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Bulgaria, Sofia
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istor

ntiquit
Church of St. George, dating back to 4th century

The ancient fortress of Serdica

Sofia was originally a Thracian settlement called "Serdica", or "Sardica", possibly named after the Celtic tribe Serdi. For a short period during the 4th century BC, the city was ruled by Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great.

Around BC 29, Serdica was conquered by the Romans. It became a "municipium", or centre of an administrative region, during the reign of Emperor Trajan (98-117) and was renamed "Ulpia Serdica".

It seems that the first written mention of Serdica was made by Ptolemy (around 100 AD).

Serdica (Sardica) expanded, as turrets, protective walls, public baths, administrative and cult buildings, a civic basilica, an amphitheatre - the City Council (Boulé), a large Forum, a big Circus (Theatre), etc. were built. When Emperor Diocletian divided the province of Dacia into Dacia Ripensis (at the banks of the Danube) and Dacia Mediterranea, Serdica became the capital of Dacia Mediterranea. The city subsequently expanded for a century and a half, it became a significant political and economical centre, moreso — it became one of the first roman cities where Christianity was recognized as an official religion (Еmperor Galerius). So it was only very natural that Constantine the Great called Serdica (Sardica) "My Rome". In 343 A.D. , the Council of Sardica was held in the city, in a church located where the current 6th century Church of Saint Sofia was later built. Serdica was of moderate size, but magnificent as an urban concept of planning and architecture, with abundant amusements and an active social life. It flourished during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, when it was surrounded with great fortress walls whose remnants can still be seen today.

The city was destroyed by the Huns in 447 but was rebuilt by Justinian and for a while called "Triaditsa" or "Sredets" by the slavonic tribes.

iddle Age

Sofia first became part of the First Bulgarian Empire during the reign of Khan Krum in 809 after a long siege.Theophanes Confessor. Chronographia, p.485 Afterwards, it was known by the Bulgarian name "Sredets" and grew into an important fortress and administrative centre. After the fall of North-eastern Bulgaria under John I Tzimiskes" armies in 971, the Bulgarian Patriarch Damyan chose Sofia for his seat in the next year. After a number of unsuccessful sieges, the city fell to the Byzantine Empire in 1018, but once again was incorporated into the restored Bulgarian Empire at the time of Tsar Ivan Asen I.

From the 12th to the 14th century, Sofia was a thriving centre of trade and crafts. It is possible that it has been called by the common population "Sofia" (meaning "wisdom" in Ancient Greek) about 1376 after the Church of St. Sofia. However, in different testimonies it was called both "Sofia" and "Sredets" until the end of the 19th century. In 1382 Sofia () was seized by the Ottoman Empire in the course of the Bulgarian-Ottoman Wars - after a long siege the city was captured with treason. The new name — Sofia, replaced the old one — Sredets, after the liberation of the city from Turkish rule in 1878. Quite some time after 1878 there was a strong will, expressed by Bulgarian committees, to keep the name Sredets, but the Russian administration accepted Sofia.

ttoman rul
After the campaign of Władysław III of Poland in 1443 towards Sofia, the city"s Christian elite was annihilated and became the capital of the Ottoman province (beylerbeylik) of Rumelia for more than 4 centuries, which encouraged many Turks to settle there. In the 16th century Sofia"s urban layout and appearance began to exhibit a clear Ottoman style, with many mosques, fountains and "hamams" (bathhouses). During that time the town had a population of around 7,000 which rose to 55,000 by the mid 17th century.

The town was seized for several weeks by Bulgarian "haiduks" in 1599. In 1610 the Vatican established the See of Sofia for Catholics of Rumelia, which existed until 1715 when most Catholics had emigrated.s:Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Sardica In the 16th century there were 126 Jewish households, and there has been a synagogue in Sofia since 967. She was the center of Sofya Eyalet (1826-1864).

