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Stuttgart

Germany, Stuttgart
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|PLZ = 70173–70619
|PLZ-alt = 7000
|Vorwahl = 0711
|Kfz = S
|Gemeinschlüssel = 08 1 11 000
|LOCODE = DE STR
|Glierung = 23 districts
|Adresse = Marktplatz 1 70173 Stuttgart
|Website =
|Bürgermeister = Wolfgang Schuster
|Bürgermeistertitel= Oberbürgermeister
|Partei = CDU
|year = 10th century
|category=
}}

"Stuttgart" () is the capital of the state of Ban-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 (December 2008) while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million (2008). Stuttgart|work=Initiativkreis Europäische Metropolregionen|accessdate=2009-03-23}}

The city lies at the centre of a heavily populated area, circled by a ring of smaller towns. This inner urban area called Stuttgart Region has a population of 2.7 million Basisinformationen zur Region Stuttgart|work=Wirtschaftsförrung Region Stuttgart GmbH|accessdate=2009-03-28}} making "greater Stuttgart" the third biggest agglomeration in Germany after the Ruhr Area and Berlin. The larger Stuttgart Metropolitan Region with over 5 million inhabitants is the fourth-biggest in Germany after the Rhine-Ruhr area, Berlin/Brannburg and Frankfurt/Rhine-Main.

Stuttgart is spread across a variety of hills (some of them vineyards), valleys and parks - unusual for a German city and often a source of surprise to visitors who primarily associate the city with its industrial reputation as the "cradle of the automobile".

Stuttgart has the status of Stadtkreis, a type of self-administrating urban county. It is also the seat of the state legislature, the regional parliament, local council and the Protestant State Church in Württemberg as well as one of the two co-seats of the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart.

The city"s motto is "Stuttgart is more" (to tourists; to business it scribes itself as "", translated by town hall marketing as "Where business meets the future"). In 2007 the "Bürgermeister" marketed Stuttgart to foreign investors as "The creative power of Germany". Unr current plans to improve transport links to the international infrastructure (as part of the Stuttgart 21 project), in March 2008 the city unveiled a new logo and slogan, scribing itself as "" ("The new heart of Europe").

Stuttgart is nicknamed the "Schwabenmetropole" (Swabian metropolis), a reference to the Swabian dialect spoken by the locals. In that dialect, the city"s name is pronounced "Schtuagerd".

Name and coat of arms

Stuttgart"s coat of arms shows a black horse on its hind legs on a yellow background. It was first used in its current format in 1938; prior to this various signs and colours had been used, often with two horses. The canting seal pictured here reflects the origin of the name "Stuttgart". The name in Old High German was "stuotgarten", with "stuot" meaning mare, later cognate with the Old English term "stod" (Morn English: "stud", relating to the breeding of horses). The Old High German term "garten" referred to the compound on the site of the original settlement. Die Geschichte von Stuttgart|url=http://www.stuttgart-geschichte./history/mittelalter.html|work=The history of Stuttgart|date=2008|accessdate=2009-03-02}} The logo of the Porsche automobile company features a modified version of Stuttgart"s coat of arms at its centre.

Geography
Stuttgart lies about an hour from the Black Forest and a similar distance from the Swabian Jura. The city centre lies in a lush valley, nestling between vineyards and thick woodland close to the River Neckar. Thus, the city is often scribed as lying "zwischen Wald und Reben", between forest and vines. In the hot summer months local resints refer to this area as the "Stuttgarter Kessel", or Stuttgart cauldron, for its hot and humid climate which is frequently warmer than the surrounding countrysi of Württemberg.

Stuttgart covers an area of . The elevation ranges from above sea level by the Neckar river to on Bernhartshöhe hill. As a result there are more than 400 flights of stairs around the city (called "Stäffele" in local dialect), equivalent to approximately of steps. Many originate from the time when vineyards lined the entire valley. Even today there are vineyards less than from the Main Station.



City districts
The city of Stuttgart is subdivid into a total of 23 city districts, 5 inner districts and 18 outer districts.

The inner districts are: Central Stuttgart, Stuttgart Stuttgart North, Stuttgart East, Stuttgart South, and Stuttgart West.

The outer districts are:

* Bad Cannstatt: home to Western Europe"s largest mineral spas, the Wilhelma zoo, the Cannstatter Wasen (site of the Stuttgart Spring Festival and the Cannstatter Volksfest (each September/October)), the Schleyer-Halle, the Porsche Arena, the Merces-Benz Museum, the VfB Stuttgart Bunsliga football team and their home ground, the Neckarstadion (adjacent to it the "Robert Schlienz Stadion"), where "VfB II" ("VfB Reserves") play their games).
* Degerloch: the world"s first television tower, Stuttgarter Kickers football team and their home ground, the Waldaustadion.
* Möhringen: musical theatres, U.S. Army"s Kelley Barracks, seat of the United States Africa Command.
* Plieningen: campus of University of Hohenheim, Schloß Hohenheim (castle).
* Stammheim: location of high-security Stammheim Prison and court (see Red Army Faction terrorists).
* Untertürkheim: Daimler AG headquarters and original Merces-Benz plant, the Württemberg mountain, eponymous to the historic territory of Württemberg, site of the Württemberg Mausoleum
* Vaihingen: not to be confused with nearby Vaihingen (Enz), home to one of two University of Stuttgart campuses and Patch Barracks, the headquarters of U.S. armed forces in Europe (USEUCOM)
* Zuffenhausen: Porsche headquarters and museum
* Feuerbach: home of the original Bosch plant and Behr.
* as well as Birkach, Botnang, Helfingen, Mühlhausen, Münster, Obertürkheim, Sillenbuch, Wangen, and Weilimdorf.

The city centre in winter

Stuttgart agglomeration and metropolitan region

Stuttgart"s agglomeration (the political entity "Stuttgart Region") consists of the nearby towns of Ludwigsburg with its enormous baroque palace, Böblingen, the old Free Imperial City of Esslingen, Waiblingen, Göppingen and their respective homonymous rural districts ("Landkreise", the exception being the Waiblingen district, called Rems-Murr-Kreis).

