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In the last century, the population of nearby municipalities in Stockholm County has become relevant to mention as well as the population of Stockholm Municipality, as many municipalities form part of the Stockholm urban area and as such are often considered part of the general term "Stockholm".

As of 2005, Stockholm urban area has a population of 1,252,020; Huddinge 90,182; Järfälla 62,342; Solna 61,717; Sollentuna 60,528; Botkyrka 77,553; Haninge 72,956; Tyresö 41,476; Sundbyberg 33,868; Nacka 82,421; Danderyd 30,492). In the entire Stockholm metropolitan, with its 26 municipalities, the population reaches more than 2 million inhabitants.

The castle of Drottningholm.
Strandvägen as seen from the island of Djurgården.
Stockholm Old Town.

Apart from being a large city with an active cultural life, Stockholm, as Sweden"s capital, houses many national cultural institutions. There are two UNESCO World Heritage sites in the Stockholm area: the Royal Palace Drottningholm (within Ekerö Municipality) and the Skogskyrkogården (The Woodland Cemetery).

Stockholm was the 1998 European City of Culture.

Authors connected to Stockholm include the poet and songwriter Carl Michael Bellman (1740–1795), novelist and dramatist August Strindberg (1849–1912), and novelist Hjalmar Söderberg (1869–1941), all of whom made Stockholm part of their works. Other authors with notable heritage in Stockholm were the Nobel Prize laureate Eyvind Johnson (1900–1976) and the popular poet and composer Evert Taube (1890–1976). The novelist Per Anders Fogelström (1917–1998) wrote a popular series of historical novels depicting life in Stockholm from the 19th to the mid-20th century.

The Stock Exchange Building, seen from the south
The city"s oldest section is “Gamla Stan” (Old Town), located on the original small islands of the city"s earliest settlements and still featuring the medieval street layout. Some notable buildings of Gamla Stan are the large German Church ("Tyska kyrkan") and several mansions and palaces: the "Riddarhuset" (the House of Nobility), the Bonde Palace, the Tessin Palace and the Oxenstierna Palace. The oldest building in Stockholm is the Riddarholmskyrkan from the late 13th century. After a fire in 1697 when the original medieval castle was destroyed, Stockholm Palace was erected in a baroque style. Storkyrkan Cathedral, the episcopal seat of the Bishop of Stockholm, stands next to the castle. It was founded in the 13th century but is clad in a baroque exterior dating to the 18th century.

As early as the 15th century, the city had expanded outside of its original borders. Some pre-industrial, small-scale buildings from this era can still be found in Södermalm. During the 19th century and the age of industrialization Stockholm grew rapidly, with plans and architecture inspired by the large cities of the continent such as Berlin and Vienna. Notable works of this time period include public buildings such as the Royal Swedish Opera and private developments such as the luxury housing developments on Strandvägen.

In the 20th century, a nationalistic push spurred a new architectural style inspired by medieval and renaissance ancestry as well as influences of the Jugend/Art Nouveau style. A key landmark of Stockholm, the Stockholm City Hall, was erected 1911–1923 by architect Ragnar Östberg. Other notable works of these times are the Stockholm Public Library and the Forest Cemetery, Skogskyrkogården.

Söder Torn, an 86 meter tall building in Södermalm.
In the 1930s modernism characterized the development of the city as it grew. New residential areas sprang up such as the development on Gärdet while industrial development added to the growth, such as the KF manufacturing industries on Kvarnholmen located in the Nacka Municipality. In the 1950s, suburban development entered a new phase with the introduction of the Stockholm metro. The modernist developments of Vällingby and Farsta were internationally praised. In the 1960s this suburban development continued but with the aesthetic of the times, the industrialised and mass-produced blocks of flats received a large amount of criticism.

At the same time that this suburban development was taking place, the most central areas of the inner city were being redesigned, known as "Norrmalmsregleringen". Sergels Torg, with its five high-rise office towers was created in the 1960s, followed by the total clearance of large areas to make room for new development projects. The most notable buildings from this period is the ensemble of the House of Culture, City Theatre and National Bank at Sergels Torg, designed by architect Peter Celsing.