Sofia, 1934

nd of Ottoman Rul
Sofia was taken by Russian forces on January 4, 1878, during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78, and became the capital of the autonomous Principality of Bulgaria in 1879, which became the Kingdom of Bulgaria in 1908. It was proposed as a capital by Marin Drinov and was accepted as such on 3 April 1879. By the time of its liberation the population of the city was 11,649.Кираджиев, Светлин (2006). „София. 125 години столица. 1879-2004 година“. ИК „Гутенберг“. ISBN 978-954-617-011-8 For a few decades after the liberation the city experienced large population growth mainly from other regions of the country.

In 1925 the St Nedelya Church assault was carried out by the Bulgarian Communist Party which claimed the lives of 170 people and injured another 500.

During World War II, Sofia was bombed by Allied aircraft in late 1943 and early 1944. As a consequence of the invasion of the Soviet Red Army, Bulgaria"s government, which was allied with Germany, was overthrown.

eople"s Republic of Bulgari
The transformation of Bulgaria into a People"s Republic in 1946 marked a significant change in the city"s appearance. The population of Sofia expanded at high rates because of the collectivisation of agriculture and the related land dispossession of people in the province, and also because a large emphasis was placed on the industrial development of the city — many new large factories and manufacturing plants were built in and around it. The city expansion accelerated after 1958 when the collectivisation and the construction of the huge Kremikovtsi Steel Complex near Sofia were completed. That led to the creation of many new neighbourhoods and the expansion of the public transport network.

dministratio
The city of Sofia is one of 28 (not to be confused with Sofia Province, which surrounds but does not include the city). Besides the city of Sofia, the capital province encompasses three other cities and 34 villages, being split into a total of 24 districts. Each of them has its own district mayor who is elected in a popular election. The head of the Sofia Municipality is its mayor. The assembly members are chosen every four years. The current mayor of Sofia is Yordanka Fandakova.

"Districts of Sofia City":
The districts of Sofia

Sources:София в числа, НСИ, 2003
(Population )

Demographics


A view over Sofia at night

According to 1999 data, the whole Capital Municipality, with a population of 1,246,651, had a population density of 917.8.

The ratio of women per 1,000 men was 1,114 and the rate of population ageing was 100.3. The birth rate per 1000 people was 7.9 and steadily declining in the last 15 years, the death rate reaching 12.2 and growing. The population was declining by 4.3 percent. However, considerable immigration to the capital from poorer regions of the country, as well as urbanisation, are the reasons Sofia"s population is in practice increasing. 5.7 people of every one thousand were married (only heterosexual marriage is possible in Bulgaria) and the infant mortality rate was 11 dead babies per 1,000 born alive, down from 18.9 in 1980.

According to the 2001 census, Sofia"s population is made up of 96% ethnic Bulgarians; among minority communities, nearly 18,000 (1.5%) officially identified themselves as Roma,This statistic should not necessarily be taken at face value due to conflicting data – such as for the predominanly Roma neighbourhood of Fakulteta, which alone has a population of 45,000. 6,000 as Turkish, 3,000 as Russian, 1,700 as Armenian, and 1,200 as Greek. - recovered 26-06-2008. All other ethnic groups numbered less than one thousand; nearly 15,000 people said "other" or did not give an ethnicity.

The unemployment is lower than in other parts of the country — 2.45% of the active population in 1999 and declining, compared to 7.25% for the whole of Bulgaria as of July 1, 2007 (also on the decrease). The large share of unemployed people with higher education, 27% as compared to 7% for the whole country, is a characteristic feature of the capital.

Sofia was declared capital in 1879. One year later, in 1880, it was the fifth-largest city in the country after Plovdiv, Varna, Ruse and Shumen. Plovdiv remained the most populous Bulgarian town until 1892 when Sofia took the lead.

ultur


usic and nightlif
Sofia has an extensive nightlife scene with many night clubs, live venues, pubs, mehani (Bulgarian traditional taverns), and restaurants. The city has played host to many world-famous musical acts including Madonna, George Michael, Lenny Kravitz, Kiss, Kylie Minogue, Depeche Mode, Metallica and Rihanna

useum

Sofia houses numerous museums, notably the National Historical Museum, the Bulgarian Natural History Museum, the Museum of Earth and Men, the Ethnographic Museum, the National Museum of Military History, the National Polytechnical Museum and the National Archaeological Museum. In addition, there are the Sofia City Art Gallery, the Bulgarian National Gallery of Arts, the Bulgarian National Gallery for Foreign Art as well as numerous private art galleries.