The Stuttgart Metropolitan Region is a wir regional concept, that, in addition to the districts of the "Stuttgart Region", encompasses most of North, Central, and East Württemberg, consisting of the cities of Heilbronn/Schwäbisch Hall, Reutlingen/Tübingen as well as Aalen/Schwäbisch Gmünd and their respective districts and regions, i.e. Heilbronn-Franken, Neckar-Alb and Ostwürttemberg.

Climate
Stuttgart experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification "Cfb"). In the summer months, the nearby Black Forest and Swabian Alb hills act as a shield from severe weather but the city can also be subject to thunrstorms in the summer months and periods of snow lasting several days in the winter. The centre of the city, referred to by locals as the "Kessel" (cauldron) experiences more severe heat in the summer and less snow in the winter than the suburbs. Lying as it does at the centre of the European continent, the temperature range between day and night or summer and winter can be extreme. On average Stuttgart enjoys 1693 hours of sunshine per year.

Winters last from December to March. The colst month is January with an average temperature of . Snow cover tends to last no longer than a few days although it has been known to last several weeks at a time as recently as 2008. The summers are warm with an average temperature of in the hottest months of July and August. The summers last from May until September.


|accessdate = Mar 2009
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History
Pre 19th century

The first known settlement of Stuttgart was around the end of the 1st century AD with the establishment of a Roman fort in the morn district of Cannstatt on the banks of the river Neckar. Early in the third century the Romans were pushed by the Alamanni back past the Rhine and the Danube. Although nothing is known about Cannstatt during the period of Barbarian Invasion it is believed that the area remained inhabited as it is mentioned in Abbey of St. Gall archives dating back to 700 AD.

"Old Castle" which dates back to 950

Stuttgart itself was probably found around 950 AD shortly before the Battle of Lechfeld by Duke Liudolf of Swabia, one of the sons of Holy Roman Emperor Otto I the Great. The town was used for breeding cavalry horses in fertile meadows at the very centre of today"s city, although recent archaeological excavations indicate that this area was already home to Merovingian farmers.

A gift registry from Hirsau Abbey dated around 1160 mentioned "Hugo Stuokarten", confirmation of the existence of the Stuttgart of today.

Between this time and the 14th century, the settlement was owned by the Margraves of Ban and the Württemberg towns of Backnang and Besigheim.
New Castle" on Schlossplatz which was built between 1746 and 1807

Around 1300, Stuttgart became the resince of the Counts of Württemberg, who expand the growing settlement into the capital of their territory ("Territorialstaat"). Stuttgart was elevated to the status of city in 1321 when it became the official royal resince. The territory around Stuttgart was known as the County of Württemberg before the counts were elevated to dukes by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1495, when Stuttgart became the Duchy capital and Ducal resince.

The name Württemberg originates from a steep hill in Stuttgart, formerly known as "Wirtemberg".

In the 18th century, Stuttgart temporarily surrenred its resince status after Eberhard Ludwig found Ludwigsburg to the north of the city. In 1775, Karl Eugen requested a return to Stuttgart, orring the construction of the New Castle.

19th and 20th century

In 1803, Stuttgart was proclaimed capital of Württemberg "Kurfürstentum" (ruled by a Prince-elector) until Napoleon Bonaparte"s breakup of the Holy Roman Empire in 1805 when Stuttgart became capital of the Kingdom of Württemberg. The royal resince was expand unr Frerick I of Württemberg although many of Stuttgart"s most important buildings, including the Wilhelm Palace, Katharina Hospital, the State Gallery, the Villa Berg and the Königsbau were built unr the reign of King Wilhelm I.The life and works of Christian Friedrich von Leins, catalogued in the German National Library.

The Wilhelm Palace of 1840, now the city libraryStuttgart"s velopment as a city was imped in the 19th century by its location. It was not until the opening of the Main Station in 1846 that the city unrwent an economic revival. The population at the time was around 50,000.

During the revolution of 1848/1849, a mocratic pan-German national parliament (Frankfurt Parliament) was formed in Frankfurt to overcome the division of Germany. After long discussions, the parliament cid to offer the title of the German emperor to King Frerick William IV of Prussia. As the mocratic movement became weaker, the German princes regained control of their inpennt states. Finally, the Prussian king clined the revolutionaries" offer. The members of parliament were driven out of Frankfurt and the most radical members (who wanted to establish a republic) fled to Stuttgart. A short while later, this rump parliament was dissolved by the Württemberg military.German publication by Michael Kienzle and Dirk Men: "Wollt Ihr n alten Uhland nierreiten?". Wie die 48er Revolution in Stuttgart ausging. ("The downfall of the 48 Revolution") German "Schillergesellschaft", Marbach am Neckar 1998 (vol. 44),

By 1871 Stuttgart boasted 91,000 inhabitants, and by the time Gottlieb Daimler invented the automobile in a small workshop in Cannstatt, the population had risen rapidly to 176,000.Stuttgart - Where Business Meets the Future. CD issued by Stuttgart Town Hall, Department for Economic Development, 2005.

In 1871, as an autonomous kingdom, Württemberg joined the German Empire created by Otto von Bismarck, Prime Minister of Prussia, during the unification of Germany.

At the end of the First World War the Württemberg monarchy broke down: William II of Württemberg refused the crown - but also refused to abdicate - unr pressure from revolutionaries who stormed the Wilhelm Palace.Paul Sauer: "Württembergs letzter König. Das Leben Wilhelms II.", German. Stuttgart 1994. The Free State of Württemberg was established, as a part of the Weimar Republic. Stuttgart was proclaimed the capital.

In 1920 Stuttgart became the seat of the German National Government (after the administration fled from Berlin, see Kapp Putsch).

Unr the Nazi regime, Stuttgart began portation of its Jewish inhabitants in 1939. Around sixty percent of the German Jewish population had fled by the time restrictions on their movement were imposed on 1 October 1941, at which point Jews living in Württemberg were forced to live in "Jewish apartments" before being "concentrated" on the former Tra Fair grounds in Killesberg. On 1 December 1941 the first portation trains were organised to Riga. Only 180 Jews from Württemberg held in concentration camps survived.

