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Germany, Pforzheim
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"Pforzheim" is a town of nearly , inhabitants in the state of Baden-Württemberg, southwest Germany at the gate to the Black Forest. It is world-famous for its jewelry and watch-making industry. Because of that it gained the nickname "Goldstadt" or Golden City. It has an area of  km² and is situated between the cities of Stuttgart and Karlsruhe at the confluence of three rivers (Enz, Nagold and Würm) and marks the frontier between Baden and Württemberg, being located on Baden territory. Pforzheim is located on the Bertha Benz Memorial Route.

The City of Pforzheim does not belong to any istrative district ("Kreis"), although it hosts the istrative offices of the Enz district which surrounds the town.

During World War II, Pforzheim was bombed a number of times. The largest raid, and one of the most devastating area bombardments of World War II, was carried out by the Royal Air Force (RAF) on the evening of February . About one quarter of the town"s population, over , people, were killed in the air raid, and about % of the town"s buildings were destroyed. The town was thought by the Allies to be producing precision instruments for use in the German war effort and to be a transport centre for the movement of German troops.

After the war, the rubble from the destruction was heaped into a large pile on the outskirts of the town, as was done by other cities such as Stuttgart and Munich. A building called the "Wallberg" was erected as a concrete "cap" on the mountain of rubble, long since covered with earth and vegetation. In the twenty years following the end of the war, Pforzheim was gradually rebuilt, giving the town a quite modern look.

Pforzheim is located at the northern rim of the eastern part of the Black Forest (Schwarzwald) and the rim of the hilly country of the Kraichgau, in an open valley at the confluences of the rivers Würm and Nagold and the rivers Nagold and Enz. Due to its location, this city is also called the "three-valleys town" ("Drei-Taeler Stadt") or the "Gateway to the Black Forest" ("Pforte zum Schwarzwald / Porta Hercinia"). The early settlement (in fact much earlier than the current centers Stuttgart and Karlsruhe) by the Romans, who constructed a ford through the river, shortly past the confluence of the three rivers, for their military highway, is also due to this extraordinary geography. Due to this location, Pforzheim later on became a center for the timber-rafting trade which transported timber from the Black Forest via the rivers Wuerm, Nagold, Enz and then the Neckar and Rhine to, among other destinations, the Netherlands for use in shipbuilding.

Pforzheim and its surrounding area belongs to the "Densely Populated Area Karlsruhe/Pforzheim". Pforzheim has the functions of a regional center (Mittelzentrum) for the towns and municipalities Birkenfeld (Enz), Eisingen, Engelsbrand,
Friolzheim, Heimsheim, Ispringen, Kämpfelbach, Keltern, Kieselbronn, Königsbach-Stein, Mönsheim, Neuenbürg (Württemberg), Neuhausen, Neulingen, Niefern-Öschelbronn, Ölbronn-Dürrn, Remchingen, Straubenhardt, Tiefenbronn, Wiernsheim,Wimsheim and Wurmberg.

eighboring communitie
The following towns and communities share borderlines with the City of Pforzheim. Below they are mentioned in clockwise order, beginning to the north of the city. Except for Unterreichenbach, which belongs to the district of Calw, all of them are included in the Enz district.

Ispringen, Neulingen, Kieselbronn, Niefern-Öschelbronn, Wurmberg, Wimsheim, Neuhausen (Enz), Unterreichenbach, Engelsbrand, Birkenfeld (Enz), Keltern and Kämpfelbach

ity ward
The city of Pforzheim consists of " city wards". The communities Büchenbronn, Eutingen on the Enz, Hohenwart, Huchenfeld and Würm, which by way of the latest regional istrative reform during the s were incorporated into Pforzheim"s istration, are represented by independent community s and community istrations according to § and following paragraphs of the main city-ordinance of Pforzheim. In important matters concerning any of these communities the opinions of the respective community s must be taken into consideration. However, final decisions on the matter will be made by the Pforzheim city .

