Skiurlaub- günstig mit FeWo-direkt
     
Hotelsuche in 
 

Sibiu

Romania, Sibiu
Von Wikipedia - die freie Nachrichtenenzyklopädie   auf Facebook posten  Auf Twitter posten  


"Sibiu" () or "Hermannstadt" (, ; ; ; ) is an important city in Transylvania, Romania with a population of 154,548. It straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt. It is the capital of Sibiu County and is located some 282 km NW of Bucharest. Between 1692—1791 it was the capital of the Principality of Transylvania.

It is one of the most important cultural and religious centres in Romania as well a major transportation hub in central Romania. The city used to be the centre of the Transylvanian Saxons until World War II. Sibiu was designated European Capital of Culture for the year 2007, together with Luxembourg.

One village, Păltiniş, is administered by the city.

Geography and climat

Climate diagram of Sibiu
Sibiu is situated near the geographical center of Romania at . Set in the Cibin Depression, the city is about 20 km from the Făgăraş Mountains, 12 km from the Cibin Mountains, and about 15 km from the Lotrului Mountains, which border the depression in its southwestern section. The northern and eastern limits of Sibiu are formed by the Târnavelor Plateau, which descends to the Cibin Valley through Guşteriţei Hill.

The Cibin river as well as some smaller streams runs through Sibiu. The geographical position of Sibiu makes it one of the most important transportation hubs in Romania with important roads and railway lines passing through it.

Sibiu"s climate is temperate-continental with average temperatures of 8 to 9°C. The multi-annual average of rainfall is 662 l/mp, and there are about 120 days of hard frost annually.

History

The first official record referring to the "Sibiu" area comes from 1191, when Pope Celestine III confirmed the existence of the free prepositure of the German settlers in Transylvania, the prepositure having its headquarters in Sibiu, named "Cibinium" at that time. It was probably built near a Roman settlement, one that would be known during the early Middle Ages as Caedonia.
Copper engraving of Sibiu ("Hermanstatt"), c. 1630.

In the 14th century, it was already an important trade center. In 1376, the craftsmen were divided in 19 guilds. Sibiu became the most important ethnic German city among the seven cities that gave Transylvania its German name "Siebenbürgen" (literally "seven cities"), and it was home to the "Universitas Saxorum", the assembly of Germans in Transylvania.
Common opinion in the 17th century ascribed Sibiu the quality of being the easternmost city to be part of the European sphere; it was also the eastern terminus of postal routes.

During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became the second and later the first most important center of Transylvanian Romanian ethnics. The first Romanian-owned bank had its headquarters here (The "Albina" Bank), as did the ASTRA (Transylvanian Association for Romanian Literature and Romanian"s People Culture). After the Romanian Orthodox Church was granted status in the Habsburg Empire from the 1860s onwards, Sibiu became the Metropolitan seat, and the city is still regarded as the third most important center of the Romanian Orthodox Church. Between the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 and 1867 (the year of the "Ausgleich"), Sibiu was the meeting-place of the Transylvanian Diet, which had taken its most representative form after the Empire agreed to extend voting rights in the region.

After World War I, when Austria-Hungary was dissolved, Sibiu became part of Romania; the majority of its population was still ethnic German (until 1941) and counted large Romanian and Hungarian communities. Starting from the 1950s and until after 1990, most of the city"s ethnic Germans emigrated to Germany. Among the roughly 2,000 who have remained is Klaus Johannis, who is mayor of Sibiu City.

Milestones in Sibiu"s history
Numerous street signs in Sibiu are bilingual (Romanian and German)
Sibiu in 18th century
*1191 - Mentioned for the first time in a document of the Vatican, under the name "Cibinium" (due to the river Cibin that flows through the city)
*1292 - The first hospital in the Kingdom of Hungary was opened.
*1380 - The first documented school in the Kingdom of Hungary.
*1494 - The first pharmacy in the Kingdom of Hungary.
*1534 - The first paper mill in the Kingdom of Hungary.
*1544 - The first book in the Romanian language was printed in Sibiu, funded by John II Sigismund Zápolya. This was in Cyrillic letters.
*1551 - Conrad Haas" experiment with rockets.
*1570 - The Ottoman-dependent Principality of Transylvania was formed after the Ottoman conquest in Hungary.
*1671 - Methane gas was discovered near Sibiu.
*1782 - Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein discovered the chemical element tellurium.
*1788 - First theatre in Transylvania.
*1795 - The first lightning rod in Transylvania and in Southeastern Europe was installed in Nagydisznód (present-day Cisnădie).
*1797 - Samuel Hahnemann opened the world"s first homeopathic laboratory.
*1817 - The Brukenthal Museum, the first museum in Transylvania was opened.
*1867 - The Principality of Transylvania was reunited with Hungary in the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary
*1896 - The first use of electricity in Austria-Hungary, and the first power line in Southeastern Europe.
*1904 - The second city in Europe to use an electric-powered trolley.
*1918 - Upon the Union of Transylvania with Romania, Sibiu became part of Romania.
*1928 - The first zoo in Romania.
*1941 - Saxons lost their historical majority in the population
*1989 - The third city to take part in the Romanian Revolution.
*2007 - European Capital of Culture 2007



Population

According to the last Romanian census from 2002 there were 154,892 people living within the city of Sibiu, making it the 15th largest city in Romania. The ethnic breakdown is as follows:

* Romanians 95.7%
* Hungarians 2%
* Germans 1.6%
* Other 0.7%

opulation dynamic

* 1850: "||" 12.765 inhabitants
* 1900: "||||" 21.465
* 1930: "||||||||||" 49.345
* 1948: "||||||||||||||" 60.602
* 1966: "||||||||||||||||||||||" 109.515
* 1977: "||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||" 151.005
* 1992: "||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||" 169.610
* 2002: "|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||" 154.892



opulation by religious denominatio

Today, most of the population is of the Romanian Orthodox religion. Protestants and Roman Catholics represent about 5% of the population.