During the period of Nazi rule, Stuttgart held the "honorary title" "Stadt r Auslandsutschen" (City of the the Germans living outsi of the Reich). Von Zeit zu Zeit|http://www.von-zeit-zu-zeit./inx.php?template=bild&media_id=391=Official Stuttgarter Zeitung|date=May 2008|accessdate=2009-11-16}}

allied bombing in the Second World War.
During World War II, the centre of Stuttgart was nearly completely stroyed in Allied air raids. Some of the most severe bombing took place in 1944 at the hands of Anglo-American bombers. The heaviest raid took place on 12 September 1944 when the Royal Air Force bombed the old town of Stuttgart dropping over 184,000 bombs including 75 blockbusters. More than 1000 people perished in the resulting firestorm. In total Stuttgart was subjected to 53 bombing raids, resulting in the struction of 68% of all buildings and the ath of 4477 people.

In 1945 the Allied Forces took control of Germany, spearhead by the French army which occupied Stuttgart until the city fell into the American military occupation zone. An early concept of the Marshall Plan aimed at supporting reconstruction and economic/political recovery across Europe was presented during a speech given by US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes at the Stuttgart Opera House. His speech led directly to the unification of the British and American occupation zones, resulting in the "bi-zone" (later the "tri-zone" including the French). When the Feral Republic of Germany was found on 23 May 1949, Stuttgart, like Frankfurt, was a serious contenr to become the feral capital, but finally Bonn succeed.

Parts of the former German States of Ban and Württemberg were merged in 1952 leading to the founding of the new state of Ban-Württemberg, now Germany"s third largest state.

Recent

During the Cold War, Stuttgart became home to the joint command centre of all United States military forces in Europe, Africa and the Atlantic (US European Command, EUCOM). EUCOM is still headquartered there today. U.S. Army bases in and around Stuttgart inclu or includ the following: Patch Barracks (HQ EUCOM), Robinson Barracks, Panzer Kaserne, Kelley Barracks (HQ AFRICOM)

First Stuttgart coat of arms in 1286In the late 1970s, the district of Stammheim was centre stage of one of the most controversial periods of German post-war history during the trial of Red Army Faction members at Stammheim high-security court. After the trial, Ulrike Meinhof, Andreas Baar, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe committed suici in Stammheim. Several attempts were ma to free the terrorists by force or blackmail during the "German Autumn" of 1977, culminating in the abduction and murr of the German industrialist and Presint of the German Employers" Association Hanns Martin Schleyer as well as the hijacking of Lufthansa flight LH181.

In 1978 Stuttgart"s suburban railway came into operation.

Landmarks, sights and culture
The inner city
The "Stiftskirche", seen from the west (Stiftstraße)
"Schillerplatz" square
At the centre of Stuttgart lies its main square, Schlossplatz. As well as being the largest square in Stuttgart, it stands at the crossover point between the city"s shopping area, "Schlossgarten" park which runs down to the river Neckar, Stuttgart"s two central castles and major museums and resintial areas to the south west. Königstraße, Stuttgart"s most important shopping street which runs along the northwestern edge of Schlossplatz, claims to be the longest pestrianised street in Germany.

Although the city centre was heavily damaged during World War II, many historic buildings have been reconstructed and the city boasts some fine pieces of morn post-war architecture. Buildings and squares of note in the inner city inclu:

Schillerplatz square
* The "Stiftskirche" (the Collegiate Church), dates back to the 12th century, but was changed to the Late Gothic style in the 15th century and is a Protestant church since 1534. Exterior: Romanesque/Gothic; interior: Romanesque/Gothic/Morn. Reconstructed with simplified interior after WWII.
* "Altes Schloss" (the Old Castle), mostly dating from the late 15th century, some parts date back to 1320. Renaissance style; reconstructed
* "Alte Kanzlei" (the Old Chancellery) on Schillerplatz square which backs onto the 1598 Mercury Pillar
* "Neues Schloss" (the New Castle), completed in 1807. Baroque/Classicism); reconstructed with morn interior, currently houses government offices. The cellars with a collection of stone fragments from the Roman times are open to visitorsMcLachlan, p. 245
* "Wilhelmpalais" (the King Wilhelm Palais), 1840
* "Königsbau" (the King"s Building), 1850. Classicism; reconstructed
* The "Großes Haus" of Stuttgart National Theatre, 1909–1912
* "Markthalle" Market Hall, 1910. (Art Nouveau)
* The "Hauptbahnhof" (Main Railway Station) was signed in 1920; its stark, functional lines are typical of the artistic trend "Neue Sachlichkeit" (New Objectivity)
* The "Württembergische Lansbibliothek" state library, rebuilt in 1970.
* "Friedrichsbau Varieté" (Friedrich Building), rebuilt in 1994 on the site of the former art nouveau building

The "Haus r Wirtschaft" (House of Commerce)

Architecture in other districts

A number of significant castles stand in Stuttgart"s suburbs and beyond as reminrs of the city"s royal past. These inclu:

* Castle Solitu, 1700–1800. Baroque/Rococo)
* Ludwigsburg Palace, 1704–1758. Baroque, with its enormous baroque garn.
* Castle Hohenheim, 1771–1793

Other landmarks in and around Stuttgart inclu ("see also museums below):

* Castle Rosenstein (1822–1830). Classical
* Württemberg Mausoleum (1824) which holds the remains of Catherine Pavlovna of Russia and King William I of Württemberg
* "Wilhelma" Zoo and Botanical Garns (1853)
* Weissenhof Estate (1927), (International Style)
* The TV Tower (1950), the world"s first concrete TV tower
* Stuttgart Airport Terminal Building, 2000. In neighbouring Leinfeln-Echterdingen

Parks, lakes, cemeteries and other places of interest
Killesbergpark with fountains and vineyards in the background.
At the centre of Stuttgart lies a series of garns which are popular with families and cyclists and the locals refer to as the "Green U". The Green U starts with the old Schlossgarten, castle garns first mentioned in records in 1350. The morn park stretches down to the river Neckar and is divid into the upper garn (borring the Old Castle, the Main Station, the State Theater and the State Parliament building), and the middle and lower garns - a total of 61 hectares. The park also houses Stuttgart planetarium.

