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Rijeka

Croatia, Rijeka
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"Rijeka" (other Croatian dialects: "Reka" or "Rika", , Italian and Hungarian "Fiume", or "Pflaum" (both historical) ) is the principal seaport of Croatia, located on Kvarner Bay, an inlet of the Adriatic Sea. It has 144,043 (2001) inhabitants . The majority of its citizens, 80.39% (2001 census), are Croats. The Croatian and the Italian version of the city"s name mean "river" in each of the two languages.http://www.dubrovnik-online.com/english/dictionary.php

Rijeka is the center of County in Croatia. The city"s economy largely depends on shipbuilding (shipyards "3. Maj" and "Viktor Lenac") and maritime transport.

Rijeka hosts the Croatian National Theatre "Ivan pl. Zajc", first built in 1765, as well as the University of Rijeka, founded in 1973 but with roots dating back to 1632.

istor

ncient and medieval time
Though traces of Neolithic settlements can be found in the region, the earliest modern settlements on the site were Celtic "Tarsatica" (modern Trsat, now part of Rijeka) on the hill, and the tribe of mariners, the Liburni, in the natural harbour below. The city long retained its double character.

In the time of Augustus, the Romans rebuilt Tarsatica as a "municipium" (MacMullen 2000) on the right bank of the small river Rječina (whose name means "the big river") as "Flumen". Pliny mentioned Tarsatica ("Natural History" iii.140).

From the 5th century onwards, the town was ruled successively by the Ostrogoths, the Byzantines, the Lombards, the Avars, the Franks, the Croats and the Hungarians before coming under the control of the Austrian Habsburgs in 1466.

After the 4th century the city was rededicated to St. Vitus, the city"s patron saint, as "Terra Fluminis sancti Sancti Viti" or in German "Sankt Veit am Pflaum". In medieval times Rijeka got its Croatian name, "Rika svetoga Vida" (= the river of St. Vitus).

Medieval Rijeka was a city surrounded by a wall and was thus a feudal stronghold. The fort was in the center of the city, at its highest point. It was protected by massive walls against external enemies but also against enemies within - the citizens of the Rijeka.

nder Habsburg sovereignt
thumb
The Baroque city clock tower above the arched gateway linking the "Korzo" to the inner city, designed by Filbert Bazarig in 1876

Created a free port in 1723, Rijeka during the 18th and 19th centuries was passed among the Habsburgs" Austrian, Croatian, and Hungarian possessions until being attached to Hungary for the third and last time in 1870. Although Croatia had constitutional autonomy within Hungary, the City of Rijeka was independent, governed (as a "corpus separatum") directly from Budapest by an appointed governor, as Hungary"s only international port. There was competition between Austria"s Port of Trieste and Hungary"s Port of Fiume. In the early 19th century, the prominent economical and cultural leader of the city was Andrija Ljudevit Adamić.

Fiume also had a significant naval base, and in the mid-19th century it became the site of the Austro-Hungarian Naval Academy (K.u.K. Marine-Akademie), where the Austro-Hungarian Navy trained its officers.

Giovanni de Ciotta (Mayor from 1872 to 1896) proved to be the most authoritative local political leader. Under his leadership, an impressive phase of expansion of the city started, marked by major port development, fuelled by the general expansion of international trade and the city"s connection (1873) to the Hungarian and Austrian railway networks. Modern industrial and commercial enterprises such as the Royal Hungarian Sea Navigation Company "Adria", and the Papermill, situated in the Rječina canyon, producing worldwide known cigarette paper, became trademarks of the city.

In 1866, Robert Whitehead, manager of Stabilimento Tecnico Fiumano (an Austrian engineering company engaged in providing engines for the Austro-Hungarian Navy), experimented on the first torpedo. The population grew from only 21,000 in 1880 to 50,000 in 1910. A lot of major civic buildings went up at that time, including the Governor"s Palace designed by the Hungarian architect Alajos Hauszmann.

The future mayor of New York City, Fiorello La Guardia, lived in the city at the turn of the 20th century, and reportedly even played football for the local sports club.

he Italo-Yugoslav dispute and the Free Stat


Habsburg-ruled Austria-Hungary"s disintegration in the closing weeks of World War I in the fall of 1918 led to the establishment of rival Croatian and Italian administrations in the city; both Italy and the founders of the new Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) claimed sovereignty based on their "irredentist" ("unredeemed") ethnic populations.

After a brief Serbian occupation, an international force of Italian, French, British and American troops occupied the city (November 1918) while its future was discussed at the Paris Peace Conference during the course of 1919.Stanislav Krakov, Dolazak srpske vojske na Rijeku i severni Jadran, Beograd: "Jadranska Straza",1928/29; The harbour area was destroyed by retreating German troops. Yugoslav troups entered the city on May 3, 1945.

ost World War I

The aftermath of the war saw the city"s fate again resolved by a combination of force and diplomacy. This time, Yugoslav troops advanced (early May 1945) as far west as Trieste in their campaign against the German occupiers of both countries. The city of Rijeka thus became Croatian (i.e., Yugoslav), a situation formalized by the Paris peace treaty between Italy and the wartime Allies on 10 February 1947. Once the change in sovereignty was formalized, 58,000 of the 66,000 Italian speakers left in advance of the Yugoslav army, choosing exile (known in Italian as "esuli" or the exiled ones). The discrimination and persecution many of them experienced at the hands of the Yugoslav populace and officials in the last days of World War II and the first weeks of peace remain painful memories. Summary executions of alleged fascists, Italian public servants, military officials and even normal civilians, forced most ethnic Italians to abandon Rijeka in order to avoid this class and ethnic cleansing.

limate and geograph

Rijeka"s position overlooking the Kvarner Bay with its islands (Cres, Krk) on the south, the Učka mountain on the west, the mountains of Gorski kotar to the north and the Velebit range to the east offers an impressive natural setting.

