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Sassari

Italy, Sassari
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"Sassari" (in Italian and Sassarese, "Tàthari" in Sardinian) is an Italian city in Sardinia (Italy). It is the second-largest in terms of number of inhabitants and as one of the most
ancient cities in the island, it contains a considerable collection of art. It has about 130,000 inhabitants, or about 300,000 including the suburbs (metropolitan area).

Over time, Sassari has been ruled by the Genoese, the Pisans, the Aragonese, the Catalans, the Spanish and the Austrians, all which have contributed to Sassari"s historical and artistic heritage. Sassari is a city rich in art, culture and history, and is well-known for its beautiful "palazzi" and its elegant, neo-classical piazzas, such as Piazza d"Italia (Square of Italy) and the Teatro Civico (Civic Theatre)http://www.sardegnaturismo.it/index.php?xsl=126&s=2&v=9&c=3242&na=1&n=10&t=1.

As Sardinia"s second most important city after Cagliari, it has a considerable amount of cultural, touristic, commercial and political importance in the islandhttp://www.sardegna.net/docs/citt%E0/citta_sassari_en.html. The city"s economy mainly relies on tourism and services, however also partially on research, construction, pharmaceuticals and the petroleum industry.



Geography

Sassari is located in north-western Sardinia, at 225 metres above sea level, it rises up on a vast karstic plateau, that slopes gently down towards the Gulf of Asinara and the Nurra Plain. The town is surrounded by a green belt of thousands of hectares of olive plantations, that from the nineteenth century partly replaced the oak woods and the maquis shrubland.

The abundance of water (400 springs and artesian wells) encouraged the development of horticulture, throughout the centuries.

Sassari is the fifth largest municipality in Italy (area 546 km²), the thinly populated Nurra Plain, located in the west, occupies main part of its territory, while the urban agglomeration, with a population of about 275.000 inhabithants, is located in the south east.


History
Prehistory and ancient history
Prehistoric step Pyramid of Monte d"Accoddi.
Though Sassari was founded in the early Middle Ages, the region where is raised, has been inhabited since the Neolithic age, and during the ancient history, by the Nuragics, Phoenicians and Romans. Many archaeological sites and ancient ruins are located inside or around the town, as the prehistoric step pyramid of Monte D"Accoddi, a large number of "Nuraghes" and "Domus de Janas" (House of the Fairies), the ruins of a Roman aqueduct, the ruins of a roman villa discovered in the San Nicholas Cathedral"s undergrounds, a portion of the ancient road that connected the Latin colony of Turrys Lybissonis with Caralis.
Inside the boundaries of municipality is also found a fossil site where was uncovered an Oreopithecus bambolii, a prehistoric anthropomorphic primate, dated 8,5 millions years.

Middle Ages

The town was founded around the 9th-10th century AD by the inhabitants of the ancient Roman port of "Turris Lybisonis" (current Porto Torres), who sought refuge in the mainland to escape the Saracen attacks from the sea.
Sassari"s Republic medieval statutes written in Sardinian language.

It developed from the merger of a number of separate villages, such as San Pietro di Silki, San Giacomo di Taniga, San Giovanni di Bosove. The oldest mention of a village called ""Tathari"" is in an 1113 document in the archive of the Monastery of St. Peter in Silki. Sassari was sacked by the Genoese in 1166. Immigration continued until, in the early 13th century, it was the most populous city in the giudicato of Torres, and its last capital. After the assassination of the latter"s last judge (1274), Sassari was subject to the Republic of Pisa with a semi-independent status.

In 1284 the Pisans were annihilated by the Republic of Genoese fleet at the Battle of Meloria, and the city could free itself: it became the first and only free commune of Sardinia, with statutes of its own, allied with Genoa, which was pleased to see it thus withdrawn from the control of the Pisans. Its statutes of 1316 are remarkable for the leniency of the penalties imposed when compared with the penal laws of the Middle Ages.

From 1323 it was submitted to the Aragonese, under which it remained in the following centuries, but it revolted at least three times. The revolts ceased when the king Alfonso V of Aragon promoted the town as "Città Regia" (Royal Town), a town directly ruled by the King and free from feudal taxations. Attempts of conquest by Genoa failed. In 1391 it was conquered by Brancaleone Doria and Marianus V of Arborea to the Giudicato of Arborea, of which it became the capital, but in 1420 it fell into the hands of the Aragonese, replaced by the Spaniards in 1479.

Renaissance
The Cathedral of St. Nicholas

In 1527 it was sacked by the French. During Catalan and then Spanish domination the city was known as "Sàsser" in catalan language and "Saçer" in Spanish.
The city alternated years of crisis, featuring economic exploitation, the decrease of the maritime trade, made unsafe by the daily raids of Saracens pirates, political corruption of its rulers and two plagues in 1528 and 1652, with periods of cultural and economic prosperity. The Jesuits founded in Sassari the first Sardinian university in 1562; in the same years was introduced the first printing system and the Renaissance humanism movement spread. Several artists of the Mannerist and Flemish schools operated in town.

