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Thessaloniki

Greece, Thessaloniki
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"Thessaloniki" (, ), "Thessalonica", or "Salonica" is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia.Not to be confused with the neighbouring Republic of Macedonia. It is honourably called the "Συμπρωτεύουσα" "Symprotevousa" (lit. co-capital) of Greece, as it was once called the "συμβασιλεύουσα" "symvasilevousa" (royal co-capital) of the Byzantine Empire. According to the 2001 census, the municipality of Thessaloniki had a population of 363,987. The entire Thessaloniki Urban Area had a population of 763,468.

Thessaloniki is Greece"s second major economic, industrial, commercial and political centre, and a major transportation hub for the rest of southeastern Europe; its commercial port is also of great importance for Greece and its southeast European hinterland. The city hosts an annual International Trade Fair, the Thessaloniki International Film Festival, and the largest bi-annual meeting of the Greek diaspora.

Thessaloniki retains several Ottoman and Jewish structures as well as a large number of Byzantine architectural monuments.

tymolog


All variations for the city"s name derive from the original (and current) appellation in Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη, literally translating to "Thessaly-victory" and in origin the name of a princess, Thessalonike of Macedon, who was so named because she was born on the day of the Macedonian victory at the Battle of Crocus Field. The alternative name "Salonica", formerly the common name used in some western European languages, is derived from a variant form Σαλονίκη ("Saloníki") in popular Greek speech. The city"s name is also rendered "Thessaloníki" or "Saloníki" with a dark l typical of Macedonian Greek.
Names in other languages prominent in the city"s history include سلانيك in Ottoman Turkish and "Selânik" in modern Turkish, "Solun" (Cyrillic: Солун) in the Slavic languages of the region by which it is still known in Serbian and Bulgarian to this day., "Sãrunã" in Aromanian, and "Selanik/Salonika" in Ladino. It is also known as "Thess" by Anglophonic diaspora Greeks who returned to Greece and by the troops of the international forces stationed in the various ex-Yugoslav territories who visit the city for their breaks from duty.

istor


The Roman odeum in the Ancient Agora of Thessaloniki.

A 7th century mosaic from Hagios Demetrios representing St. Demetrius with children.

The city was founded around 315 BC by the King Cassander of Macedon, on or near the site of the ancient town of Therma and twenty-six other local villagesStrabo VIII Fr. 21,24 - Paul"s early period By Rainer Riesner, Doug Scott Page 338 ISBN 080284166X He named it after his wife Thessalonike, a half-sister of Alexander the Great ("Thessalo-nikē" means the " Thessalian victory")The pocket guide to Saint Paul By Peter E. Lewis, Ron Bolden – Page 118 ISBN 1862545626 (See Battle of Crocus field). It was an autonomous part of the Kingdom of Macedon. After the fall of the kingdom of Macedon in 168 BC, Thessalonica became a city of the Roman Republic. It grew to be an important trade-hub located on the Via Egnatia and facilitating trade between Europe and Asia. The city became the capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia.

