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Stevenage

Great Britain, Stevenage
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"Stevenage" is a town and district in , England. It is to the east of junctions 7 and 8 of the A1(M), and is between Letchworth Garden City to the north, and Welwyn Garden City to the south.

Its population was 1,430 in 1801, 4,049 in 1901 and 79,724 in 2001. The largest increase occurred in the 1950s and 1960s, after Stevenage was designated a new town under the New Towns Act of 1946.

lace-name meanin
Stevenage may derive from Old English "stiþen āc" / "stiōen āc" / "stithen ac" (various Old English dialects cited here) meaning "(place at) the strong oak".

The name was recorded as "Stithenæce", c.1060 and "Stigenace" in 1086 in the Domesday Book.

istor
The present site of Stevenage lies near a Roman road that ran from Verulamium to Baldock. Some Romano-British remains were discovered during the building of the New Town, and a hoard of 2,000 silver Roman coins was discovered in 1986 during new house building in the Chells Manor part of Stevenage. The most substantial evidence of activity from Roman times are the "Six Hills", six tumuli by the side of the old Great North Road - presumably the burial places of a local family.

A little to the east of the Roman sites the first Saxon camp was made in a clearing in the woods. This is where the church, manor house and the first village were later built. Similar settlements sprang up in the nearby areas of Chells, Broadwater and Shephall.

In the Domesday Book, its Lord of the Manor was the Abbot of Westminster. The settlement had moved down to the Great North Road and in 1281 it was granted a Royal Charter to hold a weekly market and annual fair (still held in the High Street).

The earliest part of St Nicholas Church dates from the 12th century, but it was probably a site of worship much earlier. The known list of priests or rectors is relatively complete from 1213.

The remains of a medieval moated homestead in Whomerley Wood is an 80 yard square trench almost 5 feet wide in parts. It was probably the home of Ralph de Homle, and both Roman and later pottery has been found there.

For a description of the medieval manorial records, and details of Stevenage"s history from the Tudor period to the Victorian era - see the external history link.

In 1281 Stevenage was granted a twice weekly market and an annual fair. Both were probably held in the wide part of the present High Street to the north of Middle Row. The High Street is closed for an annual fair even today.

Around 1500 the Church was much improved, with decorative woodwork within, and with the addition of a clerestory.

It was in the 16th century (1558) that Thomas Alleyne, most probably a former monk, founded a free grammar school for boys, Alleyne"s Grammar School, which had an unbroken existence (unlike the grammar school in neighbouring Hitchin) till 1989 — the school (now a mixed comprehensive school) still exists on its original site at the north end of the High Street, but is shortly to move to the suburb of Great Ashby. Francis Cammaerts was headmaster of the school from 1952 to 1961.

Stevenage"s prosperity came in part from the North Road, which was turnpiked in the early 18th century. Many inns in the High Street served the stage coaches, 21 of which passed through Stevenage each day in 1800.

Middle Row, Stevenage Old Town
In 1857 the Great Northern Railway was constructed, and the era of the stage coach had ended. Stevenage grew only slowly throughout the 19th century and a second church (Holy Trinity) was constructed at the south end of the High Street. In 1861 Dickens commented "The village street was like most other village streets: wide for its height, silent for its size, and drowsy in the dullest degree. The quietest little dwellings with the largest of window-shutters to shut up nothing as if it were the Mint or the Bank of England."

In 1928, Philip Vincent bought the HRD Motorcycle Co Ltd out of receivership, immediately moving it to Stevenage and renaming it the Vincent HRD Motorcycle Co Ltd. He produced the legendary motorcycles, including the Black Shadow and Black Lightning, in the town until 1955.

odern Stevenag
This slow growth continued until, after the Second World War, the Abercrombie Plan called for the establishment of a ring of new towns around London. It was designated the first New Town on 1 August 1946. The plan was not popular with local people who protested at a meeting held in the town hall before Lewis Silkin, minister in the Labour Government of Clement Attlee. As Lewis Silkin arrived at the railway station for this meeting, some local people had changed the signs "Stevenage" to "Silkingrad". Silkin was obstinate at the meeting, telling a crowd of 3,000 people outside the town hall (around half the town"s residents): "It"s no good your jeering, it"s going to be done." Despite the hostile reaction to Silkin, and a referendum that showed 52% (turnout 2,500) "entirely against" the expansion, the plan went ahead. Ironically, although the New Towns Commission declared the Old Town would not be touched, the first significant building to be demolished in it was indeed the Old Town Hall, in which the opposition had been expressed.