laces of special interes
The city also offers many places of special interest such as the Sts. Cyril and Methodius National Library (which houses the largest national book collection and is Bulgaria"s oldest cultural institute), the Sofia State Library, the British Council, the Russian Cultural Institute, the Polish Cultural Institute, the Hungarian Institute, the Czech and the Slovak Cultural Institutes, the Italian Cultural Institute, the French Cultural Institute, Goethe Institut, Instituto Cervantes, and the Open Society Institute. The city is also known for the Boyana Church, which is a UNESCO world heritage site.
In addition, Sofia houses the Sofia Zoological Garden, which was founded in 1888.

Several international film productions were made here. Vitosha Boulevard, also called Vitoshka — ranked as the world"s 22nd most expensive commercial street — represents numerous fashion boutiques and luxury goods stores and features exhibitions by world fashion designers. Sofia"s geographic location, situated in the foothills of the weekend retreat Vitosha mountain, further adds to the city"s specific atmosphere.


File:Sofia TodorBozhinov 30 September (2).JPG|The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences building
File:Battenberg-square-NAG-sofia-alhague.jpg|The former royal palace at Battenberg Square, now the National Art Gallery
File:NDK-front-view.jpg|National Palace of Culture
File:Gallery for Foreign Art TodorBozhinov 041009.jpg|The Neoclassical old Royal Printing Office built in 1882–1884 is today the National Gallery for Foreign Art
File:Voennen club.jpg| Central Military Club
File:Sofia buildings TodorBozhinov (34).JPG|SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library
File:Pond-Sofia-Zoo.jpg|A pond at the Sofia Zoo
File:Narsob3.jpg|The Largo
File:Sofia - Seminary - 2.jpg|Sofia Seminary
File:Hali-clock-ifb.JPG|Clock tower of Central Sofia Market Hall
File:Tsar-liberator-imagesfrombulgaria.jpg|Monument to the Tsar Liberator
File:Sofia-centre-yellowcobbles.JPG|The centre of the city is well-known for being paved with yellow Viennese cobblestones.
File:Sofia, Largo.jpg|Knyaz Aleksandar Dondukov Boulevard
File:Downtown panorama.jpg|Sofia downtown panorama
File:Downtown panorama2.jpg|Another downtown panorama
File:Cathedral and gallery of foreign arts.jpg|The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is one of the largest Eastern Orthodox churches in the world.


conom
Bulgaria Blvd., an example of one of the many new buildings that spurred in the city in recent years.
Bulgarian National Bank

Sofia is the major economic centre of Bulgaria and home to most major Bulgarian and international companies operating in Bulgaria. Sofia is also the country"s financial hub, home to the Bulgarian National Bank, the Bulgarian Stock Exchange, the Financial Supervision Commission as well as the headquarters of all commercial banks operating in the country. Construction, trade and transport are other important sectors of the local economy. Increasingly, Sofia is becoming an outsourcing destination for multinational companies, among them IBM, Hewlett-Packard, SAP, Software AG and Sony.

Fuelled by Bulgaria"s sustained economic growth, the real estate market in Sofia has skyrocketed in recent years. Apartment prices have more than tripled since 2003, with a growth rate of 30% in 2008. The construction industry has exploded with the emergence of new residential and office buildings, hotels, business parks, shopping malls and logistics space. Unemployment is rather low at about 2.5% compared to the Bulgarian average of 6.25% and to levels in other European countries.

ransport and infrastructur
With its developing infrastructure and strategic location, Sofia is an important centre for international railway and automobile routes. Three Trans-European Transport Corridors cross the city: 4, 8 and 10. All major types of transport (except water transport) are represented in the city. It is home to eight railway stations,http://www.sofia.bg/pressecentre/images/OPR1part-4.pdf Sofia infrastructure from the official website of the Municipality the biggest of which is the Central Railway Station. Just next to it is the new Central Bus Station, the biggest and most modern of its kind in the country.