* City center ("Innenstadt")
* Northern ward ("Nordstadt")
* Eastern ward ("Oststadt")
* Southeastern ward ("Südoststadt")
* Southwestern ward ("Südweststadt")
* Western ward ("Weststadt")
* Arlinger
* Brötzingen
* Buckenberg and Hagenschiess; including Altgefaell, Haidach and Wald-Siedlung
* Büchenbronn including Sonnenberg
* Sonnenhof
* Dillweißenstein
* Eutingen on the Enz including Mäuerach
* Hohenwart
* Huchenfeld
* Würm

iews of Pforzheim (

File:Schlosskirch.JPG|Schlosskirche St. Michael.
File:Rathaus.JPG|The New City Hall and Waisenhaus square.
File:Rossbr.JPG|Enz river at Rossbruecke.
File:Reuchlins.jpg|Statue of Johannes Reuchlin.
File:Auer s.jpg|Monument commemorating the timber floating profession in medieval Pforzheim.

ister cities, twin towns and friendship agreement

Pforzheim has sister city agreements with the following cities:
* Gernika-Lumo in Spain "(since )"
* Saint-Maur-des-Fosses in France "(since )"
* Vicenza in Italy "(since )"

Pforzheim is twinned or has friendship agreements exist with the following cities and regions:
* Osijek in Croatia "(since )"
* Irkutsk in Russia "(since )"
* Nevşehir in Turkey "(since )"
* Częstochowa in Poland "(since )"
* Győr-Moson-Sopron in Hungary "(since in conjunction with the Enz district)"

"Since :" A settlement was established by Roman citizens at the Enz river near the modern "Altstädter Brücke" (old town bridge). Archeological surveys have unearthed several items from that period which are kept and displayed in the Kappelhof Museum. The settlement was located where the Roman military road connecting the military camp Argentoratum (nowadays Strasbourg in France) and the military camp at Cannstatt (now a suburb of Stuttgart) at the Upper Germanic Limes border line of the Roman Empire crossed the Enz river. This place was known as Portus (river crossing, harbor), which is believed to be the origin of the first part of the city"s name "Pforzheim". A Roman milestone (the so-called "Leugenstein") from the year and later excavated at nowadays Friolzheim shows the exact distance to "Portus"; it is the first document about the settlement.

"/": The Roman settlement "Portus" was destroyed completely, as the Frank and Alemanni tribes overrun the Upper Germanic Limes border line of the Roman Empire and conquered the Roman istrated area west of the Rhine river. From then on, over an extended period of time historical records about the settlement are not available.

"th/th century": Graves from this period indicate that the settlement had been continued.

":" The settlement of Pforzheim was mentioned for the first time in a document by Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor as "Phorzheim". Visits to Pforzheim by Heinrich IV in and are documented.

"Before :" The "old town" of Pforzheim was awarded market rights (Marktrecht). At that time Pforzheim belonged to the estate of Hirsau Monastery, according to monastery documents.

"From :" Establishment of the "new town" west of the "old town" at the foot of the Schlossberg (palais hill) under Margrave Hermann V.

":" The town charter of the "new town" was mentioned for the first time in a document. The "old town" continued to exist as a legally independent entity.

"": The Margraves of Baden selected Pforzheim as their residence. The "new town" became prominent.

":" A mayor of Pforzheim was mentioned in a document for the first time.

"th/th century:" Pforzheim enjoyed its first period of flourishment. A group of influential patricians emerged. They developed extensive activities on the financial markets of those days. The town drew its income from the wood trade, timber rafting, the tannery trade, textile manufacturing and other crafts. Documents mention "mayor, judge, and citizens". The town walls surrounding the new town were completed at about . During this era three catholic orders established their convents in town (the Franciscan order established their domicile within the town wall at nowadays Barfuesserkirche (the choir of which remains), the Dominican nun order established their domicile outside of the walls of the old town near Auer bridge, and the Prediger cloister was located east of the Schlossberg, probably inside the town walls). Outside of the town wall across the Enz river, the suburb "Flösser Quarters" (the home of the timber floating trade) was established. Next to the western town wall, the suburb of "Brötzingen" gradually developed. The Margraves of Baden considered Pforzheim as their most important power base up to the first half of the th century. Under Margrave Bernard I (Bernhard I) Pforzheim became one of the istrative centers of the margraviate.

":" Holy Ghost Hospital was founded at Tränk Street (nowadays Deimling Street).

"th century:" Various fraternities among people working in the same trade were established: The fraternity of tailors in , the fraternity of bakers on May , , the fraternity of the weavers in , the fraternity of the wine-growers in , the fraternity of the skippers and timber raftsmen in , and the fraternity of the carters in . Members of the same fraternity assisted each other in various ways, for example with funerals and in cases of sickness. In a sense, the fraternities were early forms of health and life insurance.