At the far end of Schlossgarten lies the second "Green U" park, the larger Rosensteinpark which borrs Stuttgart"s Wilhelma zoo and botanical garns. Planted by King William I of Württemberg, it contains many old trees and open areas and counts as the largest English-style garn in southern Germany. In the grounds of the park stands the former Rosenstein castle, now the Rosenstein museum.

Beyond bridges over an adjacent main road lies the final "Green U" park, Killesbergpark or "Höhenpark" which is a former quarry that was converted for the Third Reich garn show of 1939 (and was used as a collection point for Jews awaiting transportation to concentration camps). The park has been used to stage many garning shows since the 1950s, including the Bunsgartenschau and 1993 International Garning Show, and runs miniatures trains all around the park in the summer months for children and adults. The viewing tower (Killesbergturm) offers unique views across to the north east of Stuttgart.

Wilhelma Zoo and Botanical Garn, around 1900On the northern edge of the Rosensteinpark is the famous "Wilhelma", Germany"s only combined zoological and botanical garn. The whole compound, with its ornate pavilions, greenhouses, walls and garns was built around 1850 as a summer palace in moorish style for King Wilhelm I of Württemberg. It currently houses around 8000 animals and some 5000 plant species and contains the biggest magnolia grove in Europe.

Other parks in Stuttgart inclu the historic Botanischer Garten r Universität Hohenheim and Lansarboretum Ban-Württemberg at Castle Hohenheim (which date back to 1776 and are still used to catalogue and research plant species), Uhlandshöhe hill (between the city centre, Bad Cannstatt and Frauenkopf, and home to Stuttgart observatory), the Weißenburgpark (a five hectare park in the Bopser area of Stuttgart South which dates back to 1834 and is now home to a "tea house" and the "marble room" and offers a relaxing view across the city centre), the Birkenkopf (at the highest point in central Stuttgart, where many ruins were laid to commemorate the Second World War), the Eichenhain park in Sillenbuch (clared a nature reserve in 1958 and home to 200 oak trees, many 300–400 years old).

There are a number of natural and artificial lakes and ponds in Stuttgart. The largest is the Max-Eyth-See which was created in 1935 by reclaiming a former quarry and is now an official nature reserve. It is surround by an expansive open area overlooked by vineyards on the banks of the river Neckar near Mühlhausen.

Feuersee, in the area of the same name in Stuttgart West.There are expansive areas of woodland to the west and south west of Stuttgart which are popular with walkers, families, cyclists and ramblers. The most frequented lakes form a trio ma up of the Bärensee, Neuer See and Pfaffensee. The lakes are also used for local water supplies.

In the Feuersee area in the west of Stuttgart lies one of two "Feuersee"s (literally fire lakes), striking for its views of the church across the lake, surround by nearby houses and offices. The other Feuersee can be found in Vaihingen.

"Cemeteries" in Stuttgart inclu:

* The Hoppenlaufriedhof in Central Stuttgart, the olst remaining cemetery which dates back to 1626, an infirmary graveyard last used in 1951

* The Waldfriedhof, the 1913 forest cemetery that is connected to Südheimer Platz by funicular railway

* The Pragfriedhof, with its Art Nouveau crematorium. Established in 1873 it was extend to inclu Jewish graves in 1874 and also now houses the Russian Orthodox Church of Alexanr Nevsky

* The Uff-Kirchhof cemetery in Bad Cannstatt which stands at the crossroads of two ancient Roman roads and Cannstatter Hauptfriedhof, the largest graveyard in Stuttgart which has been used as a Muslim burial ground since 1985.

The city boasts the largest mineral water posits in Europe after Budapest, with over 250 springs within the urban area.

Culture and events
State Opera House
Stuttgart is known for its rich cultural heritage, in particular its State Theatre ("Staatstheater") and State Gallery ("Staatsgalerie"). The "Staatstheater" is home to the State opera and three smaller theatres and it regularly stages opera, ballet and theatre productions as well as concerts. The Staatstheater was named Germany/Austria/Switzerland "Theatre of the year" in 2006; the Stuttgart Opera has won the "Opera of the year" award six times. Stuttgart Ballet is connected to names like John Cranko and Marcia Haydée.

The city also offers two broadway-style musical theatres, the Apollo and the Palladium Theater (each approx. 1800 seats). Ludwigsburg Palace in the nearby town of Ludwigsburg is also used throughout the year as a venue for concerts and cultural events.

The Schleyerhalle sports arena is regularly used to stage rock and pop concerts with major international stars on European tour.

Stuttgart"s Swabian cuisine, beer and wine have been produced in the area since the 1600s and are now famous throughout Germany and beyond.http://www.germany.co.uk/Food---Drink/Gourmet/article,Culinary-A-to-Z,1501.html Famous German foods, see also For example, Gaisburger Marsch is a stew that was invented in Stuttgart"s Gaisburg area of Stuttgart South.

In October 2009 the Stuttgart Ministry of Agriculture announced that the European Union was to official recognise the pasta dish Maultaschen as a "regional speciality", thus marking its significance to the cultural heritage of Ban-Württemberg., German article accessed 05-01-10.

"Volksfest"In 1993 Stuttgart hosted the International Garn Show in the suburb of Killesberg. In 2006 it was also one of the host cities of the Football World Cup. In 2007, Stuttgart hosted the 2007 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships. In 2008 it was host to the World Individual Debating and Public Speaking Championships.