In the 1980s the planning ideas of modernism were starting to be questioned, resulting in suburbs with a denser planning, such as Skarpnäck. In the 1990s this idea was taken further with the development of and old industrial area close to the inner city, resulting in a sort of mix of modernistic and urban planning in the new area of Hammarby Sjöstad.

The municipality has appointed an official "board of beauty" called "Skönhetsrådet" to protect and preserve the beauty of the city.

One of the most unusual pieces of "architecture" in Stockholm is the "Jumbohostel", housed in a converted Boeing 747 located at Stockholm-Arlanda Airport.


Nordic Museum.

Stockholm is one of the most crowded museum-cities in the world with around 100 museums, visited by millions of people every year. The most renowned national museum is the Nationalmuseum, with Sweden"s largest collection of art: 16,000 paintings and 30,000 objects of art handicraft. The collection dates back to the days of Gustav Vasa in the 16th century, and has since been expanded with works by artists such as Rembrandt, and Antoine Watteau, as well as constituting a main part of Sweden"s art heritage, manifested in the works of Alexander Roslin, Anders Zorn, Johan Tobias Sergel, Carl Larsson, Carl Fredrik Hill and Ernst Josephson.

The Museum of Modern Art, or Moderna Museet, is Sweden"s national museum of modern art. It has works by famous modern artists such as Picasso and Salvador Dalí.

Other notable museums:
* Stockholm City Museum
* Skansen, the archetype of open air museums, inaugurated 1891.
* Nordic Museum, dedicated to the cultural history and ethnography of Sweden.
* Royal Coin Cabinet, dedicated to the history of money.
* The Vasa Museum, now with the reconstruction of the missing parts of the Vasa Ship.

Art galleries
Stockholm has a vibrant art scene with a number of internationally recognised art centres and commercial galleries. Amongst others privately sponsored initiatives such as Bonniers Konsthall, Magasin 3, and state supported institutions such as Tensta Konsthall and Index all show leading international and national artists. In the last few years a gallery district has emerged around Hudiksvallsgatan where leading galleries such as Andréhn-Schiptjenko, Brändström & Stene have located. Other important commercial galleries include Nordenhake, Milliken Gallery and Galleri Magnus Karlsson.

The Stockholm suburbs are places with diverse cultural background. Some areas in the inner suburbs, including those of Tensta, Jordbro, Fittja, Husby, Brandbergen, Rinkeby, Kista, Hagsätra, Rågsved, Huddinge, and the outer suburb of Södertälje, have high percentages of immigrants or second generation immigrants. These mainly come from the Middle East (Assyrians, Syriacs, Turks and Kurds) and former Yugoslavia, but there are also immigrants from Africa, Southeast Asia and Latin America. Other parts of the inner suburbs, such as Hässelby, Vällingby, Sollentuna, Täby, Danderyd, Lidingö, Flysta and Hökarängen, as well as some of the suburbs mentioned above, have a majority of ethnic Swedes.

The opera house, as seen from the west
Distinguished among Stockholm"s many theatres are the Royal Dramatic Theatre ("Kungliga Dramatiska Teatern"), one of Europe"s most renowned theatres, and the Royal Swedish Opera, inaugurated in 1773.

Other notable theatres are the Stockholm City Theatre (Stockholms stadsteater), the Peoples Opera ("Folkoperan"), the Modern Theatre of Dance ("Moderna dansteatern"), the China Theatre, the Göta Lejon Theatre, the Mosebacke Theatre, and the Oscar Theatre.

Amusement park
Gröna Lund is an amusement park located on the island of Djurgården. The Amusement park has over 30 attractions and many restaurants. It is a popular tourist attraction and visited by thousands of people every day. It is open from end of April to middle of September, and it also opens during Christmas for market. Gröna Lund also serves as a concert venue.
it also has a large veriety of things to do for people of all ages and it has some beautiful sights from some of the rides. Gröna lund is also planned to get bigger. A new Amusement park will be build a cross the street, And then will they build a bridge so the both parks can be together close Saltsjön .In the center off Gröna lund has they planned to build a 100 m high tower with swings that will spins upp.