A number of other Bus Stations allow interurban and international trips from different parts of the city. The Sofia Airport with its new second terminal, finished in 2006,


handled some 2.7 million passengers in 2007.




An old-style tram

Public transport is well-developed with bus, tram (153,6 km network) and trolleybus (97 km network) lines running in all areas of the city.





The Sofia underground became operational from 1998 and is yet largely underdeveloped with one line and only 14 stations. Several new stations have been opened in 2009. Another, second line is being build with a targeted completion date in 2012.


The masterplan for the Sofia underground includes three lines with a total of 47 stations. In recent years the marshrutka, a private passenger van, began serving fixed routes and proved an efficient and popular means of transport by being faster than public transport but cheaper than taxis. As of 2005 these vans numbered 368 and serviced 48 lines around the city and suburbs. There are some 6,000 licensed taxi cabs operating in the city and another 2,000 operating somewhat illegally.


Low fares in comparison with other European countries, make taxis affordable and popular among a big part of the city population.

Private automobile ownership has grown rapidly in the 1990s; more than 1,000,000 cars were registered in Sofia in the last five years. The Sofia municipality is known for minor and cosmetic repairs and most streets are in a poor condition.

Consequently traffic and air pollution problems have become more severe and receive regular criticism in local media. The extension of the underground system is hoped to alleviate the city"s immense traffic problems.

Sofia has a unique, very large combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Virtually the entire city (900,000 households and 5,900 companies) is centrally heated, using residual heat from electricity generation (3,000 MW) and gas- and oil-fired heating furnaces; total heat capacity is 4,640 MW. The heat distribution piping network is 900 km long and comprises 14,000 substations and 10,000 heated buildings.

rchitectur
istorical landmark
Late 19th century houses
Former headquarters of the Bulgarian Communist Party

A number of ancient Roman and Byzantine buildings have been preserved in the city and its outskirts. Most notably, the 10th century Boyana Church (one of the UNESCO World Heritage protected sites), the Church of St. George, considered the oldest building in Sofia, and the early Byzantine Church of St Sophia.

A medieval monument of significant interest is The Church of St. Petka located in the very centre of the city providing a sharp contrast to the surrounding three Socialist Classicism edifices of the former Party House, TZUM, and Sheraton Sofia Hotel Balkan.

ost-liberation and Communis

After the Liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in 1878 and the establishment of an autonomous Bulgarian monarchy with its capital in Sofia, Knyaz Alexander Battenberg invited architects from Austria-Hungary to shape the new capital"s architectural appearance.
Lyulin

Among the architects invited to work in Bulgaria were Friedrich Grünanger, Adolf Václav Kolář, Viktor Rumpelmayer and others, who designed the most important public buildings needed by the newly-reestablished Bulgarian government, as well as numerous houses for the country"s elite. Later, many foreign-educated Bulgarian architects also contributed.

Business Park Sofia

The architecture of Sofia"s centre is thus a combination of Neo-Baroque, Neo-Rococo, Neo-Renaissance and Neoclassicism, with the Vienna Secession also later playing an important part, but it is mostly typically Central European.

Among the most important buildings constructed in Sofia in the period are the former royal palace, today housing the National Art Gallery and the National Ethnographic Museum (1882); the Ivan Vazov National Theatre (1907); the former royal printing office, today the National Gallery for Foreign Art; the National Assembly of Bulgaria (1886), the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1893), etc.

After the Second World War and the establishment of a Communist government in Bulgaria in 1944, the architectural line was substantially altered. Socialist Classicism public buildings emerged in the centre, but as the city grew outwards, the new neighbourhoods were dominated by many concrete tower blocks, prefabricated panel apartment buildings ("panelki") and examples of Brutalist architecture.

