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Belarus, Slonim
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"Slonim" (Belarusian: Сло́нім is a city in Hrodna voblast, Belarus, capital of the Slonim District. It is located at the junction of the Shchara and Isa rivers, 143 km southeast of Hrodna. The population in 2008 was 50,800.

tymology and historical name
Slonim has been known by several versions of its name: Сло́нім (Belarusian), Słonim (Polish), Сло́ним (Russian). Slonim was first mentioned in chronicles in 1252 as Uslonim and in 1255 as Vslonim. "Uzslenimas" in Lithuanian language simple means "beyond the valley".

The earliest record is of a wooden fort on the left bank of the Shchara river in the 11th century, although there may have been earlier settlement.

The area was disputed between Lithuania and Kievan Rus" in early history and it changed hands several times. In 1040, the Kievans won control of the area after a battle but lost Slonim to the Lithuanians in 1103. The Rutenians retook the area early in the 13th century but were expelled by a Tartar invasion in 1241 and the town was pillaged. When, later in the year, the Tartars withdrew, Slonim became Lithuanian again.

In 1569, Lithuania and Poland united and Slonim became an important regional centre within Commonwealth of Lithuania-Poland. From 1631 to 1685 the city flourished as the seat of the Lithuanian diet.

The Commonwealth of Lithuania-Poland was dismantled in a series of three "partitions" in the second half of the 18th century and divided among its neighbours, Germany, Austria and Russia which took the largest portion of the territory. Slonim was in the area annexed by Russia. The wars had damaged Slonim, but in the 18th century, a local landowner, count Oginski, encouraged the recovery of the area; a canal was dug to connect the Shchara with the Dnieper river, now known as the Oginski Canal.

Slonim, Paradna Street before World War II

Russian control lasted until 1915, when the German army captured the town. After the First World War, the Slonim area was disputed between the Soviet Union and the newly recreated state of Poland. The town suffered badly in the Polish-Soviet war of 1920, but in 1920 the Poles established control of the province.

In 1939, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union resulted in the invasion of Poland by the two powers and its division between them. Slonim was in the area designated by the Pact to fall within the Soviet sphere of influence. The Soviets placed that area within the Byelorussian SSR. Two years later, Germany invaded the Soviets (Operation Barbarossa) and Slonim was captured. Soon after, 70% of Slonim"s Jews had been killed in a single Nazi operation (9,000 on 14 November 1941). The second mass murder of 8,000 Jews took place in 1942. In 1944, the Soviet Union retained possession of this part of the former Poland, as agreed between the Allies.

After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Belarus became an independent state.

istoric populatio
Population of Slonim fluctuated, influenced by local prosperity and wars . Jewish settlement in Slonim appears to have started in 1388, following encouragement from the Lithuanian authorities. They were credited with the development of local commerce in the 15th century, nonetheless, they were temporarily expelled by the Lithuanian Duchy in 1503. In the late 19th century, Slonim"s Jewish population had risen to 10,000. The Slonimer Hasidic dynasty came from there. Plus Michael and Ephraim Marks (of Marks & Spencer) were born in Slonim.

Slonim"s importance derives from the river, which is navigable and joins the Oginsky canal, connecting the Niemen with the Dnieper.

Slonim has varied food, consumer, and engineering industries. Corn, tar, and especially timber are exported. There is the Slonim artistic goods factory, a worsted factory and “Textilschik”, a paperboard factory, a motor- and a car repair plants, dry non-fat milk factory and meat processing plant. There are also flax preprocessing, feed mill and woodworking enterprises in the town.

Slonim"s biggest newspaper is the independent "Gazeta Slonimskaya" (Газета Слонімская). Founded in 1997, it is a weekly newspaper with a circulation of slightly more than 10.000 copies. It is published every Wednesday, and contains local and regional news, sections on sport, culture and lifestyle, and local advertising. It is currently 40 pages, plus an additional weekly 8-page supplement called Otdushina (Отдушина), focusing on youth, culture and religious affairs. The newspaper is written in both Russian and Belarusian.

An earlier "Gazeta Slonimskaya" was originally published in 1938 and 1939, at that time in Polish.

ransport and infrastructur
Slonim has road-links with Baranovichi, Ivatsevichi, Ruzhany, Volkovysk, Lida. Buses, Taxi and Mini-buses are the only transport in Slonim. Slonim is on the railway line between Baranavichy and Vaukavysk.

otable building
St Andrew"s Church
* Orthodox church of the Holy Trinity
* Convent of Benedictine
* Chapel of St. Dominick
* Catholic church of St. Andrew the Apostle
* Catholic church of the Immaculate Conception of Blessed Virgin Mary and the convent of Bernardine
* Orthodox church of Transfiguration
*The Synagogue is standing but in a dilapidated condition. It"s listed by the private World Monuments Fund as their top priority site of Jewish interest in Eastern Europe that requires restoration. The building was left untouched by the German Luftwaffe during World War II, but it has subsequently deteriorated and is now in urgent need of protection and restoration.

the ruined Slonim Synagogue

The two main religions in Slonim are Orthodox Christianity and Roman Catholic.

Slonim has also a theatre and a museum of regional studies, as well as a medical school. There is a new recreation area development in north-east Slonim called Enka. The main sports are: running, gymnastics, football and ice hockey. The telecommunication guyed mast, 350 metres tall, for FM-/TV-broadcasting is located at Novaya Strazha ().

ee als
*Slonim (Hasidic dynasty)


*Cholawski, Shalom. "Slonim" in "Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust" vol. 4, pp. 1363-1364. Map.

xternal link

Category:Cities and towns in Belarus
Category:Hrodna Voblast

be:Горад Слонім
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 17.10.2019 18:14 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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"Belarus", ( ; , ), officially the "Republic of Belarus", is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the
"Slonim" (Belarusian: Сло́нім is a city in Hrodna voblast, Belarus, capital of the Slonim District. It is located at the junction of the Shchara and Isa rivers, 143 km southeast of Hrodna. The population in 2008 was 50,800.tymology and
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