Stockholm is the media centre of Sweden. It has four nation-wide daily newspapers and is also the central location of the publicly-funded radio (SR) and television (SVT). In addition, all other major television channels have their base in Stockholm, such as: TV3, TV4, Kanal 5 and TV6. All major magazines are also located to Stockholm, as are the largest literature publisher, the Bonnier group.

Råsunda Stadium.

Ericsson Globe.

Kungliga tennishallen.

The most popular spectator sports are football and ice hockey. The three most popular teams are AIK, Djurgårdens IF and Hammarby IF. All of these clubs have large amounts of fans and are playing at fairly large Stadiums.

AIK is currently playing at Råsunda with a capacity of 36.508, but is most likely going to move to the new Swedbank Arena with a capacity of 50.00 wich will be completed in 2012 and will be the new National Stadium. However, this is not yet decided, and the fans of AIK are urging the club to buy Råsunda due to strong emotional atachment to the stadium. Swedbank Arena will be built regardless of AIK"s involvement. Most of AIK"s fans are from the north of Stockholm and from the northern suburbs.

Djurgårdens IF is currently playing at Stockholm Stadion but will move to a New Stadium in the future. The new stadium will have a capacity of 20-25.000 and will be located close to the old one. Tvillingderbyt is the derby between AIK and Djurgården and is often referred to as one of the hottest derbies in Europe. The clubs are both founded in 1891 in Stockholm City, thereby the name (the Twinderby). Most of Djurgården"s fans are from innercity of Stockholm, especially Östermalm.

Hammarby"s stadia is located in the south of Stockholm, along with most of its fans. They have been playing at Söderstadion since the early 70s, but are to move to the new Stockholmsarenan with a capacity of 30.000, located 500 metres south of their current stadium.

Historically, the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics. From those days stem the Stockholms Olympiastadion which has since hosted numerous sports events, notably football and athletics. Other major sport arenas are Råsunda Stadium, the national football stadium, and Stockholm Globe Arena, a multi-sport arena and one of the largest spherical buildings in the world.

Beside the 1912 Summer Olympics, Stockholm hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics Equestrian Games. The city was also second runner up in the 2004 Summer Olympics bids.

Stockholm also hosted all but one of the Nordic Games, a winter multi-sport event that predated the Winter Olympics.

Kungsträdgården park]File:swedbank.jpg

There are over 1000 restaurants in Stockholm.1997 there were 1123 restaurants with permission to serve alcoholic drinks Due to immigration, the city has plenty of restaurants with all kinds of food from all over the world such as American fast food, Asian, Italian, Turkish, French, Greek, Scandinavian, Spanish, and Middle Eastern cuisine. Cafeterias and bars are easy to find anywhere in the city.

As of 2009 Stockholm boasts a total of nine Michelin star restaurants, two of which have two stars.

early event
Stockholm Marathon, 2008
*Where the Action Is Tour is a 2-day music festival held in Djurgården in June.
*Stockholm Jazz Festival is one of Sweden"s oldest festivals. The festival takes place at Skeppsholmen in July.
*Stockholm Pride is the largest Pride event in the Nordic countries and takes place in the last week of July every year. The Stockholm Pride festival always ends with a parade and in 2007, 50 000 people marched with the parade and about 500 000 watched.
*The Stockholm Marathon takes place on a Saturday in early June each year
*The Nobel Banquet takes place at Stockholm City Hall every year on December 10

Gallery of some notable buildings

File:Stortorget Gamla Stan Buildings.JPG|Historical buildings on Stortorget in Old town
File:Royal-Palace-Stockholm_2.jpg|Stockholm Palace, the official residence of the Royal Family, with its appearance consecrated between 1730–1830.
File:Townhallstockholm.jpg|Stockholm City Hall by architect Ragnar Östberg, view over Lake Mälaren
File:Dramaten_050701.JPG|Royal Dramatic Theatre, One of Stockholm"s many theatres
File:Grand hotel stockholm 20050902.jpg|Five star luxury Grand Hôtel
File:Globen Stockholm February 2007.jpg|Ericsson Globe
File:NK Stocholm.jpg|Shopping mall of Nordiska Kompaniet
File:Grona lund 20050902 001.jpg|Amusement Park of Gröna Lund located on the island of Djurgården