After the abolishment of Communism in 1989, Sofia has witnessed the construction of whole business districts and neighbourhoods, as well as modern skryscraper-like glass-fronted office buildings, but also top-class residential neighbourhoods.

ducatio
New Bulgarian University campus

There are 16 universities in Sofia. The Saint Clement of Ohrid University of Sofia is often regarded as the most prestigious university of Bulgaria, being founded in 1888

and having an incoming class of 14,000 students each year. Other important universities include the National Academy of Arts, the Technical University of Sofia, the University for National and World Economics, Sofia Medical University, the Krastyo Sarafov National Academy for Theatre and Film Arts, the University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy, the University of Forestry and New Bulgarian University.

Furthermore, institutions of national significance, such as the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library are located in Sofia. The American College of Sofia, founded in 1860 and often regarded as the oldest American academic institution outside the United StatesThis title is also claimed by Robert College, founded in 1863, due to the name and constitutional changes in the American College of Sofia"s history. provides secondary education to some of Bulgaria"s brightest students.

The "St. Clement of Ohrid University of Sofia" is the oldest higher education institution in Bulgaria, founded on 1 October 1888. The university"s edifice was constructed between 1924 and 1934 with the financial support of the brothers Evlogi Georgiev and Hristo Georgiev.



port
The Vasil Levski National Stadium

Being the country"s capital, Sofia is also the centre of Bulgaria"s sporting activities, with a large number of sports clubs based in the city. These include most of Bulgaria"s primary football teams, such as CSKA, Levski, Lokomotiv Sofia and Slavia, as well as formerly great clubs like Akademik, Spartak Sofia and Septemvri.


The capital"s dominance in the sport is reflected in the fact that Sofia-based teams, including dissolved clubs like A.S. 23,


have been Bulgarian football champions on all but thirteen occasions since the national league was formed in 1923.

Although football is popular, sports such as basketball and volleyball have strong traditions. A notable basketball team in the capital is Lukoil Academic, who were twice European Champions Cup finalists.

While no major volleyball teams exist at club level (excluding multiple times champion and Volleyball Champions League participant Levski Sikonko), Bulgaria has always been among the world"s top nations at the sport. The Bulgarian Volleyball Federation is the world"s second-oldest, and it was an exhibition tournament organised by them in Sofia that in 1957 convinced the IOC to include volleyball as an olympic sport.



Tennis is increasingly popular in Sofia. Currently there are some ten

tennis court complexes within the city including the one founded by former WTA top-ten athlete Magdalena Maleeva.



While rugby is a minor sport in Bulgaria, and certainly not a spectator sport, there are several rugby clubs in Sofia for aficionados of the game.

Most other sports, especially individual sports such as boxing, wrestling, and archery can be practiced at the sports complex of the NSA or at that of any of the sports clubs mentioned above. This is because, during the communist era, all sports clubs concentrated on all-round sporting development.

Sofia applied to host the Winter Olympic Games in 1992 and in 1994, coming 2nd and 3rd respectively. The city was also an applicant for the 2014 Winter Olympics, but was not selected as candidate. In addition, Sofia hosted Eurobasket 1957 and the 1961 and 1977 Summer Universiades, as well as the 1983 and 1989 winter editions.

enue
The capital is home to a large number of sports venues, including the 43,000-seat Vasil Levski National Stadium which hosts most major outdoor events in Bulgaria, Levski Sofia"s Georgi Asparuhov Stadium, CSKA Sofia"s Balgarska Armiya Stadium, Slavia Sofia"s Ovcha Kupel Stadium, and Lokomotiv Stadium stadium, which has hosted many major music concerts in recent years.

An important sports facility is the 3,000-capacity Universiade Hall, where in turn many indoor events are held, including Akademik"s European basketball games. There are two ice skating complexes — the Winter Palace of Sports (capacity 4,000) and the Slavia Winter Stadium (capacity 2,000), both containing two rinks each.



There is a velodrome with 5,000 seats in the city"s central park. It is currently disused but undergoing renovation.



ecreatio
View of Borisova gradina.
Most football stadiums have tennis courts, astroturf pitches and other sports facilities joined to them, and there are other such facilities scattered throughout the city, mainly in the parks.

