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Podgorica

Montenegro, Podgorica
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ityscap
Millennium Bridge

Podgorica"s mixture of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country: as one régime replaced another, the corresponding style was introduced.

As part of the Ottoman Empire until 1878, Podgorica has many examples of Turkish architecture. The oldest parts of the city, "Stara Varoš" ("Old town") and "Drač" are typical of this, with two mosques, a Turkish clock tower and narrow, winding streets.

When the city was incorporated to , the urban core shifted to the other bank of the Ribnica River, where the town developed in a more European style: wider streets with an orthogonal layout. This part of the city is today traditionally regarded as city centre, and is called "Nova Varoš" ("New town")

Residential blocks in Podgorica built during the SFRY era.During World War II, Podgorica was almost razed to the ground, being bombed over 70 times. After liberation, rebuilding began as in other cities of the communist-ruled SFRY. Mass residential blocks were erected, with basic design typical of Eastern bloc countries. All that part of the city on the right bank of the Morača River was built this way. Even the empty spaces in the city centre were filled with near-brutalist structures, resulting in an unfortunate fusion of old and new. Panorama of urban Podgorica
The residential and business blocks of the SFRY era provided ample housing but have been much criticised for their uninventive and grey appearance.

Main traffic arteries were laid out during this period, which extended the orthogonal street layout of city center, to the south and west. Residential and infrastructural developments in SFRY era have mostly shaped the layout of today"s Podgorica, and accommodated the unprecedented population growth that followed the World War 2.

Architecture of newer Podgorica blocks, developed in the 2000s (Bulevar Svetog Petra Cetinjskog).
However, in area surrounding residential blocks, the city expanded in a form of often chaotic urban sprawl, with densely built private lowrise dwellings leaving little space for streets and sidewalks. The trend of sprawling informal settlements was at peak during the 1990s. Efforts have been made since to improve the infrastructure of those settlements, but many problems remain, especially in large lowrise neighbourhoods in north and northeast Podgorica.

A major advance in Podgorica architecture began in the late 1990s and, since then, the face of the city has changed rapidly. Residential and business construction are proceeding rapidly, incorporating contemporary glass-and-steel architectural trends. In an effort to create a recognizable and modern state capital, city officials are routing significant investments in city"s public spaces. Thus, the city has gained entirely new squares, parks and monuments. New landmarks include the "Hristovog Vaskrsenja" orthodox temple and the Millennium Bridge, the main feature of the Podgorica skyline. Podgorica today is transforming rapidly from a featureless town to a modern European capital.

ultur
ntertainment and performing art
Montenegrin National Theatre.
Podgorica is home to many Montenegrin cultural institutions and events. It hosts the "Montenegrin National Theatre" and a number of museums and galleries.

The Montenegrin National Theatre is the most significant theatre not only in Podgorica but in all of . Podgorica is also host to the "City Theatre" (Gradsko pozorište), which includes the Children"s Theatre and the Puppet Theatre.

Although not as rich in museums and galleries as the historic royal capital Cetinje, there are several noteworthy museums:

* The "Podgorica City Museum" ("Muzej grada Podgorice") preserves Podgorica"s rich heritage. Founded in 1950, it has four categories: archaeological, ethnographic, historical and cultural-historical. It houses artefacts which date back to the Roman and Illyrian eras.

* The "Archaeological Research Centre" ("Centar za arheološka istraživanja") was founded in 1961. Its mission is to gather, classify, restore and display archaeological sites.

* The "Museum of Marko Miljanov" (Muzej Marka Miljanova) in Medun shows life in 19th century . It is the most significant Montenegrin memorial museum of its kind.

* The "Natural History Museum" ("Prirodnjački muzej") displays specimens of Montenegrin flora and fauna. This museum has no exhibition space of its own, despite many proposals and initiatives to build one.

The Republic Square was completely refurbished in 2006.
There is a notable art gallery in the Dvorac Petrovića ("Petrović"s Castle") complex in Podgorica"s largest public park. The King Nichola"s castle, Perjanički dom ("House of the Honour Guard"), castle chapel and surrounding buildings were converted to an art gallery in 1984. Since 1995, it has been part of the "Modern Arts Centre" ("Centar savremenih umjetnosti") and houses approximately 1,500 works of art.

The historic "Cinema Culture" ("Kino kultura"), which was founded in 1949, was closed in November, 2008 due to continuos financial losses it generated. It was the only cinema in the city for 6 decades. The building of the former cinema will be converted to host the "Podgorica City Theatre".

Shortly after its closure, a Ster-Kinekor 6-screen multiplex cinema opened at Delta City shopping mall, and another multiplex is announced at .

