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Regensburg

Germany, Regensburg
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|Type = Cultural
|Criteria = ii, iii, iv
|ID = 1155
|Region = Europe and North America
|Year = 2006
|Session = 30th
|Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1155
}}
of the Reichstag
|date_event3 =   1663–1806
|event_end = Mediatised to new Archbishopric²
|date_end =   1803
|event_post = Ceded to Bavaria on Imperial collapse
|date_post =   1806
|p1 = Duchy of Bavaria
|image_p1 = Duchy of Bavaria
|s1 = Archbishopric of Regensburg
|image_s1 = Archbishopric of Regensburg
|capital = Regensburg
|footnotes = 1: The Bishopric of Regensburg acquired "Reichsfreiheit" around the same time as the City. Of the three Imperial Abbeys in Regensburg, Niedermünster had already acquired "Reichsfreiheit" in 1002, St. Emmeram"s Abbey did in 1295 and Obermünster in 1315. 2: The Bishopric, the Imperial City and all three Imperial Abbeys were mediatised simultaneously.
}}

"Regensburg" (; also "Ratisbon", , , , originally "Castra Regina") is a city (population 131,000 in 2007) in Bavaria, Germany, located at the confluence of the and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the . To the east lies the Bavarian Forest. Regensburg is the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate. The large medieval center of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

istor
The first settlements in Regensburg date to the Stone Age. The Celtic name "Radasbona" was the oldest name given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90 the Romans built a small "cohort-fort" in what would now be the suburbs.

In 179 the Roman fort "Castra Regina" ("fortress by the river Regen") was built for Legio III "Italica" during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. It was an important camp on the most northern point of the : it corresponds to what is today the core of Regensburg"s "Altstadt" ("Old City") east of the Obere and Untere Bachgasse and West of the Schwanenplatz. It is believed that even in late Roman times it was the seat of a bishop, and St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739.

From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat of the Agilolfing ruling family, and in 843, Regensburg was the seat of the Eastern Frankish ruler, Louis II the German. From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. In 1135–1146 a bridge across the , the "Steinerne Brücke", was built. This stone bridge opened major international trade routes between Northern Europe and Venice, and this started Regensburg"s golden age as a city of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural center of southern Germany and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics.
The remains of the East Tower of Porta Praetoria from Ancient Roman times

In 845, fourteen Bohemian princes came to Regensburg to receive baptism there. This was the starting point of Christianization of the Czech people, and the diocese of Regensburg became the mother diocese of Prague. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of the Czech lands, as consequently they were incorporated in the Roman Catholic and not into the Slavic-Orthodox world. The fact is well remembered, and a memorial plate at St John"s Church (the alleged place of the baptism) was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech and German languages.

In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade, Peter the Hermit led a mob of Crusaders who attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews of Regensburg and killed all those who resisted."Herald of Destiny" by Berel Wein. New York: Shaar Press, 1993, page 144.

In 1245 Regensburg became a Free Imperial City and was a trade center before the shifting of trade routes in the late Middle Ages. At the end of the 15th century Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria in 1486, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1496.

The city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1542, and its Town Council remained entirely Lutheran until the incorporation of the city into the Principality of Regensburg under Carl von Dalberg in 1803. A minority of the population stayed Roman Catholic and Roman Catholics were excluded from civil rights ("Bürgerrecht"). The town of Regensburg must not be confused with the Bishopric of Regensburg. Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and several abbeys. Three of the latter, St. Emmeram, Niedermünster and Obermünster, were estates of their own within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial diet (Reichstag). So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states" (in terms of the Holy Roman Empire): the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic bishopric and the three monasteries mentioned above.

From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire. Thus Regensburg was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers. In 1803 the city lost its status as a free city. It was handed over to the Archbishop of Mainz and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg in compensation for Mainz, which had become French under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. The archbishopric of Mainz was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monsteries and the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg ("Fürstentum Regensburg"). Dalberg strictly modernised public life. Most importantly he awarded equal rights to Protestants and Roman Catholics. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria, he himself being compensated by the towns of Fulda and Hanau being given to him under the title of "Grand Duke of Frankfurt".

