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Santiago de Compostela

Spain, Santiago de Compostela
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istor

Back facade of the catedral.

Santiago de Compostela was originally founded by the Suebi in the early 400s, as part of the collapse of the Roman Empire. Then, in 584 the whole settlement together with the rest of Galicia and northern Portugal was incorporated by Leovigild into the Visigothic kingdom of Spain. Raided from 711 to 739 by the Arabs, Santiago de Compostela was finally recaptured by the Visigothic king of Asturias in 754, about 60 years before the identification of remains as those of Saint James the Great, and their acceptance as such by the Pope and Charlemagne, during the reign of Alfonso II of Asturias. From then on, this settlement was not just a city, but a holy city, and one of the main centers of Christian pilgrimage, rivaled only by Rome itself and the Holy Land. Still, there are some who claim that the remains found here were not those of the apostle James but those of Priscillian. They are also thought by many to be someone else altogether. Christian persecution of Spain"s Muslims, following the fall of the Moorish state in 1492, echoes into present time, with local residents evincing antipathy towards those who are visibly Muslim.

Santiago de Compostela was captured by the French during the Napoleonic War and its capture broke the spirits of the many Spanish guerillas who were fighting the mighty invading armies of Marshals" Soult, Victor, Massena and Napoleon"s brother, the new King of Spain, Joseph Bonaparte. During the war, many attempts were made to recapture it by Spanish partisans, who believed St James would come down on the field and destroy the French if they earned his favour by beating the French out of the holy city, which was St James"s city. Many of the attempts to return the holy city to the Spanish failed, and the only one that didn"t fail was unsuccessful in retaining its hold on the city, and the combined British and Spanish forces were beaten back, where they retreated with the British, and the city was back in French hands within 48 hours.

istory of the Way of St. James Pilgrimag
Way of St. James.
The legend that St James found his way to the Iberian peninsula, and had preached there is one of a number of early traditions concerning the missionary activities and final resting places of the apostles of Jesus. Although the 1884 Bull of Pope Leo XIII "Omnipotens Deus" accepted the authenticity of the relics at Compostela, the Vatican remains uncommitted as to whether the relics are those of Saint James the Great, while continuing to promote the more general benefits of pilgrimage to the site.
According to a tradition that can be traced before the 12th century, the relics were said to have been discovered in 814 by Theodomir, bishop of Iria Flavia in the west of Galicia. Theodomir was guided to the spot by a star, the legend affirmed, drawing upon a familiar myth-element, hence "Compostela" was given an etymology as a corruption of "Campus Stellae", "Plain of Stars."

he establishment of the shrin
St. James" shell
As suggested already, it is probably impossible to know whose bones were actually found, and precisely when and how. Perhaps it does not matter. What the history of the pilgrimage requires, but what the meagre sources fail to reveal, is how the local Galician cult associated with the saint was transformed into an international cult drawing pilgrims from distant parts of the world.

The 1000 year old pilgrimage to the shrine of St. James in the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is known in English as the Way of St. James and in Spanish as the "Camino de Santiago". Over 100,000 pilgrims travel to the city each year from points all over Europe, and other parts of the world. The pilgrimage has been the subject of many books and television programmes notably Brian Sewell"s The Naked Pilgrim produced for UK"s Five.

re-Christian legend
As the lowest-lying land on that stretch of coast, the city"s site took on added significance. Legends supposed of Celtic origin made it the place where the souls of the dead gathered to follow the Sun across the sea. Those unworthy of going to the Land of the Dead haunted Galicia as the "Santa Compaña".

lchemical metapho
In Fulcanelli"s "Mystery of the Cathedrals" and "Dwellings of the Philosophers" the pilgrimage to Compostela is decoded as a metaphor for one of the processes for making the Philosopher"s Stone.

ain sight

*Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela
*University of Santiago de Compostela

ister citie
Plaza de Platerías
the Villar street
These are the official sister cities of Santiago de Compostela:

* "Santiago do Cacém", Portugal (1980s)
* "Mashhad", Iran (2000s)
* "Buenos Aires", Argentina (1980s)
* "Qom", Iran (2000s)
* "Santiago de Querétaro", México (2005)
* "Santiago de los Caballeros", Dominican Republic (2004)
* "Assisi", Italy (2008)

ee als
* Archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela
* Order of Santiago or Order of Saint James of Compostela founded in 12th century Spain.

Saunders, Tracy, Pilgrimage to Heresy: Don"t Believe Everything They Tell You (iUniverse 2007), for a somewhat different slant on the occupant of the tomb in Compostela. Though a fictionalised history, it looks at what we know of Bishop Priscillian of Avila, arrested on charges of "heresy and witchcraft" along with eight of his followers, including a noblewoman, Euchrotia, and subsequently decapitated in 385 CE by the Romans with the full knowledge of the newly formed Catholic Church, and whose remains have been suggested (by Prof. Henry Chadwick and others)may be entombed in the sepulchre which is said to contain the remains of St. James.
See also: Priscillian, and Priscillianism, and The Way of St. James

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Category:Santiago de Compostela
Category:Catholic pilgrimage sites
Category:Way of St. James
Category:Holy cities
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Category:
Category:Tourism in Galicia

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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 24.05.2018 21:17 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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