Resurrection Church
A significant cultural institution of over fifty years" standing is the "Cultural-informational centre Budo Tomović" ("KIC Budo Tomović"). It is a public institution which organises various artistic events, including "Podgorica"s Cultural Summer" ("Podgoričko Kulturno Ljeto"), "FIAT" - International Alternative Theatre Festival ("Festival Internacionalnog Aletarnativnog Teatra"), "DEUS" - "December Arts Scene" ("Decembarska Umjetnička Scena"). "KIC budo Tomović" was a host for such names as Tony Parsons or Brooklyn Funk Essentials during their visits to Podgorica.

The Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ, in construction since 1993, is the largest place of worship in Podgorica, and one of the symbols of the city. With many smaller orthodox churches scattered around the city, two mosques and a catholic church, Podgorica makes up for a multiconfessional and multicultural city, and a reflection of itself.

edi
Podgorica is undoubtedly the media hub of . It is home to the headquarters of the state-owned public television broadcaster RTCG. Commercial broadcasters in Podgorica include TV In, NTV Montena, Elmag RTV, RTV Atlas,TV Vijesti and MBC. It was announced that cities local television will be open soon. Their programmes can be received in much of .

All "s daily newspapers ("Vijesti", "DAN" and "Pobjeda") are published in Podgorica, as is the popular weekly magazine "Monitor".

port
Morača Sports Center
The most popular sports by far are football and basketball. Basketball became especially popular with the success in the late 20th and early 21st centuries of KK Budućnost Podgorica, both in Yugoslav and European competitions.

Football in Podgorica has a very long tradition associated with FK Budućnost Podgorica. World-famous players Predrag Mijatović and Dejan Savićević were born in Podgorica and made their debut in that team. FK Zeta (from the Podgorica suburb of Golubovci) has also reached the former first league of Serbia and . These clubs, along with FK Mogren of Budva, usually compete with each other for leading position in the First League of .

Other clubs from Podgorica and its surroundings play in the Montenegrin First League e.g. FK Dečić (Tuzi), FK Kom and FK Mladost. One of the most popular clubs from the suburbs is FK Ribnica from Konik.

The volleyball team OK Budućnost Podgorica and the women"s handball team ŽRK Budućnost T-Mobile have had significant success in European competition. Budućnost Podgorica is the most important sports club in Podgorica. Its name means "Future".

Sporting events like the annual "Podgorica Marathon" and the "Morača River" jumps attract international competitors.

Podgorica is the host of FINA Water Polo World League.

enue
Podgorica City Stadium
Podgorica has a number of sporting venues; some are under reconstruction and expansion. The main ones are:
A concert being held at the Stadium of Small Sports.
*Podgorica City Stadium. When eastern stand is completed, it will have a capacity of 24,000. It is the home of FK Budućnost Podgorica and the national football team. It is currently the only venue in that complies with FIFA standards for international football matches.
*Morača Sports Center, a multi functional indoor sport facility. It has a capacity of 4,200 seats. It hosted one group of Eurobasket 2005, while other games were played in Belgrade, Vršac and Novi Sad.


Almost every football club in Podgorica has its own stadium, although these are often only fields with small stands or no stand at all.

Other notable venues are the Stadium of Small Sports (Малих спортова стадиум, "Malih sportova stadium") under Gorica hill and the sport shooting range under Ljubović hill. There are many other sports facilities around the city, most notably indoor soccer fields.

conom
ProMonte building
Podgorica is not only the administrative centre of but also its main economic engine. Most of "s industrial, financial and commercial base is in Podgorica.

Before World War I, most of Podgorica"s economy was in trade and small-scale manufacture - an economic model established during the long rule of the Ottoman Empire. After World War II, Podgorica became "s capital and a focus of the rapid urbanisation and industrialisation of the SYugoslav era. Industries such as aluminium and tobacco processing, textiles, engineering, vehicle production and industrialised wine production were established in and around the city. In 1981 Podgorica"s GDP per capita was 87% of the Yugoslav average.

The Yugoslav wars, and the dissolution of Yugoslavia left Podgorica"s industries without markets, suppliers or funds to invest and modernise equipment. This led to a decline of many factories, some of which closed down. Those surviving were privatised and have now largely recovered. The Podgorica aluminium smelter ("Kombinat aluminijuma Podgorica - KAP", owned by Rusal) and AD Plantaže (a wine and brandy making company) are still among the biggest companies in Podgorica.

In the early 2000s, Podgorica"s financial and service sector expanded rapidly and its economy became more service-oriented. The two Montenegrin stock markets ( and NEXNEX), as well as most Montenegrin banks are situated in the city. Economic activity in Podgorica has mostly shifted from heavy industries to telecommunications, construction and banking. Investors and foreign companies which open outlets in Podgorica add significantly to the growth and diversification of its economy.