Between April 19 and April 23, 1809, Regensburg was the scene of the Battle of Ratisbon between forces commanded by Baron de Coutaud (the 65th Ligne) and retreating Austrian forces. It was eventually overrun after supplies and ammunition ran out. The city suffered severe damage during the fight with about 150 houses being burnt and others being looted.

orld War I
Regensburg was a WWII Area Headquarters of Military District XIII () commanded by Lieutenant General Bruno Edler von Kiesling auf Kieslingstein. The headquarters was in command of the military forces of Regensburg, Passau, Straubing, Weiden in der Oberpfalz and Amberg. Regensburg also had a Messerschmitt Bf 109 aircraft factory and an oil refinery, and was bombed on August 17, 1943, by the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission and on February 5, 1945, during the Oil Campaign of World War II. Unlike most other major German cities, Regensburg had little damage from the Strategic bombing during World War II and the nearly intact medieval city center is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The most important cultural loss was the Romanesque church of Obermünster, which was destroyed in a March 1945 air raid and never rebuilt(the belfry survived). Also Regensburg"s slow economic recovery after the war ensured that historic buildings were not torn down to be replaced by newer buildings. When the upswing came to Regensburg in the late 1960s, the mindset had turned in favor of preserving the heritage.

ain sight

Dom—the Regensburg Cathedral
Side view of the Regensburg Cathedral
3D laser scan image of medieval Regensburg Stone Bridge facing the historic Salzstadl
Kohlenmarkt with Town Hall
City wall tower and gate
St. Emmeram"s Abbey, now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, a huge palace
Dampfnudel bakery in the Baumburger Turm
"Walhalla", built in 1842

*The "Dom" (Cathedral) is a very interesting example of pure German Gothic and counts as the main work of Gothic architecture in Bavaria. It was founded in 1275 and completed in 1634, with the exception of the towers, which were finished in 1869. The interior contains numerous interesting monuments, including one of Peter Vischer"s masterpieces. Adjoining the cloisters are two chapels of earlier date than the cathedral itself, one of which, known as the old cathedral, goes back perhaps to the 8th century. The official choir for the liturgical music at St Peter"s Cathedral are the famous Regensburger Domspatzen.
*The Stone Bridge, built 1135–1146, is a highlight of medieval bridge building. The knights of the 2nd and 3rd crusade used it to cross the on their way to the Holy Land.
*Remains of the roman fortress" walls including the porta praetoria
*The Church of St. James, also called "Schottenkirche", a Romanesque basilica of the 12th century, derives its name from the monastery of Irish Benedictines (Scoti) to which it was attached; the principal doorway is covered with very singular grotesque carvings. It stands next to the "Jakobstor", a mediæval city gate named after it.
*The old parish church of "St. Ulrich" is a good example of the Transition style of the 13th century, and contains a valuable antiquarian collection. It houses the diocesan museum for religious art.
*Examples of the Romanesque basilica style are the church of "Obermünster", dating from 1010, and the abbey church of "St. Emmeram", built in the 13th century, remarkable as one of the few German churches with a detached bell tower. The beautiful cloisters of the ancient abbey, one of the oldest in Germany, are still in fair preservation. In 1809 the conventual buildings were converted into a palace for the prince of Thurn and Taxis, hereditary postmaster-general of the Holy Roman Empire.
*The Adler-Apotheke, located nearby the Regensburg Cathedral, was founded in 1610 and is one of the oldest Pharmacies in Regensburg. Even today you can take a look at the ancient interior and historical vessels.
*Wealthy patrician families competed against each other to see who would be able to build the highest tower of the city. In 1260, the "Goldener Turm" (golden tower) was built on Wahlenstraße.
*The Town Hall, dating in part from the 14th century, contains the rooms occupied by the Imperial diet from 1663 to 1806.
*A historical interest is also attached to the "Gasthof zum Goldenen Kreuz" (Golden Cross Inn), where Charles V made the acquaintance of Barbara Blomberg, the mother of Don John of Austria (born 1547).
*Perhaps the most pleasant modern building in the city is the Gothic villa of the king of Bavaria on the bank of the .
*Among the public institutions of the city are the public library, picture gallery, botanical garden, and the institute for the making of stained glass. The city"s "Gymnasien" (high schools) include an episcopal clerical seminary, and a school of church music.
*The Botanischer Garten der Universität Regensburg is a modern botanical garden located on the University of Regensburg campus. Herzogspark also contains several small botanical gardens.
*St. Emmeram"s Abbey, now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, is a huge castle owned by the powerful Thurn and Taxis family.