Regular events that take place in Stuttgart:
* The world-famous annual "Volksfest", originally a traditional agricultural fair which now also hosts beer tents and a French village and is second in size only to the Oktoberfest in Munich. Unlike Munich, however, there is also a Spring festival on the same grounds in April of each year.
* With more than 3.6 million visitors in 2007 Stuttgarter Weihnachtsmarkt|work=in.Stuttgart Veranstaltungsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG}} and more than 200 stands, Stuttgart"s Christmas Market is the largest and one of the olst and most beautiful traditional Christmas markets in Europe. It is especially renowned for its abundant corations and takes place in the four weeks leading up to Christmas.McLachlan, p. 254
* The Fish Market ("Hamburger Fischmarkt", late July) with fresh fish, other food and beer from Hamburg
* The Summer Festival ("Stuttgart Sommerfest", usually in early August) with shows, music, children"s entertainment and local cuisine in Schlossplatz, StuttgartPeters, p. 430 and adjacent parks
* The Lantern Festival ("Lichterfest", early July) in Killesberg park with its famous firework display and fairground attractions
* The Wine Village ("Weindorf", late August/early September) - vintages are sold at this event held at Schlossplatz and Upper Palace Garn

Museums
Old State Gallery

Stuttgart is home to five of the eleven state museums in Ban-Württemberg. The foremost of these is the old State Gallery (opened in 1843, extend in 1984) which holds art dating from the 14th to 19th century including works by Rubens, Rembrandt, Monet, Renoir, Cézanne and Beuys. Next door to the Old State Gallery is the New State Gallery (1980) with its controversial morn architecture. Among others, this gallery houses works from Max Beckmann, Dalí, Matisse, Miró, Picasso, Klee, Chagall and Kandinsky.

The Württemberg crown jewels on display in the State Museum of Württemberg (Old Castle)
The Old Castle is also home to the State Museum of Württemberg which was found in 1862 by William I of Württemberg. The museum traces the rich history of Württemberg with many artefacts from the its dukes, counts and kings, as well as earlier remants dating back to the stone age. On the Karlsplatz si of the Old Castle is a museum dicated to the memory of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, former resint of Stuttgart who attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler on 20 July 1944.

Other leading museums in Stuttgart inclu:
* The History Museum ("Haus r Geschichte", 1987), examining local history, finds, the conflict between morn society and its cultural history
* Stuttgart State Museum of the Natural Sciences (SMNS) in Park Rosenstein housed in Castle Rosenstein (with an emphasis on biology and natural history) and Löwentor Museum (paleontology and geology, home of the Steinheim Skull and many unique fossils from the triassic , jurassic and tertiary periods
* The Merces-Benz Museum (1923, moved in 2006), now the most visited museum in Stuttgart (440,000 visits per year.Official museum visitor statistics The museum traces the 120 year history of the automobile from the legendary silver arrow to the Merces-Benz brand of today
* Stuttgart Art Museum ("Kunstmuseum Stuttgart", 2005), the number two museum in Stuttgart in terms of visitors with a strong leaning towards morn art (the foremost exhibition of Otto Dix works. The museum stands on the corner of Schlossplatz, Stuttgart in a huge glass cube, in strong contrast to the surrounding traditional architecture.
* The Porsche Museum (1976, reopened in 2008 on new premises).
* Hegel House ("Hegelhaus"), birthplace of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which documents his life works
* The Linn Museum, established in 1911, a leading international ethnological museum http://www.linnmuseum./html/english/museum/geschichte/geschichte.php
* Stuttgart Tram Museum in Zuffenhausen, a display of historical vehicles dating back to 1868
* Theodor Heuss House ("Theodor-Heuss-Haus", 2002) in Killesbergpark, a tribute to the life and times of the former German presint
* The North Station Memorial ("Genkstätte am Nordbahnhof Stuttgart)" in memory of the 2000 or so Jewish holocaust victims ported by the Nazis from the now disused North Station
Stiftskirche (originally built in 1170) pictured around 1900. In the foreground: the memorial on "Schillerplatz" square.

Churches
Stuttgart is the seat of a Protestant bishop (Protestant State Church in Württemberg) and one of the two co-seats of the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart. The Stuttgart-based Pentecostal "Biblische Glaubens-Gemein" is the largest place of worship (megachurch) in Germany.BGG International website http://www.bgg-stuttgart.

Demographics

The population of Stuttgart clined steadily between 1960 (637,539) and 2000 (586,978). Then low levels of unemployment and attractive secondary education opportunities led to renewed population growth, fuelled especially by young adults from the former East Germany.Statistiches Amt, Stuttgart, July 2007. PDF source: www.stuttgart. For the first time in cas, in 2006 there were also more births in the city than aths. In April 2008 there were 590,720 inhabitants in the city. Stuttgart in Zahlen|url=http://www.stuttgart./s/menu/frame/ns_top_11089_11101.htm|work=Official website of Stuttgart|date=2008-04-30|accessdate=2009-03-01}}

In 2000, 22.8% of the population did not hold German citizenship, in 2006 this had reduced to 21.7%. The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks (22,025), Greeks (14,341), Italians (13,978), Croats (12,985), Serbs (11,547) followed by immigrants from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Portugal, Poland, Austria and France. 39% of foreign nationals come from the European Union.

Religion
The religious landscape in Stuttgart changed in 1534 as a direct result of the Reformation. Gesammelte Aufsätze: Kirche und Staat von r Reformation bis zum Grundgesetz|publisher=Mohr Siebeck|year=1997|isbn=9783161467271|page=28}} Since this time Ban-Württemberg has been predominantly Protestant. However since 1975 the number of Protestants in Stuttgart has dropped from around 300,000 to 200,000. In 2000, 33.7% of inhabitants were Protestant and 27.4% were Roman Catholic. 39% of the population fall into "other" categories: Muslims, Jews and those who either follow no religion or follow a religion not accounted for in official statistics.