There are also various other all-round sports complexes in the city which belong to institutions other than the football clubs, such as those of the National Sports Academy, of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, or those of the capital"s various universities.

There are more than fifteen swimming complexes in the city, most of them outdoor.

Nearly all of these were constructed as competition venues and therefore have seating facilities for several hundred people.

There are two golf courses just to the east of Sofia — in Elin Pelin (St Sofia club) and in Ihtiman (Air Sofia club), and a horseriding club (St George club).

The capital"s main attraction is probably the ample opportunity provided to Sofianites for making use of the city"s sprawling parklands, many of which are densely forested. There are four such major parks - Tsar Boris"s Garden in the city centre, as well as the "Southern", "Western" and "Northern" and several other smaller parks, most notable of which is the City Garden. The Vitosha Nature Park (the oldest national park in the Balkans


), which includes a big part of the Vitosha mountain to the south of Sofia, covers an area of almost 270 km² and lies entirely within the city limits.

Many Sofianites take weekly hikes up the mountain, and most do so at least a couple of times a year. There are bungalows as well as several ski slopes on Vitosha, allowing locals to take full advantage of the countryside and of the mountains without having to leave the city.

ass medi
The Vitosha Mountain TV Tower
Some of the biggest and most popular telecommunications companies, TV and radio stations, cable television companies, newspapers, magazines, and web portals are based in Sofia. Some television companies and channels include Bulgarian National Television (featuring BNT Channel 1 and TV Bulgaria), bTV and Nova Television among others. Top-circulation newspapers include "24 chasa", "Trud", "Sega" and others.

otable peopl
: "See also: :Category:People from Sofia"

People that were born in Sofia:

* Elisaveta Bagryana (1893–1991), poetess
* Boris III (1894–1943), Tsar of Bulgaria
* Assen Jordanoff (1896–1967), Bulgarian-American aviation pioneer
* Cyril (1901–1971), Patriarch of Bulgaria
* Valeri Petrov (b. 1920), writer
* Stoyanka Mutafova (b. 1922), actress
* Itzhak Fintzi (b. 1933), actor
* Simeon II (b. 1937), former Tsar of Bulgaria and former Prime Minister of Bulgaria
* Georgi Asparuhov (1943–1971), football player
* Borislav Mikhailov (b. 1963), football player and Bulgarian Soccer Union president
* Evgenia Radanova (b. 1977), ice skater
* Antoaneta Stefanova (b. 1979), chess player and Women"s World Chess Champion
* Viktor Antonov, Main Art designer of Valve worked on Half-Life 2 video-game series.
* Moni Moshonov (b. 1951), Israeli actor, comedian and theater director.
* Ivan Kostov (b. 1949), politician, ex-prime-minister (1997-2001)
* Yordanka Hristova, (b. 1943), singer
* Margarita Hranova (b. 1951), singer
* Vasil Naydenov (b. 1950), singer and composer
* Rositza Kirilova (b. 1963) singer
* Pasha Hristova (b. 1946), singer
* Antonia Neshev (b. 1962), creator of Three Wolf Moon T-Shirt
* Diliana Momtchilova, cellist

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Sofia is twinned with:



onou
Serdica Peak on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named after Serdica.

ee als

*Sofia University
*Sofia Metro
*Sofia Airport
*List of malls in Sofia
*List of tallest buildings in Sofia
*List of cities in Bulgaria
*List of villages in Sofia City
*Bulgaria
*Sofia Province
*Plovdiv
*Varna

eference


urther readin
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xternal link


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Category:Capitals in Europe
Category:Cities and towns in Bulgaria
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Category:Settlements established in the 8th century BC