As a side effect, the prices of property and development land in the centre of Podgorica have increased greatly. The growth, although somewhat slowed down due to late 2000s recession, is expected to continue, as Podgorica became capital of an independent country in 2006.

emographic
Although medium-sized by European standards, Podgorica is by far the largest city in : almost one third of Montenegrin citizens live there. According to 2003 census, there are 169,132 people in the Podgorica municipality, which includes small towns of Tuzi and Golubovci, while 136,473 people live in the city itself.

The municipality of Podgorica can be compared metropolitan area, while the city of Podgorica, as defined by census, represents the urban area. Due to strong internal migration to Podgorica, estimates on actual population for late 2000s go up to 200,000.


"Population of Podgorica (city)"



"Population of Podgorica (municipality)"



"Ethnicity in 2003 (municipality)"



olitic

Podgorica City Hall
The city administration consists of mayor, city assembly and a number of secretariats and administrative bodies which together act as a city local government. The city assembly has 55 members, elected directly for four-year terms. The mayor is elected directly for five-year term.

Current majority in city assembly is made by DPS-SDP coalition, with 29 councilors. Position of mayor is held by senior DPS official, Miomir Mugoša, who has been incumbent since 2000.

ocal subdivision


The municipality of Podgorica consists of "Podgorica City Proper" and two subdivisions called "Urban municipalities" (Градске општине, "Gradske opštine"), Golubovci and Tuzi.

The entire municipality of Podgorica is further divided into 57 "local communities" (мјесне заједнице, "mjesne zajednice"), bodies in which the citizens participate in decisions on matters of relevance to the local community.

ducatio
University of main building
Faculty of Economics
gymnasium
Most of "s higher education establishments are in Podgorica. It is home to the University of , the country"s most significant such institution. It consists of the following faculties:
* Faculty of Economics
* Faculty of Law
* Faculty of Electrical Engineering
* Faculty of Metallurgy and Technology
* Faculty of Political Sciences
* Faculty of Civil Engineering
* Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
* Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics
* Faculty of Medicine

The University includes four scientific research institutes as well:
* Institute of Foreign Languages
* Institute of Biotechnology
* Institute of History
* Institute of Marine Biology

The Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts is also in Podgorica, as is the DANU cultural organisation. In recent years, the number of private institutions for higher education has increased.

The municipality of Podgorica has 34 elementary schools and 10 secondary schools, including one gymnasium. The first secondary school established in Podgorica is Slobodan Škerović.

The rebuilded economic high school now offers new features and higher quality education

The "Radosav Ljumović" national library is considered the most comprehensive in .

ranspor
E65, E80)
rban transpor
Public transport in Podgorica consists of bus lines. City owned "AD Gradski saobraćaj" public transport company used to be the sole bus operator, until the 1990s, when private carriers were introduced. The city-owned company went bankrupt in 2001, and buses were since operated solely by private carriers.

Public transport has struggled to deal with competition. Unlicensed taxis that once threatened the bus services are now extinct, but cheaper despatched taxicab services have become more popular.

The taxicab service is well-organised. Over 20 companies operate over 800 vehicles. These boast a high level of service, including new cars, same car model for entire company, drivers in uniforms and GPS-tracked vehicles.

oa
Podgorica"s location in central makes it a natural hub for rail and road transport.

Roads in (especially that which connects Podgorica to northern and Serbia) are usually inferior to modern European roads. Both major Montenegrin motorway projects, Bar - Boljare motorway and Adriatic Ionian motorway, will pass near Podgorica. Those roads are currently in planning stages.

The newly-built Sozina tunnel (4.2 km) shortened the journey from Podgorica to Bar ("s main seaport) to under 30 minutes.

The current main transit connections of Podgorica are:

* north (E65, E80), towards Belgrade and on to Central Europe
* west (E762), towards Nikšić, Bosnia and on to Western Europe
* south (E65, E80) towards the Adriatic coast
* east (E762), towards Albania

ai
Podgorica Rail Station
The Podgorica railway station is located near the city centre.

Podgorica"s main railway link (for both passenger and freight traffic) is Belgrade - Bar. The link to Nikšić is currently under reconstruction and will become the first electrified railway in . Passenger service is expected to start in 2009. Podgorica"s rail system is also connected to Shkodër and Tirana, however, this line is not used for passenger service.

ir transpor
Podgorica Airport near Golubovci
Podgorica Airport is 10 km south of the city center and is "s main international airport. A new passenger terminal was opened on 13 July 2006. Podgorica Airport served over 500,000 passengers in 2008.

There are regular flights from Podgorica to Belgrade, Budapest, London, Frankfurt, Ljubljana, Zagreb, Paris, Rome, Moscow, Skopje and Vienna.

ee als
* List of places named after Tito

References


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Category:Capitals in Europe
Category:Cities, towns and villages in
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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 17.11.2019 09:37 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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