In keeping with the sociological outlook of the day, the town was planned with six self-contained neighbourhoods. The first two of these to be occupied were the Stoney Hall and Monks Wood "Estates" in 1951. Next to be built and occupied by the London "overspill" was Bedwell in 1952 – The "Twin Foxes" pub was Stevenage"s first "new" public house and is still situated in the Bedwell estate. The public house was named after local notorious identical twin poachers (Albert Ebenezer and Ebenezer Albert Fox). Next came Broadwater and Shephall (1953), then Chells in the 1960s and later Pin Green and Symonds Green. Another area to the north of the town is Great Ashby – this is still under construction as of 2009.

At least three other public houses are worth mentioning, for they have a direct relationship to local history: the name of the pub "Edward the Confessor" (closed 2006) could have a connection to the time in which the St Mary Church in nearby Walkern was built, for King Edward ruled from 1042 until his death in 1066. Walkern"s village church dates from this time. The second pub with a strong bond to local history seems to be the "Our Mutual Friend" in Shephall, for the name of the pub is the title of a novel by Charles Dickens. Dickens was at some occasion guest to Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton in nearby Knebworth House, and for that reason he knew Stevenage very well. The Pied Piper in Broadwater is the only public house in the world to be opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

Fairlands 1964 before Fairlands Lakes
Pedestrianised Town Centre
Cycle Track in Roundabout
High Street in the Old Town
The pedestrianised town centre was the first purpose built traffic-free shopping zone in Britain, and was officially opened in 1959 by the Queen. By the clock tower and ornamental pool is "Joyride", a mother and child sculpture by Franta Belsky. Although revolutionary for its time, the town centre is showing signs of age and in 2005 plans were revealed for a major regeneration due to take place over the next decade. Details are still being debated by the council, landowners and other interested parties.

Next to the Town Gardens, the Church of St George and St Andrew is an example of modern church design, and has housed Stevenage Museum in its crypt since 1976. The church is a "cathedral-like" Grade 2 listed building. It is also the largest parish church to have been built in England since World War Two.

Her late Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother laid the Foundation Stone in July 1956 and was also present at the consecration by the Bishop of St Albans, the Right Reverend Michael Gresford-Jones, on Advent Sunday 27 November 1960.
The frame is constructed from a "continuous pour" of concrete into moulds creating interlacing arches and leaving no apparent joints. There are twelve Purbeck marble columns about the High Altar and the external walls are clad in panels faced with Normandy pebble. The campanile houses the loudspeakers for an electro-acoustic carillon.

In the old town centre of Stevenage, next to St Nicholas Church, in the parochial house there, called Rooksnest ("under the big wych-elm") the novelist Edward Morgan Forster lived from 1884 to 1894. Stevenage later acquired a monument through him, when he had Rooksnest in mind as a role model for the setting of his novel "Howards End". In the preface of one paperback edition of "Howards End", there is a lot to be found about landmarks of Stevenage and their relationship to the story of the novel, such as the Stevenage High Street and the Six Hills. The land north of St Nicholas Church, known as Forster Country, is the last remaining farmland within the boundary of Stevenage borough. Forster was unhappy with the development of new Stevenage, which would, in his words, "fall out of the blue sky like a meteorite upon the ancient and delicate scenery of ".

Also close to Stevenage is Knebworth House, a gothic stately home and venue of globally well-known rock concerts since 1974. The house was once home to Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Victorian English novelist and spiritualist, who, as reported by one of his visitors, was so deep in the belief of spiritual realities that he sometimes thought himself to be invisible while others were around.

In 1999 a millennium countdown clock was mounted on the town centre clock tower, displaying the time remaining until the year 2000. The artwork on the clock was designed by Nicola Reed, a pupil of Fearnhill School, Letchworth.