Modern history

Austrian rule (1708–1717) was succeeded by Piedmontese (1720–1861), after which Sassari became part of the newly created Kingdom of Italy.
On 28 December 1795 an anti-feudal revolt broke out in the town, led by Giovanni Maria Angioy, a Sardinian politician and patriot, who fought against the house of Savoy. The city was occupied by troops.

Savoy revolt enters in Sassari (1795)
At the end of 18th century the University was restored. In 1836, after six centuries, the medieval walls were partially demolished, allowing the town to expand. New urban plans were realised, on the model of the new regime"s capital (Turin), with geometric streets and squares. Sassari became an important industrial center, in the 19th century it was the second most important Italian town for the production of leather, and in 1848 the sassarese entrepreneur Giovanni Antonio Sanna, gained control of Montevecchio"s mine, becoming the third richest man in the Kingdom. The first railway was opened in 1872.

In 1877 the ancient Aragonese Castle was demolished, and on the site the "Caserma La Marmora" was built, where the headquarters of "Brigata Sassari" is still located. Founded in 1915, it is the first and only Italian military unit consisting exclusively of Sardinian soldiers.

At the end of the XIX century new urban developments were built, on the hill of Cappuccini and on the south side of the town, architecturally dominated by Eclecticism, Art Nouveau and Art Deco styles, which created a movement towards the hybrid experimentation of new local architectural styles, known as the "Sassarese Liberty".

During the Fascist dictatorship the town surpassed fifty thousand inhabitants, new neighbourhoods were built, the most important are those of Monte Rosello and Porcellana, typical examples of Rationalist Architecture. The newspaper "La Nuova Sardegna", considered subversive, was closed.

During the Second World War three Allied attempts to bomb the town failed: only the railway station was damaged, and there was only one casualty.

Today Sassari is the most important cultural, administrative and historical centre of Northern Sardinia.

Culture
University

University of Sassari.

University of Sassari is the oldest in Sardinia (founded by the Jesuits in 1562-1627), and has a high reputation, especially in jurisprudence studies, veterinarian, medicine and agrarian Studies; its libraries contain a number of ancient documents, among them the "Condaghes", Sardinia"s first legal codes and the first documents written in the Sardinian language (11th century) and the famous Carta de Logu (the constitution issued by Mariano IV d"Arborea and updated later by his daughter in 14th century the "Giudichessa" Eleanor of Arborea).
The University of Sassari gains the first place in the ranking for the best “medium- sized” Italian university, in 2009, by the Censis Research Institute.

Language

The sassarese compared to Corsican dialects

The Sassarese diasystem ("Sassaresu" or "Turritanu") is not very similar to the Sardinian language, but is closest to the Corsican language, although this fact has caused a deep controversy. It is based on a mixture of different languages, namely Corsican, Pisano and Genoan (due to long medieval contacts with the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa in the age of Giudicati), Spanish, and Catalan, too. A strong Logudorese influence can also be felt in its phonetics, syntax, and vocabulary. Sassarese is spoken in Sassari and in the neighbourhood, approximately by 120,000 people, in a total population of 175,000 inhabitants; large speaking communities are present also in Stintino, Sorso and Porto Torres; its transition varieties towards Gallurese, known as the "castellanesi" dialects, can be heard in Castelsardo, Tergu and Sedini).

Main sights
King Enzio in the medieval district of the town
* Archeological site of Monte d"Accoddi: a unique prehistoric monument with a Step pyramid construction
*The Pisan City Walls that in the 13th century surrounded the city with 36 towers (which at the moment only 6 remains), and the Aragonese Castle named Castello di Sassari, demolished in 1877, whose ruins, including some rooms, the basement, and part of a tower were rediscovered in 2008.
* The church of St. Peter in Silki, built in the 12th century but renovated in the 17th century. Here were found the medieval codes known as Condaghe di san Pietro in Silki.
* "Corso Vittorio Emanuele" is the main street of the medieval town, surrounded by interesting buildings of different ages, as several examples of Catalan-gothic (as the so-called "House of Re Enzo)", the baroque church of "Sant" Andrea", built by Corsican community, the neoclassic "Civic Theatre" and "Quesada"s palace".
* The Cathedral of St. Nicholas of Bari, built in the 13th century and enlarged in Catalan Gothic style from 1480; there is a monument to the Duca di Moriana inside. The façade, belonging to the Baroque Spanish colonial restorations of 1650–1723, has a rectangular portico surmounted by three niches housing statues of saints. The bell tower is in Romanesque style.
* The church and monastery of "Santa Maria di Bètlem" (13th-19th century). The original façade and parts of monastery are in Lombard Romanesque style, some chapels in International Gothic, while the rest of building, include the big dome, was rebuilt in Baroque and Neoclassic style, by the Sardinian architect Antonio Cano in 1829-34.
* The Church of the Most Blessed Trinity contains a beautiful picture by an unknown artist of the Quattrocento.
* "Palazzo D"Usini", most important example of civilian architecture of the Renaissance period in Sardinia (now housing the main Public Library, therefore open to visits from the public).
* The Fountain of the Rosello, built in 1606 by Genoese craftsmen. It is made by two squared parts surmounted by two crossing arches supporting the statue of St. Gavino.
* University Palace (17th-20th century), originally a Jesuit school.
* The Ducal Palace (current Town Hall, 1775-1806), built for the Duke of the Asinara in the 18th century.
* "Piazza d"Italia" (19th century) is the main square in Sassari. It is surrounded by interesting buildings such as the Neogothic "Palazzo Giordano" and the neoclassical "Palace of Sassari"s Province", where the ancient royal apartments of the House of Savoy were once located.