Near Regensburg there are two very imposing Classical buildings, erected by Ludwig I of Bavaria as national monuments of German patriotism and greatness. The more imposing of the two is the "Walhalla", a costly reproduction of the Parthenon, erected as a Teutonic temple of fame on a hill rising from the at Donaustauf, 15 km to the east. The interior, which is as rich as coloured marble, gilding, and sculptures can make it, contains the busts of more than a hundred German worthies. The second of King Ludwig"s buildings is the "Befreiungshalle" at Kelheim, 30 km above Regensburg, a large circular building which has for its aim the glorification of the heroes of the 1813 War of Liberation.

eograph
Regensburg is situated on the northernmost part of the river at the geological crossroads of four distinct landscapes:

*to the north and northeast lies the Bavarian Forest (Bayerischer Wald) with granite and gneiss mountains and wide forests.
*to the east and south-east is the fertile plain (Gäuboden) which are highly cultivated loess plains
*the south is dominated by the tertiary hill country (Tertiär-Hügelland), a continuation of the alpine foothills
*to the West is the Franconian Jura (Fränkische Jura)

conom
BMW operates an automobile production plant in Regensburg; the Regensburg BMW plant produces approximately 1,000 3-series and 1-series BMW vehicles per day. Other major employers are Siemens with its subsidiary Osram Opto-Semiconductors and Siemens VDO (now Continental AG) with the headquarters of its car component business. Infineon, the former Siemens semiconductor branch, has a medium-sized factory in Regensburg. Other well known companies such as Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen, Toshiba or KRONES have built plants in or near Regensburg.

The University of Regensburg and trading also play a major role in Regensburg"s economy. Some Hightech-Biotech Companies were also founded in Regensburg and have their headquarters and laboratories in the "BioPark".

CipSoft GmbH is an video game company which is at Regensburg.

ranspor
Regensburg can easily be reached from Munich by train, which takes about 1.5 hours. The city lies also on two motorways, the A3 from Cologne and Frankfurt to Vienna, and the A93 from Munich to Dresden. The city is also connected by "Bundestraßen", namely the B8, B15, and B16. The local transport is carried out by an intensive bus network.

otable resident

*Pope Benedict XVI (professor of theology at the University of Regensburg from 1969 to 1977, and still classed as honorary professor; he was never a resident of the city of Regensburg, however his house in Pentling lies less than 1 kilometer from the city in the district of Regensburg, and he has been an honorary citizen since 2006)
*Albrecht Altdorfer (landscape painter)
*Willie Duncan (Spider Murphy Gang)
*The Rev. Dr. Franz Xaver Haberl, one of the most important Roman Catholic musicians in history, teacher of Perosi. (See also Cecilian Movement.)
*Johannes Kepler (mathematician and astronomer)
*Simone Laudehr (German national team footballer, women"s world cup champion 2007)
*Albertus Magnus (13th century polymath)
*Maximilian Oberst, physician who introduced the Oberst method of block anesthesia
*Petachiah of Ratisbon, a 12th-13th century rabbi, best known for his extensive travels throughout Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Middle East.
*Walter Röhrl (racing driver)
*Saint Emmeram
*Emanuel Schikaneder (Librettist of The Magic Flute)
*Oskar Schindler (after World War II until his emigration to Argentina)
*Ulrich Schmidl (supposed co-founder of Buenos Aires)
*Anton Vilsmeier, chemist best known for the Vilsmeier-Haack reaction, born in Burgweinting, which is now part of Regensburg, and attended the "Altes Gymnasium" in Regensburg
*Ulrich of Zell
*Wolfgang of Regensburg

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Regensburg is twinned with:
* Tempe, Arizona, United States, since 1981
* Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom since 1955
* Brixen, Italy, since 1969
* Clermont-Ferrand, France, since 1969
* Pilsen, Czech Republic, since 1993
* Odessa, Ukraine, since 1980
* Qingdao, China, since 2009

See also
* Jewish history of Regensburg
* List of mayors of Regensburg
* Regensburg (district)

xternal link

*
*
*
*
* (creative commons-licensed photos, laser scans, panoramas), mainly covering the medieval Stone Bridge but also including surrounding areas, with data from a Christofori und Partner/CyArk research partnership
* – Pictures, Sights and more
* taken from the collections of the Lichtbildarchiv älterer Originalurkunden at Marburg University
*

References

*








Category:1803 disestablishments
Category:States and territories established in 1245

Category:Settlements on the
Category:Roman legions" camps in Germany
Category:




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