"August /, :" Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor visits Margrave Bernard I (Bernhard I) in Pforzheim. On this occasion the mint of the Margraves of Baden in Pforzheim was mentioned. Mint master was Jakob Broeglin between –. The emperor appointed the master of the Pforzheim mint, Jakob Bröglin, and Bois von der Winterbach for five years as Royal Mint Masters of the mints of Frankfurt and Nördlingen. The Margrave was appointed as their patron.

":" The wedding of Margrave Charles I (Karl I) of Baden with Katharina of Austria, the sister of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor (Friedrich III), was celebrated in Pforzheim with great pomp (including tournaments and dances).

":" Johannes Reuchlin, the great German humanist, was born in Pforzheim on January (he died in Stuttgart on June , ). He attended the Latin School section of the monastery school run by the Dominican order of Pforzheim in the late s. Later, partly due to Reuchlin"s efforts, the Latin School of Pforzheim developed into one of the most prominent schools in southwestern Germany. The school"s teachers and pupils played an outstanding role in the dissemination of the ideas of humanism and the protestant reformation movement. The most famous pupils included Reuchlin himself, Reuchlin"s nephew Philipp Melanchthon, and Simon Grynaeus.

":" Margrave Charles I established a kind of monastery (Kollegialstift) at the site of Schlosskirche St. Michael, turning the church into a collegiate church. There were also plans to establish a university in Pforzheim, but this plan had to be abandoned because Margrave Charles I lost the Battle of Seckenheim.

":" Margrave Charles I was forced to transfer the palace and the town of Pforzheim as a fiefdom to the Elector Palatine after losing the Battle of Seckenheim. He then began to build a new palace in modern Baden-Baden. Margrave Christoph I finally moved the residence of the margraves to Baden-Baden. This gradually ended the first period of Pforzheim"s flourishment. The rich merchants gradually left the town, which declined to the status of a country town of mostly small traders.

":" The Weavers Ordinance ("Wollweberordnung") for the towns Pforzheim und Ettlingen was approved by Margrave Christoph I. This was a contract concerning the town privileges of Pforzheim. This regulation of the weaving trade did not allow the formation of a regular guild (Zunft).

":" A contract between Margrave Christoph I and the citizens of Pforzheim was concluded, granting the town of Pforzheim several privileges concerning taxes and business.

":" Foundation of the first printer"s shop by Thomas Anshelm. During the first half of the th century Pforzheim"s printers contributed significantly to the establishment of this (in those days) new medium.

"": Margrave Christoph I of Baden enacted the "Ordinance on the timber rafting profession in Pforzheim". The single timber logs that were floated from the deeper Black Forest areas down the Enz, Nagold and Wuerm rivers were bound together in the Au area to form larger timber rafts. Those rafts were then floated down the lower Enz, Neckar and Rhine rivers. The timber rafting s of Weissenstein, Dillstein and Pforzheim were well known in the profession.

was also the year for which an outbreak of the plague (probably the bubonic plague) is recorded in the Swabian chronicle Annalium Suevicorum by Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen professor Martin Grusius, published . It is not known how many of Pforzheim"s citizens died in that year, but there are reports of deceased in the close-by city of Calw and about in Stuttgart, which accounted for approximately one quarter to one half of the populations of those towns. Outbreaks of the disease were reported for many places in southwestern Germany, Bohemia, the Alsace region in nowadays France, Switzerland, and Italy. Common graves with massive numbers of human bones at the cemetery of St. Michael Church and the cemetery on the estate of the Dominican order near nowadays Waisenhausplatz found during the last century may indicate that hundreds of citizens became the victims of the plague. There are indications that a fraternity for taking care of the sick and removing the bodies of the deceased from houses was formed in , whose members later on stayed together and became known as the choral society "Singergesellschaft", which is still active today as the "Loebliche Singergesellschaft of ". (They are probably one of the oldest clubs in Europe).

"s:" The ideas of the protestant religious movement advanced by Martin Luther spread rapidly in Pforzheim. Its most prominent promoters were Johannes Schwebel, a preacher at Holy Ghost church (Heiliggeistkirche), and Johannes Unger, the principal of the Dominican Latin school.