Museums
National "G.A. Sanna" Museum

* National Archaeological and Ethnographic "G.A. Sanna" Museum

* National Pinacotheca "Mus"A"

* Historical Museum of "Brigata Sassari"

* Museum of Science and Technology (it is constituted by many collections located in several university faculties: mineralogical , botanic, Entomological, zoological, anatomical collection "Luigi Rolando", physics and agronomic collection)

* Ethnographic Museum "Francesco Bande"

* Contemporary Art Museum "Masedu"

* Museum and Treasury of the Cathedral

* Museum of History of Sassari

* Museum of Sassari"s Diocese

* Museum of Candelieri

* Mario Sironi art collection

* Art gallery "Giuseppe Biasi"

* Pavilion of Sardinian handicraft EXPO "I.S.O.L.A."

Festivals and Traditions

* The "Cavalcata Sarda" (the Sardinian Cavalcade): it"s the main laic event in Sardinia, the last Sunday of May thousands of people come from all over Sardinia to Sassari parade through the city in their local folk costumes accompanied by hundreds of the best examples of Sardinian horses.

* The "Faradda di li candareri" (the Candle Holders): it"s a devotional procession, in which enormous wooden candles are carried by members of the city guilds from the town centre to the church of Santa Maria of Betlem ,in commemoration of the end of the plague in 1582, but probably it has got older origins come from a cultural tradition from Pisa that already in the second half of XIII Century was practised in some parts of Sardinia.

* "Sardinia Film Festival" was founded in 2006, with 500 films, short subjects, animated cartoons and documentaries in 2009, it has become the most prominent film festival in Sardinia.

Notable people


Notable people born here include the former presidents of the Italian Republic, Antonio Segni and Francesco Cossiga, and Enrico Berlinguer, secretary of the Italian Communist Party.

Sassari is also the birthplace of Domenico Alberto Azuni, a jurist expert in commercial law.

Personalities associated with Sassari


"From history"
* Michele Zanche, politician, he was named by Dante in the Divina Commedia
* Salvatore Alepus, theologist and poet (Morilla - Valencia)
* Giovanni del Giglio (Sassari, 14th century – Sassari, 1554) painter AKA "Maestro di Ozieri".
* Pasquale Tola, politician and magistrate
* Giovanni Maria Angioy, politician
* Domenico Alberto Azuni, jurist
* Giovanni Spano, writer
* Enrico Costa, writer
* Palmiro Togliatti, leader of Italian Communist Party
* Mario Berlinguer, politician
* Enrico Berlinguer, leader of Italian Communist Party
* Mario Sironi, painter of creator of the "Novecento"
* Giuseppe Biasi, painter
* Italo Calvino, writer
* Edina Altara, artist
* Daniel Bovet, biochemist (nobel prize)
* Efisio Arru
* Antonio Pigliaru,
* Francesco Cetti,
* Fernando Clemente, architect
* Giacomo Camilla, artist
* Costantino Nivola, artist
* Eugenio Tavolara, artist
* Annunzio Cervi, poet
* Vico Mossa, architect
* Luigi Rolando, anatomist
* Giovanni Antonio Sanna, politician
* Aligi Sassu, painter
* Antonio Segni, President of the Italian Republic
* Efisio Tola, patriot