When in 379 the Roman Prefecture of Illyricum was divided between East and West Roman Empires, Thessaloníki became the capital of the new Prefecture of Illyricum. The economic expansion of the city continued through the twelfth century as the rule of the Komnenoi emperors expanded Byzantine control to the north. Thessaloniki passed out of Byzantine hands in 1204, when Constantinople was captured by the Fourth Crusade. Thessaloníki and its surrounding territory—the Kingdom of Thessalonica—became the largest fief of the Latin Empire. It also was ruled by the Despotate of Epirus between 1224 and 1246 and was a vassal state of the Second Bulgarian Empire between 1230 and 1246. The city was recovered by the Byzantine Empire in 1246. In the 1340s, it was the scene of the anti-aristocratic Commune of the Zealots. In 1423, the Byzantines sold the city to Venice, which held the city until it was captured by the Ottoman Sultan Murad II on 29 March 1430.cf. the account of John Anagnostes. Murad II took Thessaloniki with a brutal massacre and enslavement of roughly one-fifth of the native inhabitants. Upon the capture and plunder of Thessaloniki, many of its inhabitants escaped, including intellectuals Theodorus Gaza “Thessalonicensis” and Andronicus Callistus.
Greek Macedonian humanist of the 15th century.
During the Ottoman period, the city"s Muslim and Jewish population grew. By 1478 Selânik (سلانیك) – as the city came to be known in Ottoman Turkish – had a population of 4,320 Muslims and 6,094 Greek Orthodox, as well as some Catholics, but no Jews. By ca. 1500, the numbers had grown to 7,986 Greeks, 8,575 Muslims, and 3,770 Jews, but by 1519, the latter numbered 15,715, 54% of the city"s population. The invitation of the Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella, was an Ottoman demographic strategy aiming to prevent the Greek element from dominating the city.The New Cambridge Medieval History p. 779 – Rosamond McKitterick, Christopher Allmand The city remained the largest Jewish city in the world for at least two centuries, often called "Mother of Israel." Selanik was a sanjak capital in Rumeli Eyaleti until 1826, and subsequently the capital of Selanik Vilayeti (between 1826 and 1864 Selanik Eyaleti), which consisted of the sanjaks of Selanik, Serez and Drama between 1826 and 1912.

From 1870, driven by economic growth, the city"s population expanded by 70%, reaching 135,000 in 1917.

During the First Balkan War, on 26 October 1912 (Old Style), the feast day of the city"s patron saint, Saint Demetrius, the Ottoman garrison surrendered Salonica to the Greek Army without any resistance. In 1915, during World War I, a large Allied expeditionary force landed at Thessaloniki as the base for operations against pro-German Bulgaria, which ended in the establishment of the Macedonian or Salonika Front. In 1916, pro-Venizelist Greek army officers, with the support of the Allies, launched the Movement of National Defence, which resulted in the establishment of a pro-Allied temporary government that controlled northern Greece and the Aegean, against the official government of the King in Athens. This led the city to be dubbed as "symprotévousa" ("co-capital"). Most of the old town was destroyed by a single fire on , which was accidentally sparked by French soldiers in encampments at the city. The fire left some 72,000 homeless, many of them Turkish, of a population of approximately 271,157 at the time.
The Metropolitan Church of Thessaloniki, Saint Gregory Palamas.
Thessaloniki fell to the forces of Nazi Germany on April 22, 1941, and remained under German occupation until October 30, 1944. The city suffered considerable damage from Allied bombing. In 1943, 50,000 of the city"s Jews were sent to the gas chambers. Eleven thousand Jews were deported to forced labor camps, most of whom perished. One survivor was Salamo Arouch, a boxing champion, who survived Auschwitz by entertaining the Nazis with his boxing skills.

Thessaloniki was rebuilt after the war with large-scale development of new infrastructure and industry throughout the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. On 20 June, 1978, the city was hit by a powerful earthquake, registering a moment magnitude of 6.5. The tremor caused considerable damage to several buildings and ancient monuments; forty people were crushed to death when an entire apartment block collapsed in the central Hippodromio district.

Early Christian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1988, and Thessaloniki later became European Capital of Culture 1997. In 2004 the city hosted a number of the football events forming part of the 2004 Summer Olympics.

eolog
Thessaloniki was hit by strong earthquakes in 620, 667, 700, 1677, 1759, 1902, 1904, 1905, 1932, and 1978. The event of 1978 measured a 6.5 magnitude on the Richter scale.

limat
Thessaloniki lies on the northern fringe of the Thermaic Gulf, on its western side. The city has a Mediterranean to Mid-European Temperate climate. Annual rainfalls are about 410–450 mm. Snowfalls are sporadic, but happen more or less every year.

The city lies in a transitional climatic zone, so its climate has displayed characteristics of continental and Mediterranean climate. Winters are relatively dry, with common morning frost. Snowfalls occur almost every year, but usually the snow does not stay for more than a few days. During the coldest winters, temperatures can drop to -10C°/14F (Record min. -14C°/7F).

Thessaloniki"s summers are hot with rather humid nights. Maximum temperatures usually rise above 30C°/86F, but rarely go over 40C°/104F (Record max. 44C). Rain is seldom in summer, and mainly falls during thunderstorms.