"-:" Due to the heritage division of the clan of the Margraves of Baden, Margrave Ernst of Baden made Pforzheim the residential town of his family line. He decided to use the Schlosskirche St. Michael as the entombment site for his family line.

":" A large fire caused severe damage to the town.

":" After the conclusion of the Peace of Augsburg in , Margrave Karl II introduced "Lutherism" (protestantism) as the state religion in the district Baden-Durlach, which included Pforzheim. The (Catholic) monasteries were gradually shut down.

":" Margrave Karl II chooses Durlach as the new residential town. Pforzheim stayed one of the istrative centers of Baden.

"": At the beginning of the Thirty Years" War, the number of inhabitants of Pforzheim is estimated to have been between and . This was the largest town among all towns in Baden, even though at that time it had already declined somewhat.
A view of Pforzheim in the early th century. It shows all significant landmarks including the city wall, the rivers Enz and Nagold, the three monastery churches and the Margrave"s residence on Schlossberg hill.

"": Toward the end of the Thirty Years" War the "old town" was burned down by Bavarian (i.e. Catholic) troops. It was rebuilt, but without the former fortifications, which gave it the status of a village-like settlement. It soon vanished from historical records. The "new town" had survived.

"-:" The "War of the Palatinian Succession" (also called the Nine Years War) caused tremendous destruction in Southwestern Germany. The French "sun king" Louis XIV"s efforts to expand the territory of France up to the Upper Rhine river and to put the Elector Palatine under pressure to severe its ties with the League of Augsburg included the "Brûlez le Palatinat!" tactics of destroying major towns on both sides of the Rhine river. These tactics seem to have been mainly the idea of the French war minister, François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois.

Pforzheim was occupied by French troops on October , . Commanding officer is said to have been Joseph de Montclar. The town was forced to accommodate a large number of soldiers and had to pay a large amount of "contributions" to the French. When the army unit was about to depart early in the morning of January , (obviously because an army of the Holy Roman Empire had been approaching), they set many major buildings on fire, including the palais, the city hall, and vicarages. About houses (i.e. one quarter of all houses) and part of the town"s fortifications were reportedly destroyed.

Between August and August , the French army under the general command of Marshal Jacques Henri de Durfort de Duras again crossed the Rhine river and began the destruction of major towns in Baden. On August , , a French army unit under the command of General "Ezéchiel du Mas, Comte de Mélac" appeared in front of Pforzheims town gates, but this time the town refused to surrender. In response, the French army began shelling the town with cannons from the Rod hill located southwest of the town, and the several hundred soldiers of the German imperial command, who were defending the town, were forced to surrender. After a short period of looting, the French troops set the inner town area on fire on August , which made that area uninhabitable for several weeks. Then the French moved on.

During the following two years French troops stayed away from Pforzheim, but the economic situation of the town was miserable. In addition to this, the reconstruction of the town and the repairs of the fortifications under the supervision of Johann Matthaeus Faulhaber, the chief construction officer of the Margraviate Baden, required a lot of efforts. The accommodation of an imperial garrison under the command of (then) colonel Count Palfy also was a heavy burden.

In Louvois instructed his marshals to destroy those towns which were to serve as winter quarters for imperial troops, explicitly including Pforzheim, and then continue to Wuerttemberg for further destructions. After the French troops had crossed the Rhine river under the command of Marshal Guy Aldonce de Durfort de Lorges at Philippsburg on August , , they assaulted the Margraves" residential town of Durlach and , cavalry men, dragoons and , infantry men advanced toward Pforzheim where they arrived in the morning on August and surrounded the town. When the approximately imperial soldiers under the command of Captain Zickwolf and other men in the town refused to surrender, the siege began. After shelling the town during the day and the following night, the resistance of the town broke down and on August in the morning the French forced the town gates open, occupied and looted it (although with little success, as there was not much left to be taken away). On August , the French moved on, this time refraining from setting houses on fire. The fortification had again been damaged, though (the White Tower, the Auer Bridge Gate, the Upper Mill and the Nonnen Mill were burnt down). The French also stole all church bells, except for one minor one.