* Roberto Ruffilli, politician

"Contemporary personalities"
* Adolfo Orrù, painter
* Gavino Angius, leader of Democratici di Sinistra now leader of Partito Socialista
* Luigi Berlinguer, Minister of Istruzione, and member of Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura
* Giovanni Berlinguer, one of the main members of Democratici di Sinistra
* Sergio Berlinguer, politician
* Francesco Cossiga, President of the Italian Republic
* Bruno Dettori, politician
* Luigi Manconi, Former Leader of Federation of the Greens
* Arturo Parisi, Former minister of Difesa and member of Margherita
* Gianluca Piredda, writer and screenwriter
* Giuseppe Pisanu, Former Italian Minister of the Interior and now of the leaders of PDL
* Mario Segni, member of European parliament
* Gian Paolo Bazzoni, writer
* Bianca Pitzorno, writer
* Salvatore Mannuzzu, writer
* Angelo Mundula, poet
* Bianca Berlinguer, director of TG3 RAI
* Elisabetta Canalis, showgirl
* Giovanni Puggioni, runner
* Antonello Grimaldi, film director
* Pier Francesco Loche, actor
* Tazenda, ethno-pop-rock band
* Tressardi, actors company
* Pino & gli anticorpi, actors company
* Marco Bazzoni, actor
* Giovanni Maciocco, architect
* Santi Licheri, TV personality, judge of Forum


emographic



In 2007, there were 128,611 people residing in Sassari, of whom 61,944 were male and 66,667 were female. The population is increased of 9,519 inhabitants in the last 7 years (2001-2008).

* Birth rate = 8,2 births/1000 inhabitants;
* Total fertility rate = 1,15 births/1000 inhabitants;
* Mortality rate = 7,9 deaths/1000 inhabitants.

igratio

The town has increased its population considerably , in the last decades, due to domestic migrations, of thousands of Sardinians come from inland regions of the island.
In 2008, 98,4% of population of town was Italian, 1,978 residents were foreign immigrants.

The main foreign nationalities residing in Sassari are :
* - 270
* - 259
* - 71
* - 66
* - 66
* - 57
* - 44
* - 35
* - 34
* - 32

Administration
Palace of the Duke of Asinara (City Hall)
The Municipal Council of Sassari is led by a left-wing majority, elected in May 2005. The mayor is Gianfranco Ganau, member of the Democratic Party.
Administrative subdivision
The Municipality of Sassari is subdivided into 6 "Circoscrizioni" (administrative districts).



Economy

The economy of town is, mainly, focused on services and advanced tertiary. It is the principle administrative centre of central and northern Sardinia. The main Sardinian banks (Banco di Sardegna and Banca di Sassari) have head office and presidency in the city.

Several research centers are located in town, as the University ones, the Center of Regional Weather Service ("Meteo Sar."), the Regional Agency for Environmental Protection ("ARPA"), the Zooprophylaxis Institute of Sardinia, many labs of the National Research Center (CNR), as the Institute of Biometeorology ("IBIMET"), the Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry ("ICB"), the Institute of Ecosystem Studies ("ISE"), the Institute of sciences of food production ("ISPA"), the Institute for animal production system in mediterranean environment ("ISPAAM").

Manufacturing system is based on construction, pharmaceutical, food, typographic industry, but, also, indirectly, on petrochemical and oil refineries, located in Porto Torres.

Turism is concentrated, mainly, along the coasts. Platamona, Porto Ferro and Argentiera are the principal seaside turist spots of municipality.

Transportation
Metrotram "Sirio" - Terminal of "line 1 in Railway Station Square"
The nearest Fertilia International Airport, 25 km from the city.

The closest seaport is located at Porto Torres, 16 km from the town.

Urban and Suburban Public Transport is operated by 23 bus lines of Azienda Trasporti Pubblici (ATP) and by a light rail transit of Ferrovie della Sardegna (FdS).
Two different railway companies connect the town to the rest of island, Trenitalia links Sassari to Porto Torres, Oristano, Cagliari, Olbia, Golfo Aranci, the FdS ("Sardinian Railways") reach Alghero, Sorso, Nulvi and Palau.

Sassari is linked to Porto Torres and Cagliari by freeway "SS131", to Alghero by the freeway "SS291". High-capacity traffic roads connect Sassari to Tempio Pausania "(SS672)" and olbia ("SS199)".

Sports

* A.S.D. Torres Calcio football club, founded in 1903, playing in Eccellenza
* Sassari Torres Calcio Femminile women"s football club, playing in Serie A
* Dinamo Basket Sassari, playin in LegADue
* Yellow Team Sassari Baseball, playing in Serie C1
* Sassari Baseball Softball Club, playing in serie C2
* HC Tangram 1 Sassari women"s team handball club, playing in Serie A1
* A.S.D.Rugby Sassari, playing in Serie C

Consulates
*
*

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Sassari is twinned with:
* Timişoara, Romania, since 1990
* Gubbio, Italy, since 2002
* Viterbo, Italy, since 2006
* Nola, Italy, since 2006
* Palmi, Italy since 2006

See also

* Sassarese language
*
* University of Sassari
* Sassari Mechanized Brigade

Sources and references
(incomplete)
*

eference


External links

*




Category:Cities and towns in Sardinia

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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 13.04.2021 09:11 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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