ublic transpor

Greater Stockholm"s commuter train

Stockholm has an extensive public transport system, one that by at least one measure is the most expensive in the world. It consists of the Stockholm Metro ("Tunnelbana"); two urban rail systems, Roslagsbanan and Saltsjöbanan; and a suburban rail system: the Stockholm commuter rail ("pendeltåg"), three light rail systems: Nockebybanan, Lidingöbanan, and Tvärbanan; a large number of bus lines, and the inner-city boat line Djurgårdsfärjan. All the land-based public transport in Stockholm County, except the airport buses/trains, are organized by Storstockholms Lokaltrafik ("SL"), with the operation and maintenance of the public transport services delegated to several contractors, such as Veolia Transport who operate the metro and suburban railways except for the commuter rail. The archipelago boat traffic is handled by Waxholmsbolaget.

Stockholm metro (tunnelbana)
SL has a common ticket system in the entire Stockholm County, which allows for easy travel between different modes of transport. The tickets are of two main types, single ticket and travel cards, both allowing for unlimited travel with SL in the entire Stockholm County for the duration of the ticket validity. Starting April 1, 2007, a new zone system(A,B,C) and price system applies for single tickets. Single tickets are now available in forms of cash ticket, individual unit pre-paid tickets, pre-paid ticket slips of 10, sms-ticket and machine ticket. Cash tickets bought at the point of travel are the most expensive and pre-paid tickets slips of 10 are the cheapest. A single ticket is valid for one hour. The duration of the travel card validity depends on the exact type, they are available from 24 hours up to a year. A 30-day card costs 690 SEK (73 EUR; 115 USD). Tickets of all these types are available with reduced prices for persons under 20 and over 65 years of age.

Stockholm is at the junction of the European routes E4, E18 and E20. A half-completed motorway ring road exists on the south and west sides of the City Centre.

ongestion charge

Essingeleden, part of E4 and E20
Congestion tax control point

Stockholm has a congestion pricing system, Stockholm congestion tax, in use on a permanent basis since August 1, 2007, after having had a seven month trial period in the first half of 2006. The City Centre is within the congestion tax zone. All the entrances and exits of this area have unmanned control points operating with automatic number plate recognition. All vehicles entering or exiting the congestion tax affected area, with a few exceptions, have to pay 10–20 SEK (1.09–2.18 EUR, 1.49–2.98 USD) depending on the time of day between 06:30 and 18:29. The maximum tax amount per vehicle per day is 60 SEK (6.53 EUR, 8.94 USD). Payment is done by various means within 14 days after one has passed one of the control points, one cannot pay at the control points.

After the trial period was over, consultative referendums were held in Stockholm Municipality and several other municipalities in Stockholm County. The then-reigning government (cabinet Persson) stated that they would only take into consideration the results of the referendum in Stockholm Municipality. The opposition parties (Alliance for Sweden) stated that they were to form a cabinet after the general election—which was held the same day as the congestion tax referendums—they would take into consideration the referendums held in several the other municipalities as well, but didn"t specify more in detail how they would do that. The results of the referendums were that the Stockholm Municipality voted for the congestion tax, but all the other municipalities voted against it. The opposition parties won the general election and a few days before they formed government (cabinet Reinfeldt) they announced that the congestion tax would be reintroduced in Stockholm, but that the revenue would go entirely to road construction in and around Stockholm. During the trial period and according to the agenda of the previous government the revenue went entirely to public transport.

Djurgården ferry

Stockholm has regular ferry lines to Helsinki and Turku in Finland (commonly called "Finlandsfärjan"); Tallinn, Estonia; Riga, Latvia; and to the Åland islands. Travelers are no longer able to take a direct ferry to St. Petersburg, Russia as of 1998. One must first ferry to Helsinki and then onto St. Petersburg.

The large Stockholm archipelago is served by the Waxholmsbolaget archipelago boats.

Stockholm-Arlanda Airport is the largest and busiest airport in Stockholm and Sweden.

Stockholm-Arlanda Airport is the largest and busiest airport in Sweden with 18 million passengers in 2007.
It is located about 40 km north of Stockholm.