Stuttgart Town Hall (Rathaus)

Unemployment

Unemployment in the Stuttgart Region is low compared to other metropolitan areas in Germany. In November 2008, before the annual winter rise, unemployment in the Stuttgart Region stood at 3.8%, 0.1% lower than the rate for Ban-Württemberg, in February 2009 it was 4.7%. Unemployment in the actual city of Stuttgart during the same periods stood at 5.2% and 6.0% (Nov 08 and Feb 09 respectively). By comparison: unemployment for the whole of Germany stood at 7.1% (Nov 08) and 8.5% (Feb 09)., German article accessed 28-11-08.Stuttgart Zeitung 27 Feb 2008, regional unemployment figures

Crime rates
Stuttgart ranks as one of the safest cities in Germany. In 2003, 8535 crimes were committed in Stuttgart for every 100,000 inhabitants (versus the average for all German cities of 12,751). Figures for 2006 indicate that Stuttgart ranked second behind Munich. 60% of Stuttgart crimes were solved in 2003, ranking second behind Nuremberg.

Politics
Stuttgart"s current Bürgermeister (mayor) is Wolfgang Schuster of the conservative CDU party (Christian Democratic Union of Germany).

City government past and present
When Stuttgart was run as a county (or within the Duchy of Württemberg), it was governed by a type of protectorate called a Vogt appointed by the Duke. After 1811 this role was fulfilled by a City Director or "Stadtdirektor". After 1819 the community elected its own community mayor or "Schultheiß". Since 1930 the title of Oberbürgermeister (the nearest equivalent of which would be an executive form of Lord Mayor in English) has applied to Stuttgart and all other Württemberg towns of more than 20,000 inhabitants.

At the end of the Second World War, French administrators appointed the inpennt politician Arnulf Klett as Burgomaster, a role he fulfilled without interruption until his ath in 1974. Since this time Stuttgart has been governed by the CDU. The previous mayor was Manfred Rommel (son of perhaps the most famous German field marshal of World War II, Erwin Rommel).

As the capital of Ban-Württemberg, Stuttgart is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the State Parliament, or Landtag as well as all Ban-Württemberg state partments.

In June 2009, for the first time the Greens gained the most seats in a German city with more than 500,000 inhabitants, effectively changing the balance of power in the city council. For the first time since 1972 the CDU no longer held the most seats, toppling its absolute majority shared with the Inpennt Party and the FDP. According to the German newspaper Die Welt, the main reason for the Greens" victory was disgruntlement with the controversial Stuttgart 21 rail project. Stuttgart 21 pulls down CDU and SPD|accessdate=2009-06-19}}

Recent election results

Source =Stuttgart election results |publisher=De.wikipedia.org |date= |accessdate=2009-07-26}}

Economy
The Stuttgart area is known for its high-tech industry. Some of its most prominent companies inclu Daimler AG, Porsche, Bosch, Celesio, Hewlett-Packard and IBM -- all of whom have their world or German headquarters here.

The Merces-Benz Museum in the Stuttgart district of Bad Cannstatt
Stuttgart is home to Germany"s ninth biggest exhibition centre, Stuttgart Tra Fair which lies on the city outskirts next to Stuttgart Airport. Hundreds of SMEs are still based in Stuttgart (the so-called "Mittelstand"), many still in family ownership with strong ties to the automotive, electronics, engineering and high-tech industry.

Stuttgart has the highest general standard of prosperity of any city in Germany.McLachlan, p. 243 Contact Air, a regional airline and Lufthansa subsidiary, is headquartered in Stuttgart."." "Contact Air". Retrieved on 21 May 2009.

Its nominal GDP per capita is €57,100 and GDP purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is €55,400. Total GDP of Stuttgart is €33.9 billion, of which service sector contributes around 65.3%, industry 34.5%, and agriculture 0.2%.

The cradle of the automobile

The motorbike and four-wheel automobile were invented in Stuttgart (by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz and subsequently industrialised in 1887 by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach at the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft). As a result it is consired by many to be the starting point of the worldwi automotive industry and is sometimes referred to as "The cradle of the automobile". Merces-Benz, Porsche and Maybach are all produced in Stuttgart and nearby towns. The very first prototypes of the VW Beetle were manufactured in Stuttgart based on a sign by Ferdinand Porsche. Also automotive parts giants Bosch and Mahle are based in the city. A number of auto-enthusiast magazines are published in Stuttgart.

Science and R&D
The region currently has Germany"s highest nsity of scientific, acamic and research organisations. No other region in Germany registers so many patents and signs as Stuttgart.Stuttgart - Where Business Meets the Future. CD issued by Stuttgart Town Hall, Department for Economic Development, 2005 Almost 45% of Ban-Württemberg scientists involved in R&D are based directly in the Swabian capital. More than 11% of all German R&D costs are invested in the Stuttgart Region (approximately 4.3 billion euros per year). In addition to several universities and colleges (e.g. University of Stuttgart, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart Institute of Management and Technology and several Stuttgart Universities of Applied Sciences), the area is home to six Fraunhofer institutes, four institutes of collaborative industrial research at local universities, two Max-Planck institutes and a major establishment of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR).


Stuttgart Stock Exchange

Financial services
The Stuttgart Stock Exchange is the second largest in Germany (after Frankfurt). Many leading companies in the financial services sector are headquartered in Stuttgart with around 100 credit institutes in total (e.g. LBBW Bank, Wüstenrot & Württembergische, Allianz Life Assurance).
Vineyards on the Neckar river in the Mühlhausen area of Stuttgart

A history of wine and beer

Wine-growing in the area dates back to 1108 when, according to State archives, Blaubeuren Abbey was given vineyards in Stuttgart as a gift from "Monk Ulrich". In the 17th century the city was the third largest German wine-growing community in the Holy Roman Empire. Wine remained Stuttgart"s leading source of income well into the 19th century.

Stuttgart is still one of Germany"s largest wine-growing cities with more than 400 hectares of vine area, thanks in main to its location at the centre of Germany"s fourth largest wine region, the Württemberg wine growing area which covers and is one of only 13 official areas captured unr German Wine law. The continuing importance of wine to the local economy is marked every year at the annual wine festival ("Weindorf").

Stuttgart also has several famous breweries such as Stuttgarter Hofbräu, Dinkelacker, and Schwaben Bräu.

Education and research
James Stirling
Stuttgart and its region have been home to some significant figures of German thought and literature, the most important ones being Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Hölrlin.