af:Sofia
am:ሶፊያ
ar:صوفيا
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bn:সফিয়া
zh-min-nan:Sofia
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be-x-old:Сафія
bo:སོ་ཧྥི་ཡ།
bs:Sofija
br:Sofia
bg:София
ca:Sofia
cv:Софи
cs:Sofie
co:Sofia
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dsb:Sofija
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myv:София ош
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eu:Sofia
fa:صوفیه
fo:Sofia
fr:Sofia
ga:Sóifia
gv:Sofia
gd:Sofia
gl:Sofía - София
got:͉̹̰̓͆
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hy:Սոֆիա
hsb:Sofia
hr:Sofija
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id:Sofia
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jv:Sofia
ka:სოფია
kk:София
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sw:Sofia
kv:София
ht:Sofia
ku:Sofia
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lv:Sofija
lb:Sofia
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lij:Sòfia
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hu:Szófia
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nl:Sofia (stad)
ja:ソフィア (ブルガリア)
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nn:Sofia
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oc:Sòfia (Bulgaria)
pnb:صوفیہ
pms:Sòfia
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crh:Sofiya
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rmy:Sofiya
qu:Sofiya
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stq:Sofia
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scn:Sofia
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sk:Sofia
cu:Со́фїꙗ
sl:Sofija
sr:Софија
sh:Sofija
fi:Sofia
sv:Sofia (stad)
tl:Sofia
tt:Sofia
th:โซเฟีย
tg:София
tr:Sofya
tk:Sofiýa
uk:Софія
ug:سوفىيە
vi:Sofia
vo:Sofiya
war:Sofia
wo:Sofiya
yi:סאפיע, בולגאריע
yo:Sofia
bat-smg:Suofėjė
zh:索菲亞
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 14.04.2021 02:49 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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istorntiquitChurch of St. George, dating back to 4th centuryThe ancient fortress of SerdicaSofia was originally a Thracian settlement called "Serdica", or "Sardica", possibly named after the Celtic tribe Serdi. For a short period during the 4th
istorntiquitChurch of St. George, dating back to 4th centuryThe ancient fortress of SerdicaSofia was originally a Thracian settlement called "Serdica", or "Sardica", possibly named after the Celtic tribe Serdi. For a short period during the 4th
istorntiquitChurch of St. George, dating back to 4th centuryThe ancient fortress of SerdicaSofia was originally a Thracian settlement called "Serdica", or "Sardica", possibly named after the Celtic tribe Serdi. For a short period during the 4th
"" (, sometimes transliterated as "Bourgas") is List of cities and towns in Bulgariathe second-largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 210,260. It is also the fourth-largest by population in the country,
"" (, sometimes transliterated as "Bourgas") is List of cities and towns in Bulgariathe second-largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 210,260. It is also the fourth-largest by population in the country,
"" (, sometimes transliterated as "Bourgas") is List of cities and towns in Bulgariathe second-largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 210,260. It is also the fourth-largest by population in the country,
 
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There comes a time in everyone’s life when they have to address the age-old question: “What do you want to be when you grow up?” As a child, it’s easy to pick all the awesome jobs such as the president, an astronaut, or a rock star. However,
Jan Tombinski, Head of the EU delegation to Ukraine, expressed full support to the new Ukrainian government and stated that the country and the new government are facing a multiplied crisis which is why it is vital, among other things, to ensure
Hosts Brazil escaped Chile 3-2 on a penalty shoot-out to reach the World Cup quarter-finals Saturday, thanks to two saves from Julio Cesar, the goalpost and successful spot kicks from David Luiz, Marcelo and Neymar. Belo Horinzonte, Brazil (dpa) -
Germany became the first team in the history of the World Cup to reach four consecutive semi-finals with a 1-0 victory over France Friday and the media praised the men who achieved the feat. Berlin (dpa) - "Adieu, les Bleus!" screamed
Defenders Thiago Silva and David Luiz were both on target Friday in Fortaleza, where Brazil defeated Colombia 2-1 to book a place against Germany in the World Cup's semi-finals. Fortaleza, Brazil (dpa) - James Rodriguez pulled one back for Colombia
Germany dealt shell-shocked Brazil a remarkable 7-1 thrashing Tuesday to advance to the World Cup final, in a match that quickly turned into a nightmare for the host nation. Belo Horizonte, Brazil (dpa) - Thomas Mueller struck 11 minutes into the
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