Adjacent to, yet separate from the residential parts of the town, is the Industrial Area. For many years, British Aerospace (now MBDA) was the largest employer in the town, but now GlaxoSmithKline has a large pharmaceutical research laboratory complex (which is known as "The Palace" to many of its inhabitants). A smaller but interesting enterprise is Astrium which has for some decades (as part of British Aerospace and its predecessors) manufactured spacecraft, both as prime contractor and equipment supplier. There are many small to medium size firms as well.

The town is still growing. It is set to expand west of the A1(M) motorway and may be further identified for development depending on the outcome of the Examination In Public of the Regional Spatial Strategy. The main area of recent development is Great Ashby to the northeast of the town (but actually in North Herts District).

Stevenage holds a number of annual events, including the , Rock in the Park and Stevenage Carnival.

Stevenage has the highest rate of teenage pregnancies in the UK and one of the highest in Europe, and a higher-than-average rate of family and relationship breakdown. While unemployment is below the national average it is nevertheless the highest in . The employment prospects for many local people in recent years have been uncertain, and are largely based in retail and low-paid service jobs. There is a hi-tech nature of both national and international industry and business in the town.

eograph
limat
Stevenage experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification "Cfb") similar to almost all of the United Kingdom.


|accessdate = 24 May 2009 }}

port and Leisur
Stevenage has a King George"s Field named in memory of King George V, which boasts cricket and a bowls green, which is used by Stevenage Town Bowls Club. The Stevenage Leisure Centre contains the Gordon Craig Theatre and many facilities for sports. The nearby Stevenage Leisure Park has a multiplex cinema, clubs and restaurants. The main shopping area is around Queensway and the Westgate. At the south of the town there is a retail park called Roaring Meg, named after the river that runs under it. The river can be seen along the western edge of the area. There is also shopping in the Old Town.

Stevenage used to have an ice rink in Roaring Meg but this was shut down after the owner was refused a license to hold concerts in the premises.

Stevenage Borough F.C., the town"s major football team, plays in the Football Conference. Stevenage Borough F.C. won the 2007 FA Carlsberg Trophy beating Kidderminster 3-2 at Wembley Stadium. It was the first competitive club game and cup final to be held at the new stadium.

The town also has a number of other successful sports clubs, including a woman"s football team (Stevenage Borough Ladies FC) and Stevenage Rugby Club. Many top class sporting heroes have come from Stevenage, the most notable being Ashley Young, Lewis Hamilton and Ian Poulter.

Fairlands Valley is a large area of parkland with boating lakes. The town is a very green town, with avenues of trees (typically Norway Maple) throughout but also large woods such as Monks & Whomerley Wood, which is ancient semi-natural woodland. Indeed in the UK it is only matched for the ease of access to large woodland by places such the Forest of Dean (Woodland Trust data). There are also many playing fields (e.g. St. Nicholas playing fields near Ripon Road). The town"s schools all have a substantial amount of ground; key examples are Ashtree Primary School, Moss Bury Primary School, Longmeadow Primary School and Barnwell.

ranspor
A distinctive feature of Stevenage is its urban landscape. It has many roundabouts, few traffic lights, a network of completely segregated cycle tracks, and some of the tallest street-lights in Britain.

Buses within and to outside the town are provided by several operators, the main within the town being Arriva The Shires.

Stevenage is served by the A1(M) motorway, taking traffic both north and south. It is also served by the smaller A602 road taking traffic southeast, meeting the A10 road at Ware.

The town is served by railway station, a busy stop on the East Coast Mainline. As such regular trains to London and points north are available.

otable inhabitant
;Born in Stevenage
* Ian Allinson (b. 1957), footballer
* Harry Bates (1850–1899), sculptor
* Andrew Croft (1906–1991) explorer and SOE (Special Operations Executive) agent
* Albert and Ebenezer Fox (1857–1926, 1857–1936), infamous poachers
* Lewis Hamilton (b. 1985), Formula One world champion (2008)
* Alex Pettyfer (b. 1990), actor
* Jason Shackell (b. 1983), footballer
* Ed Westwick (b. 1987), actor
* Jack Wilshere (b. 1992), Arsenal footballer
* Ashley Young (b. 1985), footballer