{| class="wikitable"
|- bgcolor=#DDDDDD
| colspan=8 align="center" | "Confessions in Sibiu"
|- style="background:#efefef" align="center"
|-
| bgcolor="#ABCDEF" align="center" | "Confession"
| bgcolor="#ABCDEF" align="center" | "1910"
| bgcolor="#ABCDEF" align="center" | "2002"
|-
| Eastern Orthodox
| align="right" | 18 %
| align="right" | 91 %
|-
| Greek-Catholic (Uniate)
| align="right" | 8 %
| align="right" | 1 %
|-
| Roman Catholic
| align="right" | 20 %
| align="right" | 2 %
|-
| Evangelical Lutheran
| align="right" | 42 %
| align="right" | 2 %
|-
| Reformed
| align="right" | 7 %
| align="right" | 1 %
|-
| Jewish
| align="right" | 4 %
| align="right" |
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 29.10.2020 00:23 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
Overview
 

 

Kommentare zu diesem Artikel
 
Neuer Kommentar
Name *
Email * (wird nicht öffentlich angezeigt)
Kommentar
* Pflichtangaben
 
Diesen Artikel empfehlen

Absender Empfänger Nachricht (optional)
Name
E-Mail

Name
E-Mail
   
 
 
Tipps der Redaktion aus dem Reiseportal
 
REISEPORTAL
aw and governmendministratioCluj-Napoca City HallLocal council composition:Map of Cluj-Napoca"s districts (2007) The city government is headed by a mayor. From 2004, the office was held by Emil Boc, who was re-elected in 2008 but resigned the
aw and governmendministratioCluj-Napoca City HallLocal council composition:Map of Cluj-Napoca"s districts (2007) The city government is headed by a mayor. From 2004, the office was held by Emil Boc, who was re-elected in 2008 but resigned the
aw and governmendministratioCluj-Napoca City HallLocal council composition:Map of Cluj-Napoca"s districts (2007) The city government is headed by a mayor. From 2004, the office was held by Emil Boc, who was re-elected in 2008 but resigned the
aw and governmendministratioCluj-Napoca City HallLocal council composition:Map of Cluj-Napoca"s districts (2007) The city government is headed by a mayor. From 2004, the office was held by Emil Boc, who was re-elected in 2008 but resigned the
"Craiova" (), Romania"s 6th largest city and capital of Dolj County, is situated near the east bank of the river Jiu in central Oltenia. It is a longstanding political center, and is located at approximately equal distances from the Southern
"Craiova" (), Romania"s 6th largest city and capital of Dolj County, is situated near the east bank of the river Jiu in central Oltenia. It is a longstanding political center, and is located at approximately equal distances from the Southern
 
Tipps der Redaktion aus dem Nachrichtenportal
 
NACHRICHTEN
There comes a time in everyone’s life when they have to address the age-old question: “What do you want to be when you grow up?” As a child, it’s easy to pick all the awesome jobs such as the president, an astronaut, or a rock star. However,
Jan Tombinski, Head of the EU delegation to Ukraine, expressed full support to the new Ukrainian government and stated that the country and the new government are facing a multiplied crisis which is why it is vital, among other things, to ensure
Hosts Brazil escaped Chile 3-2 on a penalty shoot-out to reach the World Cup quarter-finals Saturday, thanks to two saves from Julio Cesar, the goalpost and successful spot kicks from David Luiz, Marcelo and Neymar. Belo Horinzonte, Brazil (dpa) -
Germany became the first team in the history of the World Cup to reach four consecutive semi-finals with a 1-0 victory over France Friday and the media praised the men who achieved the feat. Berlin (dpa) - "Adieu, les Bleus!" screamed
Defenders Thiago Silva and David Luiz were both on target Friday in Fortaleza, where Brazil defeated Colombia 2-1 to book a place against Germany in the World Cup's semi-finals. Fortaleza, Brazil (dpa) - James Rodriguez pulled one back for Colombia
Germany dealt shell-shocked Brazil a remarkable 7-1 thrashing Tuesday to advance to the World Cup final, in a match that quickly turned into a nightmare for the host nation. Belo Horizonte, Brazil (dpa) - Thomas Mueller struck 11 minutes into the
Wetter

Bucureşti


(29.10.2020 00:23)

-2 / 2 °C


30.10.2020
-3 / 0 °C
31.10.2020
1 / 4 °C
powered by wetter.com
Stock News

Ecken
LÄNDER
STÄDTE
EUROPA-TOUREN

Agenda - The Week Ahea ...
Agenda - The Week Ahea ...

Afghan Farah Governor ...
Ministry Warns Cinema ...

How Short Attention Sp ...
Puigdemont won't seek ...

URGENT: Norway's Bjoe ...
China highlights Beiji ...

© europe online publishing house GmbH, Weiden, Germany, info@europeonline-magazine.eu | Impressum