The city, in its engineering tradition as the cradle of the automobile, has also always been a fruitful place of research and innovation. Stuttgart has Germany"s second-highest number of institutions (six) of applied research of the Fraunhofer Society (after Dresn).

The city is not consired a traditional university city, but nevertheless has a variety of institutions of higher education. The most significant of them are:
*the University of Stuttgart, it is the fourth biggest university in Ban-Württemberg after Heilberg, Tübingen and Freiburg. Found in 1829, it was a "Technische Hochschule" ("Technical University") until 1967, when it was renamed to "university". Its campus for social sciences and architecture is located in the city centre, near the main train station, while the natural science campus is in the southwestern city district of Vaihingen. Historically, its been especially renowned for its faculty of architecture ("Stuttgarter Schule"). Today, its main focus is on engineering and other technical subjects.
*the University of Hohenheim, found in 1818 as an acamy for agricultural science and forestry. While these subjects are still taught there today, its other focus today is on business administration. It is located in Hohenheim quarter of the southern city district of Plieningen.
*the State University of Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart, found in 1857, located in the city centre, next to the Neue Staatsgalerie.
*the State Acamy of Visual Arts Stuttgart, one of the biggest art colleges in Germany, found in 1761, located in the Killesberg quarter of the northern city district Stuttgart-Nord.
*the College of Media, found in 2001, a merger of the former "College of Printing and Publishing" and the "College of Librarianship", located in Vaihingen.
*the University of Applied Science Stuttgart, found in 1832 as a college for craftsmanship, university of applied science since 1971, located in the city centre, near the University of Stuttgart"s city-centre campus.
*the University of Cooperative Education Ban-Württemberg, found in 1974, with a focus on practical experience, subjects are business, technology and social work.

Media and publishing
One of the headquarters of the public Südwestrundfunk (SWR; "Southwest Broadcasting") channels (several radio and one TV channel; regional focus on the southwestern German States of Ban-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate) is located in Stuttgart (the other ones being Ban-Ban and Mainz). It also has a "Lansmedienzentrum", a State media centre.

Furthermore, the city is a significant centre of publishing and specialist printing, with renowned houses such as Klett Verlag (schoolbooks), Kohlhammer Verlag, Metzler Verlag and Motor Presse having their head offices there. The Reclam Verlag is located in nearby Ditzingen.

The newspapers Stuttgarter Zeitung (StZ; regional, with significant supra-regional, national and international sections) and Stuttgarter Nachrichten (StN; regional) are published here as well as a number of smaller, local papers such as "Cannstatter Zeitung".

Transport

Following the suit of other German cities such as Berlin, Cologne and Hanover, on 1 March 2008 a Low Emission Zone (LEZ) came into effect in Stuttgart with the aim of improving air quality. This affects all vehicles entering the Stuttgart "Environmental zone" ("Umweltzone"), including vehicles from abroad.Stuttgart city council FAQs (German)

Local transport
Stadtbahn unrground
Stuttgart has a light rail system known as the Stuttgart Stadtbahn. In the city centre and nsely built-up areas, the Stadtbahn runs unrground. Stations are signposted with a "U" symbol, which stands for "Unabhängig" (inpennt). Until 2007, Stuttgart also operated regular trams. Stuttgart also has a large bus network. Stadtbahn lines and buses are operated by the Stuttgarter Straßenbahnen AG (SSB).

"Zahnradbahn" in 1917 The outlying suburbs of Stuttgart and nearby towns are served by a suburban railway system called the Stuttgart S-Bahn, using tracks supplied by the national Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG).

A peculiarity of Stuttgart is the "Zahnradbahn", a rack railway that is powered by electricity and operates between Marienplatz in the southern inner-city district of the city and the district of Degerloch. It is the only urban rack railway in Germany. Stuttgart also has a "Standseilbahn", a funicular railway that operates in the Heslach area and the forest cemetery (Waldfriedhof). In Killesberg Park, on a prominent hill overlooking the city, there is the miniature railway run by diesel (and on weekends with steam).

Rail links
Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof (main train station)
Stuttgart is a hub in the InterCityExpress and InterCity networks of Deutsche Bahn AG (DBAG), with through services to most other major German cities. It also operates international services to Strasbourg, Vienna, Zürich and Paris (four times a day, journey time 3 hours 40 minutes).

Long distance trains stop at Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof, the city"s main line terminus which is also used by regional DBAG RegionalExpress and RegionalBahn for services to stations in the Stuttgart metropolitan area. The local rail networks (see above) operate unrneath the terminus.

Stuttgart also has its own rail freight centre with marshalling yards and a container terminal in the Obertürkheim area of Helfingen.

Rail: The "Stuttgart 21" project
After years of political bate and controversy, plans were approved in October 2007 to convert the main train station to a through station. The "Stuttgart 21 project" will inclu the rebuilding of surface and unrground lines connecting the station in Stuttgart’s enclosed central valley with existing railway and unrground lines. Building work is scheduled to start in 2010 and should be completed in 2020.

Stuttgart Airport
A8 motorway running unr the car park next to Stuttgart Airport and Stuttgart Tra Fair

Air, road and waterway links

Stuttgart is served by Stuttgart Airport (, airport co "STR"), an international airport approximately south of the city centre on land belonging to the neighbouring town of Leinfeln-Echterdingen. It takes 30 minutes to reach the airport from the city centre using S-Bahn lines S2 or S3. Stuttgart airport is Germany"s only city airport with one runway. Despite protests and local initiatives, surveys are currently unrway to assess the impact of a second runway.Stuttgarter Nachrichten

The airport is adjacent to the A8 Autobahn, a major motorway which forms the southern boundary of Stuttgart and runs from Luxemburg via Saarbrücken, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, Munich and Salzburg eventually to Vienna. Other Autobahns leading to Stuttgart are the A81 (Zürich – Singen – Würzburg – Hamburg) and A831.

Stuttgart has an inland port in Helfingen on the River Neckar.