;Lived in Stevenage
* Francis Cammaerts (1916–2006), headmaster of Alleyne"s Grammar School and witness in the Lady Chatterley Trial, October 1960
* Edward Gordon Craig, theatrical designer and artist
* Denholm Elliott (1922–1992), actor, who lived in the house now known as the "Little Folks Lab" nursery in the North-West of the town
* Fields of the Nephilim, goth band
* Barbara Follett (b. 1942), politician
* Ken Follett (b. 1949), author
* E. M. Forster (1879–1970), novelist, lived in the house at Rooks Nest from 1883 to 1893.
* Cathy Lesurf, singer and member of bands such as Oysterband, Fiddler"s Dram, Fairport Convention and The Albion Country Band
* Nicki Pedersen World Speedway Champion
* Kevin Phillips (b. 1973), footballer
* Rob Playford (b. 1968), Drum and Bass Pioneer and founder of Moving Shadow Records
* Ian Poulter (b. 1976), golfer
* Naum Slutzky (1894–1965), designer, master of Weimarer Bauhaus
* John Thurloe (1616–1668), secretary to Oliver Cromwell, lived in what is now the Cromwell Hotel.
* Phil Vincent (1908–1979), British motorcycle pioneer
* Henry Trigg, 18c. farmer who wanted to come back from the dead after 30 years. His coffin was placed on a beam in a barn which later became a bank in Old Stevenage.
* Anthony (Tony) John Wright (b. 1962), cricketer

chool
Many schools were built in the 1950s/60s due to a massive rush of Londoners to affordable terraced housing in areas such as Shephall, Broadwater, Chells and St Nicholas. The town has around 23 primary schools (see below). Some go to the surrounding villages of Aston, Benington, Walkern, Datchworth for their schooling. Stevenage also has a number of secondary schools.

rimary school
oca
* Camps Hill
* Round Diamond (Relocated to Great Ashby from the Pin Green area)
* Lodge Farm
*
*
* The Leys
*
* Trotts Hill
* Bedwell
* St Vincent de Paul RC (collaboration of Pope Pius XII RC JMI and St John Southworth RC JMI, September 1990)
* Almond Hill & Letchmore Rd
* Ashtree
*
* Featherstone Wood
* Broom Barns
*
* Peartree Spring Infants and Junior
* St Margaret Clitherow RC
* Roebuck
*
* Woolenwick

ormer School
* Pope Pius XII RC JMI (site in Chells closed and amalgamated with St John Southworth RC JMI, September 1990)
* St John Southworth RC JMI
* Pin Green
* Shephalbury Park Primary School (amalgamated with Shephall Green Infant School in September 2005, now closed)
* Collenswood School
* Stevenage Girls School (amalgamated with Alleynes School to become Thomas Alleynes School)

earb
* Walkern
* Aston St Mary"s C of E
* Graveley
* Benington C of E
* Weston
* Knebworth JMI

pecial Needs school
* Larwood
* Lonsdale
* Redemption Academy
* Greenside
* The Valley School
* Barnwell (containing the for the Visually impaired pupils and the for Pupils with specific learning difficulties)

econdary school
n Stevenag
* Barnwell School Barnwell, SG2 9SW (In 2006, Barnwell school took in students from Collenswood School after its closure. Students are now taught on two sites: Barnwell East and Barnwell West.)
* The Barclay School (a technology college), Walkern Rd, Stevenage, SG1 3RB
* The Heathcote School (a specialist engineering college), Shephall Green, Stevenage, SG2 9XT
* John Henry Newman RC (a specialist arts school) Hitchin Road, Stevenage, SG1 4AE
* Marriotts School (a sports college), Telford Avenue, Stevenage, SG2 0AN
* The Nobel School (a specialist performing arts and science DCSF training school), Mobbsbury Way, Stevenage, SG2 0HS
* The Thomas Alleyne School, (a specialist science college) No. 1, High Street, SG1 3BE

laces of worshi
Stevenage has an active network of churches of many denominations. Many of the churches work together for town-wide projects under the banner of . Stevenage also has a mosque.

Some of the churches are listed here:
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

own twinning
*25px Ingelheim, Germany (1963)
*25px Autun, France (1975)
*25px Kadoma, Zimbabwe (1989)
*25px Shymkent, Kazakhstan (1990)

References



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Category:Towns in
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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 15.10.2019 17:25 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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