Rijeka has a Humid subtropical climate with warm summers and relatively mild and rainy winters. Snow is rare (usually 3 days per year, almost always in traces). There are 22 days a year with maximum of or higher, while one day a year temperature does not exceed . Fog appears in about 4 days per year, mainly in winter. The climate is also characterized by frequent rainfall. Cold bura (bora) winds are common in winter time.

There are 1922.5 hours of sunshine per year. Maximum is in July with 297.6 hours, while minimum is in December with 97.8 hours of sunshine.


|source2 = Ridjanovic and others: Geografija SR Hrvatske 5, Skolska knjiga, Zagreb, 1975, page 84
}}

ain sight
"Tvornica "Torpedo" (the Torpedo factory): The first European prototypes of a self-propelled torpedo were created by Giovanni Luppis, a retired naval engineer from Rijeka. The remains of this factory still exist, including a well-preserved launch ramp used for testing self-propelled torpedoes on which in 1866 the first torpedo was tested.

"Svetište Majke Božje Trsatske" (Sanctuary of Madonna Trsatian): (Zvijezda mora, Kraljica Jadrana, zaštitnica putnika—Star of the sea, Queen of Adriatic, protector of the travelers.) Built 135 meters above the sea on the Trsat hill 7 centuries ago, it represents the Guardian of Travelers, especially seamen, who bring offerings to her so she will guard them or help them in time of trouble or illness. Among other points of interest are the Gothic sculpture of (Gospa Slunjska) the Madonna of Slunj and works by the Baroque painter C. Tasce.

"Stara vrata, Rimski luk" (Old gate, Roman arch): At first it was thought that this was a Roman Triumphal Arch built by the Roman Emperor Claudius Gothicus but later it was discovered to be just a portal to the "pretorium", the army command in late antiquity.

"Church of St. Vid." The church is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 100 kuna banknote, issued in 1993 and 2002.. : (1993 issue) & (2002 issue). Retrieved on 30 March 2009.

Transport
Rijeka railway station
Ferry in Rijeka harbour.
Port of Rijeka was rush-built by Austro-Hungary in World War I and was completed in 1918, just before the collapse of the Dual Monarchy. The cost was more than 800.000 Kronen.

Rijeka is the largest port in Croatia. According to the Rijeka Port Authority, its total throughput cargo in 2007 was more than 13 million tons and is rapidly increasing.

Rijeka has efficient road connections to other parts of Croatia and neighbouring countries. The A6 highway runs between Rijeka and Zagreb, Croatia; a shorter stretch connecting Rijeka with the Slovenian border, part of the A7 highway, was completed in 2004. Rijeka gains access to the B8/B9 Istrian Y expressway network by means of the Učka Tunnel, which currently has only one lane of traffic in each direction. An intricate series of high-capacity bypass and connection roads is currently under construction. The eastern half of this project was due to open on 15 July 2006, and the more complex western half is to open 2 years later.

The city is difficult to get to by air; it has its own international airport, but it is located on the nearby island of Krk with a toll bridge in-between. Handling only 130,000 passengers in 2005, and projected to handle only 250,000 by 2008, the facility is more of a charter airport than a serious transport hub, although various scheduled airlines have begun to serve it.

Rijeka is well integrated into the Croatian railway network and critical international rail lines. A fully-electrified line connects Rijeka with Zagreb and beyond towards Koprivnica and the Hungarian border as part of the pan-European Vb corridor. Rijeka is also connected to Trieste and Ljubljana by a separate electrified stretch that extends northwards from the city. A transport bill, to have been passed by the Croatian Parliament in July 2006, was to see the start of construction along the aforementioned 5b corridor of Croatia"s first high-speed rail line, making possible speeds nearing . Construction on the new line was to start in 2007 and is slated to be completed by 2013. Higher speeds on this line will mean a trip from Rijeka to Zagreb will take about an hour, as opposed to the current three or four hours. Rijeka is well connected by direct train daily train to Vienna, to Munich in Germany or Salzburg in Austria, and there are direct night trains running to Rijeka from these two cities.

Good ferry connections with the surrounding islands and cities within Croatia exist in Rijeka, but no direct foreign connections. There are twice-weekly coastal routes to Split, and onwards to Dubrovnik which has international connections. Pula offers more direct southward connections from northwestern Croatia.

port
New Kantrida Pool, site of the 2008 European Short Course Swimming Championships
Rijeka was the host of the 2008 European Short Course Swimming Championships. In its more than 80 years of history, LEN had never seen so many records set as the number of them set at the Kantrida Swimming Complex. A total of 14 European Records have been set of which 10 World Records and even 7 World Best Times. This championship also presented a record in the number of participating countries. There were more than 600 top athletes, from some 50 European countries.

Swimmers from 21 nations won medals and 40 of the 51 national member Federations of LEN were present in Rijeka.

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie

Rijeka is twinned with:


aller

File:HNK.JPG|HNK Ivana pl. Zajca
File:Jadrolinija Palaca Jadran Rijeka2.jpg|Palace Adria
File:Vistica i Ivica.jpg|Rijeka Carnival, the biggest in Europe and one of the biggest in the world


ee als

*Constitution of Fiume
*Governors and Heads of State of Fiume
*Free State of Rijeka
*Rijeka (disambiguation)
*Ilario Carposio
*Karlići
*Rijeka Carnival

eference


xternal link

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Category:Oil Campaign of World War II

Category:Cities and towns in Croatia
Category:Coastal settlements in Croatia
Category:Port cities and towns of the Adriatic Sea
Category:Mediterranean port cities and towns in Croatia




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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 23.11.2014 15:21 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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