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Smederevo

Serbia, Smederevo
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"Smederevo" (Смедерево) is a city and municipality in Serbia on the at 44°40" North, 20°55" East. In 2002 the city had a total population of 77,808, and the surrounding municipality had a population of 109,809. It is the administrative center of the Podunavlje District.

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In Serbian, the city is known as "Smederevo" (Смедерево), in Latin, Romanian and Greek as "Semendria", in Hungarian as "Szendrő" or "Vég-Szendrő", in Turkish as "Semendire".

istor
Dacians and Thracians dwelled in the area of "Vinceia" until their assimilation with current ethnic groups in the region, Romans conquered Vinceia/"Semendria" in the 1st century BC.
The modern founder of the city was the Serbian prince Đurađ Branković in the 15th century, who built Smederevo Fortress in 1430 as the new Serbian capital. When he became lord of Tokaj in Hungary, he planted vines from Smederevo on his estates there; from these came the famous Tokaji white wine. Smederevo was the residence of Branković and the capital of Serbia from 1430 until 1439, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire after a siege lasting two months.

In 1444, in accordance with the terms of the Peace of Szeged between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire the Sultan returned Smederevo to Đurađ Branković, who was allied to John Hunyadi. On 22 August 1444 the Serb prince peacefully took possession of the evacuated town.

When Hunyadi broke the peace treaty, Đurađ Branković remained neutral. Serbia became a battleground between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottomans, and the angry Branković captured Hunyadi after his defeat at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448. Hunyadi was imprisoned in Smederevo fortress for a short time.

In 1454 Sultan Mehmed II besieged Smederevo and devastated Serbia. The town was liberated by Hunyadi. In 1459 Smederevo was again captured by the Ottomans after the death of Branković. The town became a Turkish border-fortress, and played an important part in Ottoman–Hungarian Wars until 1526. Because of its strategic location, Smederevo was gradually rebuilt and enlarged. For a long period, the town was the capital of the Sanjak of Smederevo.

In autumn 1476 a joint army of Hungarians and Serbs tried to capture the fortress from the Ottomans. They built three wooden counter-fortresses, but after months of siege Sultan Mehmed II himself came to drive them away. After fierce fighting the Hungarians agreed to withdraw.
Inside Smederevo Fortress
In 1494 Pál Kinizsi tried to capture Smederevo from the Ottomans but he was stricken with palsy and died. In 1512 John Zápolya unsuccessfully laid siege to the town.

During the First Serbian Uprising in 1806, the city became the temporary capital of Serbia, as well as the seat of the "Praviteljstvujušči sovjet", a government headed by Dositej Obradović. The first basic school was founded in 1806.

During World War II, the city was occupied by German forces, who placed an arsenal of ammunition in the fortress. On June 5, 1941 a catastrophic explosion severely damaged the fortress and killed thousands of people in the city.

Saint George Orthodox Church
The Municipality of Smederevo includes the following settlements:



emographics (2002 census


opulation through histor
Hotel Grand - Regija
*1805. : 4,000 (estimate)
*1834. : 3,907
*1874. : 8,343
*1884. : 6,600
*1900. : 7,141
*1905. : 7,097
*1910. : 7,411
*1921. : 8,500
*1931. : 10,500
*1941. : 11,500 (estimate)
*1948. : 14,206 (24,761)*
*1953. : 18,328 (29,663)*
*1961. : 27,182 (39,793)*
*1971. : 40,192 (54,257)*
*1981. : 55,369 (69,814)*
*1991. : 61,990 (76,984)*
*2002. : 62,805 (77,808)*
*2008. : "67,684" (84,456)* (estimate)

( )* - Population related to the present day boundaries of the city

The population increase between 2002 and 2008 is related to a large number of refugees and internally displaced persons from Kosovo and Metohija (in 2003, that number was 7,152, not including those who moved permanently to Smederevo since the last census, and those who came to live with their relatives). They settled mostly in urban parts of Smederevo, but also in some suburban settlements such as Radinac, Lipe, Vucak and Petrijevo. The population of three other suburban settlements (Salinac, Seone, and Udovice) has also risen but that increase has been less substantial than in the above-mentioned settlements.

The latest estimates of internally displaced persons made after 2004, claim that the number of such persons in Smederevo grew from 7,152 to 8,194 in the period of just one year. This happened due to the exodus of Serb and Roma population from Kosovo following March 17, 2004. Some other estimates claim that the number of these persons is around 10,000.

olitic

Smederevo Town Hall of Justice
Seats in the municipal parliament won in the 2008 local elections:
*Democratic Party (14)
*"Movement for Smederevo" citizens group (12)
*"Coalition for better Smederevo" (11)
*Socialist Party of Serbia (7)
*Serbia Radical Party (16)
*Democratic Party of Serbia - New Serbia (10)

ndustr
Smederevo is an industrial city, and the center of Serbia"s steel industry. The factory previously known as Sartid was purchased by U.S. Steel in 2003; USS Serbia employs over 7,000 workers. The "Milan Blagojević" home appliance factory is the second most important factory in the city. Smederevo is also an agricultural area, with significant production of fruit and vines. However, the large agricultural combine "Godomin" has been in financial difficulty since the 1990s and is almost defunct as of 2005. The grape variety known as Smederevka is named after the city. The "Ishrana" factory is an important supplier of bakery products in northern and eastern Serbia.

nternational relation

win towns — sister citie
Smederevo is twinned with:
* "Pale", Bosnia & Herzegovina
* "Volos", Greece
* "Herceg Novi", Montenegro

ee als
*Smederevo Airport
*List of places in Serbia

eference



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Category:1430 establishments
Category:Settlements established in the 1430s
Category:Cities, towns and villages in Central Serbia
Category:Šumadija
Category:Municipalities of Central Serbia

bs:Smederevo
bg:Смедерево
cs:Smederevo
da:Smederevo
de:Smederevo
el:Σμεντέρεβο
es:Smederevo
eo:Smederevo
fr:Smederevo
hr:Smederevo
id:Smederevo
it:Smederevo
he:סמדרבו
jv:Smederevo
lt:Smederevas
hu:Szendrő (Szerbia)
mk:Смедерево
nl:Smederevo
no:Smederevo
nn:Smederevo
pl:Smederewo
pt:Semêndria
ro:Semendria
ru:Смедерево
sk:Smederevo
sr:Смедерево
sh:Smederevo
sv:Smederevo
tr:Semendire
zh:斯梅代雷沃
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 19.09.2017 22:45 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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