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overnmen


Thessaloniki is the second largest city in Greece. It is an influential city in northern Greece and the capital of Central Macedonia Periphery, Thessaloniki Prefecture. It is also at the head of the Municipality of Thessaloniki.

ityscap
Part of Aristotelous Square in central Thessaloniki.
The Arch of Galerius ("Kamara") stands on Egnatia Avenue.
The Residence of the General Secretariat for Macedonia and Thrace.Architectural project of the Italian architect Vitaliano Poselli. Agiou Dimitriou Street.
Art Nouveau building at the center of Thessaloniki.

Architecture in Thessaloniki is the direct result of the city"s position at the centre of all historical developments in the Balkans. Aside from its commercial importance, Thessaloniki was also for many centuries, the military and administrative hub of the region, and beyond this the transportation link between Europe and the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine).

Merchants, traders and refugees from all over Europe settled in the city. The early Byzantine walls were moved to allow extensions to the east and west along the coast. The need for commercial and public buildings in this new era of prosperity led to the construction of large edifices in the city centre. During this time, the city saw the building of banks, large hotels, theatres, warehouses, and factories. The city layout changed after 1870, when the seaside fortifications gave way to extensive piers, and many of the oldest walls of the city were demolished including those surrounding the White Tower.

The expansion of Eleftherias Square towards the sea completed the new commercial hub of the city. The western districts are considered as a working class section, near the factories and industrial activities; the middle and upper classes gradually moved from the city-centre to the eastern suburbs, leaving mainly businesses. In 1917, a devastating fire swept through the city and burned uncontrollably during 32 hours. It destroyed the city"s historic center and a large part of its architectural heritage.

A team of architects and urban planners including Thomas Mawson and Ernest Hebrard, a French architect, chose the Byzantine era as the basis for their (re)building designs. The new city plan included axes, diagonal streets and monumental squares, with a street grid that would channel traffic smoothly. The plan of 1917 included provisions for future population expansions and a street and road network that would be and still is sufficient today. It contained sites for public buildings, and provided for the restoration of Byzantine churches and Ottoman mosques. The whole Upper City, near the fortifications, was declared a heritage site. The plan also included a site for the campus of a future University of Thessaloniki, which has never been fully realised, although today"s University campus incorporates some of Hebrard"s ideas.

An important element of the plan was to achieve a fine balance between contemporary urban planning and architectural ideas, and the city"s tradition and history. These plans have not been fully implemented, and the city still lacks of a full administrative district. Nevertheless, this aspect of the plan influenced a number of building and planning decisions throughout the 20th century, with inevitable adaptations to service the population explosion of the last 50 years.

conom

The building of Bank of Greece in Thessaloniki

Thessaloníki is a major port city and an industrial and commercial centre. The city"s industries centre around oil, steel, petrochemicals, textiles, machinery, flour, cement, pharmaceuticals, and liquor. Being a free port, the city functions as the gateway to the Balkan hinterland. The city is also a major transportation hub for the whole of south-eastern Europe, carrying, among other things, trade to and from the neighbouring countries. A considerable percentage of the city"s working force is employed in small- and medium-sized businesses as well as in the service and the public sectors.

In recent years, the city has begun a process of deindustrialisation and a move towards a service based economy. A spate of factory shut downs has occurred in order to take advantage of cheaper labour markets and more lax regulations. Among the largest companies to shut down factories are Goodyear, AVEZ (the first industrial factory in northern Greece built in 1926), and VIAMIL (ΒΙΑΜΥΛ).

emographic
Aerial photo of the eastern districts of Thessaloniki and Kalamaria, a city"s suburb.
The Jewish Cemetery of Thessaloniki in the late 19th century.
The colourful shopfronts of the central district of Ladadika which used to be the Jewish quarter.
Although the population of the Municipality of Thessaloniki has declined in the last two censuses, the metropolitan area"s population is still growing, as people are moving to the suburbs. The city forms the base of the metropolitan area.



he Jews of Thessalonik


Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 19.12.2018 09:32 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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