* International and domestic:
**Stockholm-Arlanda Airport is the primary airport for the region and serves as a hub for Scandinavian Airlines.
**Stockholm-Bromma Airport is located about west of Stockholm.
*Only international:
**Stockholm-Skavsta Airport is located south of Stockholm.
**Stockholm-Västerås Airport is located west of Stockholm, in the city of Västerås.

Arlanda Express airport rail link runs between Arlanda Airport and central Stockholm. There are also bus lines, Flygbussarna, that run between central Stockholm and all the airports.

nter-city train
Stockholm Central Station
Stockholm Central Station has train connections to many Swedish cities as well as to Oslo, Norway and Copenhagen, Denmark. The popular X 2000 service to Gothenburg takes three hours. Most of the trains are run by SJ AB.

International rankings
Stockholm often performs well in international rankings, some of which are mentioned below:

* In the book "The Ultimate Guide to International Marathons" (1997), written by Dennis Craythorn and Rich Hanna, Stockholm Marathon is ranked as the best marathon in the world.
* In a 2002 report by the Robert Huggins Associates which compared ninety of the world"s largest economic cities and regions, Stockholm was ranked twenty-second in terms of transforming knowledge into business. Stockholm was ranked first of any city outside the United States. Major cities that ranked below Stockholm included New York, London, Tokyo, Hamburg and Hong Kong.
* In the 2006 European Innovation Scoreboard, prepared by the Maastricht Economic Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT) and the Joint Research Centre"s Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen of the European Commission, Stockholm was ranked as the most innovative city in Europe.
* In the 2008 World Knowledge Competitiveness Index, published by the Centre for International Competitiveness, Stockholm was ranked as the sixth most competitive region in the world and the most competitive region outside the United States.
* In the 2006 European Regional Growth Index (E-REGI), published by Jones Lang LaSalle, Stockholm was ranked fifth on the list of European cities with the strongest GDP growth forecast. Stockholm was ranked first in Scandinavia and second outside Central and Eastern Europe.
* In the 2007 European Cities Monitor, published by Cushman & Wakefield, Stockholm was ranked as the best Nordic city to locate a business. In the same report, Stockholm was ranked first in Europe in terms of freedom from pollution.
* In a 2007 survey performed by the environmental economist Matthew Kahn for the "Reader"s Digest" magazine, Stockholm was ranked first on its list of the "greenest" and most "livable" cites in the world.
* In a 2008 survey published by the "Reader"s Digest" magazine, Stockholm was ranked fourth in the world and first in Europe on its list of the "world’s top ten honest cities".
* In a 2008 survey published by the "National Geographic Traveler" magazine, Gamla stan (the old town) in Stockholm was ranked sixth on its list of rated historic places.
* In a 2008 survey published by the "Foreign Policy" magazine, Stockholm was ranked twenty-fourth on its list of the world"s most global cities.
odern political syste
The Riksdag building, Stockholm.
Constitutionally, the 349-member Riksdag (Parliament) holds supreme authority in modern Sweden. The Riksdag is responsible for choosing the prime minister, who then appoints the government (the ministers). The legislative power is then shared between the parliament and the Prime Minister led government. The executive power is exercised by the government, while the judiciary is independent. Sweden lacks compulsory judicial review, although the non-compulsory review carried out by "lagrådet" (Law Council) is mostly respected in technical matters but less so in controversial political matters. Acts of the parliament and government decrees can be made inapplicable at every level if they are manifestly against constitutional laws. However, due to the restrictions in this form of judicial review and a weak judiciary, this has had little practical consequence.

eferences and notes

ee als
*Largest European metropolitan areas
*Ports of the Baltic Sea
*List of people connected to Stockholm
*Stockholm syndrome

xternal link

* – official website
* – the official visitors" guide
* from Wikitravel

Category:Stockholm urban area
Category:Metropolitan Stockholm
Category:Municipal seats of Stockholm County
Category:Swedish municipal seats
Category:Cities, towns and villages in Stockholm County
Category:Port cities and towns in Sweden
Category:Port cities and towns of the Baltic Sea
Category:Capitals in Europe
Category:Coastal cities and towns in Sweden
Category:Host cities of the Summer Olympic Games

be:Горад Стакгольм
myv:Стокгольм ош
gl:Estocolmo - Stockholm
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 25.06.2022 16:55 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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