed the capital of the new Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. The new republic was not officially recognized by Soviet authorities, however it received support from some important Soviet leaders, like Anatoly Lukyanov. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the territory east of the Dniester river declared independence as Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, with Tiraspol as its capital. However, it was not recognized by the international community.

On July 1, 2005, the Lucian Blaga Lyceum, a high school with Romanian as its language of instruction, was registered as a Transnistrian non-governmental establishment. The registration of six Romanian language schools was subject of negotiations since 2000. The tension increased in the summer of 2004, when the Transnistrian authorities forcibly closed the schools that used the Moldovan language in the Latin script, which, according to the official PMR view, is considered as Romanian. Moldovan, written in the Cyrillic script, is one of the three official languages in the PMR. Romanian, however, is not. Some economic measures and counter-measures were taken on both banks of the Dniester.

On July 6, 2006, an explosion, believed to be caused by a bomb, killed at least eight people in a minibus.

On August 13, 2006, a grenade explosion in a trolleybus kills two, injures ten.

ewish histor
Orthodox church
*1847: Jewish population in Tiraspol amounted to 1,406.
*1897: Jewish population rose to 8,668 (27% of the total population).
*1910: Tiraspol had two Jewish private schools, one for boys and one for girls.
*1926: There were 6,398 Jews (29.1%) in the town.
*1959: The only synagogue was closed by the authorities. The Jewish population was estimated at about 1,500.
*1960s and 70s: The Jewish population was believed to be in tens of thousands, out of above 100,000 general population. Yiddish could occasionally be heard on the streets of the city.
*2007 Jewish population of Tiraspol is 2,200.

nti-Semitism in Tiraspo
Theater
*14-15 April 2001 the Synagogue of Tiraspol suffered a pipe bomb attack. The building was damaged, but the guard was not hurt. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, April 2001
*13-30 March 2004 over 70 tombstones in the Jewish cemetery of Tiraspol were vandalized Union of Councils for Soviet Jews, April 22, 2004 Local community leaders said the authorities refused to help clean up the anti-Semitic graffiti painted over the tombstones "Jewish Journal," 2004-05-14
*4 May 2004, vandals threw a Molotov cocktail in an attempt to set fire to a Synagogue in Tiraspol The attack failed when passers-by extinguished the fire. U.S. Department of State, January 5, 2005

onument
The statue of Alexander Suvorov was erected in the central square in 1979 in commemoration of his 250th anniversary. In front of the Transnistrian Government building there is a statue of Lenin. On the opposite side of the central square, a monument plaza features a Soviet T-34 tank, commemorating the Soviet victory in World War II, an eternal flame to those who fell defending the city in 1941 and liberating it in 1944, as well as several monuments dedicated to more recent conflicts, including the Soviet war in Afghanistan and the War of Transnistria.

eople and cultur
emographic
In 1989 the city had a population of about 190,000 and in 1992 203,000. 41% were Russians, 32% Ukrainians and 18% were Moldovans. As result of the political and economic situation that followed the proclamation of the independent (unrecognized) Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, as well as large Jewish emigration in the early 1990s, the population of the city fell below its 1989 number and the 2004 Census in Transnistria puts its current population at 158,069., from Pridnestrovie.net.



por
There are two professional football clubs in Tiraspol, playing in the Divizia Naţională, the top Moldovan football league: FC Sheriff Tiraspol & FC Tiraspol. Sheriff are the most successful Moldovan football club of recent history, winning every league title since the 2000-2001 season, and 6 Moldovan Cups. A third club, CS Tiligul-Tiras Tiraspol, withdrew from competition prior to the 2009-2010 season. Tiraspol is home to the Sheriff Stadium, the biggest seated stadium in the region with a capacity of 14,300.
Sheriff Stadium

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Tiraspol is twinned with:
* Kaluga, Russia
* Severodvinsk, Russia
*22px Sukhumi, Abkhazia
* Trondheim, Norway "(since 2000)"
*22px Tskhinvali, South Ossetia

References


External links


on-Transnistrian link
* (Tiraspol) in the Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland (1892)
*
* at Lonely Planet
*
*
*

ransnistrian link
* (government-registered (ICDISS-funded) travel information website)
* (in Russian)







Category:Cities of Transnistria
Category:Settlements established in 1792

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