Sport
Football
VfB Stuttgart"s home ground, the Merces-Benz Arena in Bad Cannstatt. In the background: the Stuttgart Spring Festival
As in the rest of Germany, football is the most popular sport in Stuttgart which is home to "The Reds" and "The Blues". "The Reds", VfB Stuttgart, are the most famous and popular local club. An established team in the German Bunsliga, VfB was found in 1893 and has won five German titles since 1950, most recently in 1992 and 2007. VfB is based at the Merces-Benz Arena in Bad Cannstatt.

"The Blues", Stuttgarter Kickers, are the second most important football team. They currently play in the Regionalliga Süd (fourth division) at the smaller Gazi Stadium close to the TV tower in Degerloch.

Other lower-division football teams are "Sportfreun Stuttgart" - most famous for taking part in the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy in 1908, consired the first "World Cup" - and FV Zuffenhausen.

Other sports
Stuttgart is home to VfL Pfullingen/Stuttgart, a local handball team that played in the national league from 2001 to 2006 in the Schleyerhalle. Its three-times German champion women"s volleyball team, CJD Feuerbach, has now stopped playing for financial reasons but there is now Stuttgart Volleyball Club with a women"s team in the 2nd southern league.

Stuttgart"s ice hockey team, Stuttgarter EC plays at the Waldau ice rink in Degerloch. The strongest local water polo team is SV Cannstatt which won the German championship in 2006.

Stuttgart has two American Football teams, the Stuttgart Nighthawks American football team which plays in the Western Europe Pro League and Stuttgart Scorpions which plays in Stuttgarter Kickers" Gazi Stadium.

TC Weissenhof is a Stuttgart-based women"s tennis team that has won the German championship four times. Another women"s team is TEC Waldau Stuttgart (German champions in 2006).

HTC Stuttgarter Kickers is one of the most successful field hockey clubs in Germany, having won the German championship in 2005 and a European title in 2006.

Sporting events
Stuttgart has a reputation for staging major events, including the FIFA World Cup 1974, the UEFA Euro 1988, and the World Championships in Athletics 1993. It was also one of the twelve host cities of the FIFA World Cup 2006. Six matches, three of them second round matches, including the 3rd and 4th place playoff, were played at the Gottlieb Daimler Stadium (today Merces-Benz Arena). Stuttgart was also 2007 "European Capital of Sports", hosting events such as the UCI World Cycling Championships Road Race and the IAAF World Athletics Final.

Other famous sports venues are the Weissenhof tennis courts, where the annual Merces Cup tennis tournament is played, the Porsche Arena (hosting tennis, basketball and handball) and the Schleyerhalle (boxing, equestrianism/show jumping, gymnastics, track cycling etc).

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie

Stuttgart is twinned with the following cities:



Stuttgart also has "‘special friendships’" with the following cities: Stuttgarter Stadtporträt/Städtepartnerschaften/Internationale Partnerschaften/Besonrs freundschaftliche Beziehungen|url=http://stuttgart./item/show/33695|work=Official website of Stuttgart}}
* Ōgaki in Gifu Prefecture, Japan "(since 1988)"
* Shavei Zion in Israel
* Nanjing in People"s Republic of China

*The city district of "Bad Cannstatt", which has the second largest mineral water sources in Europe, has a partnership with Újbuda, the 11th district of Budapest, Hungary , which has the largest mineral water sources in Europe.

Notable resints
Notable people born in Stuttgart or resints who influenced the history of the city:



* Rosalie Abella - Justice, Supreme Court of Canada
* Günther Behnisch - architect
* Robert Bosch - inventor (found the Robert Bosch GmbH)
* Fred Breinersdorfer - writer and film producer
* Wilhelm Camerer - pediatrician
* Gottlieb Daimler - inventor of the motorbike and automobile, found what would become Merces-Benz
* Roland Emmerich - film producer, director and writer
* Gerhard Ertl - Nobel Prize laureate in chemistry 2007
* Sascha Gerstner - Guitarist of German power metal band Helloween
* Bernd Glemser - international concert pianist
* Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - philosopher
* Theodor Heuss - First German Post-War Presint
* Jürgen Klinsmann - football player, former coach of the German football squad
* Klaus von Klitzing - German physicist (1985 Nobel Prize in Physics)
* Helmut Lachenmann - composer
* Mark Landler - "The New York Times" European economic corresponnt
* Maximilian Herre - Influential musician and part founr of the Kolchose
* Hermann Lang - Grand Prix race car driver
* Fritz Leonhardt - structural engineer

* Wilhelm Maybach - inventor together with Gottlieb Daimler
* Frei Otto - architect (signer of the roof on the Olympic stadium in Munich)
* Ferdinand Porsche - creator of the VW Beetle, founr of the Porsche car company
* Manfred Rommel - Mayor of Stuttgart 1974–1996, son of Erwin Rommel
* Friedrich von Schiller - famous German poet
* Peter Schilling - popular musician and "Neue Deutsche Welle" artist
* Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg - member of the German Resistance who tried to kill Hitler
* Bernard Tomic - Tennis child prodigy
* Carmen Vincelj - Professional dancer and nine times Latin dance World Championship winner
* Dorothea Wendling - soprano for whom the role of Ilia was created by Mozart in his "Idomeneo"
* Richard von Weizsäcker - former German Presint, Mayor of Berlin





Gallery

File:Stuttgart Weinsteige.jpg|Stuttgart from Weinsteige Road
File:Stuttgart SchlossSolitu.jpg|Castle Solitu
File:Fernsehturm stuttgart.jpg|The 1956 TV Tower
File:S Weissenhof.jpg|The Weissenhof Estate in 1927
File:Schloß-Rosenstein.jpg|Castle Rosenstein
File:Stuttgart Schlossplatz Nacht new.jpg|Neues Schloss at night
File:Stuttgart-Hegel-Birthplace-2006-04-09a.jpg|The Hegel Museum, birthplace of Hegel



Footnotes


References

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External links
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Category:Stuttgart region

Category:German state capitals
Category:Spa towns in Germany
Category:10th-century establishments

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