On September , , again crossed the Rhine river under the general command of Marshal Guy Aldonce de Durfort de Lorges, and advanced toward Durlach and Pforzheim. On September , , cavalry soldiers and , infantry and artillery troops under the command of Marshal Noël Bouton de Chamilly, moved to Pforzheim, where the town and soldiers of the imperial German army in town surrendered without any military engagements. The rest of the French army arrived on September under the command of Marshal de Lorges. On the same day, the French army moved on to Oetisheim near Mühlacker and attacked an imperial army unit of , cavalry men under the command of Duke Frederick Charles of Württemberg-Winnental in their camp. As they were taken by surprise, they withdrew hastily and lost several hundred men, either killed or captured by the French. (The Duke himself was among the French prisoners.) On September , the French army returned to Pforzheim and established a camp. It was reported that the entire Enz valley between the village of Eutingen east of Pforzheim and the village of Birkenfeld west of Pforzheim was occupied by the , French soldiers" camps. From their base in Pforzheim, French army units obviously under the leadership of Marshal de Chamilly advanced along the river valleys of Nagold and Wuerm and looted and destroyed the villages and towns of Huchenfeld, Calw, Hirsau, Liebenzell and Zavelstein. They also destroyed Liebeneck castle about kilometers from Pforzheim towering above the Wuerm valley, where part of the Pforzheim town archives were hidden. The archive was burned. Another part of the town archive as well as documents of Baden istrative office had been brought to Calw, were they went up in flames, too.

When the French troops left after about one week of occupation, they again looted Pforzheim and put it on fire. This time, all houses which had survived the two previous fires, were destroyed. In the Au suburb, only three houses survived. The Au bridge was heavily damaged. Only four houses survived in the Broetzingen suburb. The town church St. Stephan and a large part of the Dominican monastery complex were also destroyed. The Castle Church (Schlosskirche) St. Michael was heavily damaged, and the family tombs of the Baden Margraves in the church were ravaged by the soldiers. The last remaining church bell and the churches" clockworks were stolen as well. The town wall was damaged again, including the town gates. After the one—week presence of , soldiers in a town of only a few thousand citizens, all food was gone, including the seeds saved for next spring"s sowing season. Every tree and grapevine on the valley slopes had been used up as firewood. The French army reached their camp in Philippsburg on October , .

":" Inauguration of the "institution for orphans, the mad, the sick, for discipline and work" in a building of the former Dominican order Convent by the Enz river. Fifty years later this institution was to become the incubator of Pforzheim"s jewellery and watchmaking industries.

"-:" During this period there was a prolonged dispute between Pforzheim"s citizens and the Margrave of Baden concerning the privileges granted to the town in , which the Margrave considered obsolete and therefore demanded significantly higher tax payments from Pforzheim citizens. The issue was taken all the way to the Imperial Court of Justice, where the town"s motion was defeated.

":" Establishment of a watch and jewellery factory in the orphanage. This led to Pforzheim"s jewellery industries. Watchmaking was given up later on.

"/": Typhus epidemic in Pforzheim.

"": The Administrative District Pforzheim of Baden was split into a "Municipal District Administration Pforzheim" and two Rural Districts.

"": The two Rural Districts were combined to form the "Rural District Administration Pforzheim".

"": "Municipal District Pforzheim" and "Rural District Pforzheim" are merged to form the "Higher District Administration Pforzheim".

"": Ferdinand Öchsle in Pforzheim invented a device for measuring the sugar content in freshly pressed grape juice for assessing the future quality of wine (Mostwaage). It is still in use in the winery business.

"/:" Pforzheim was connected to the German railway network with the completion of tracks between Wilferdingen and Pforzheim.

"": The railway section between Pforzheim and Mühlacker was completed, thus establishing railway traffic between the capital of Baden, Karlsruhe, and the capital of Württemberg, Stuttgart.

"": The "Higher District Administration Pforzheim" was made the "Regional Administration Pforzheim".

"": The railway section between Pforzheim and Wildbad was completed.

":" Establishment of the first worker"s union in Pforzheim, the "Pforzheim Gold(-metal) Craftsmen"s Union".

"": The railway section between Pforzheim and Calw was completed.

":" Inauguration of the Arts and Crafts School (Kunstgewerbeschule; now incorporated into Hochschule (University) Pforzheim).

":" Bertha Benz and her two sons arrived in Pforzheim on the first "long-distance" drive in the history of the automobile in a car manufactured by her husband Carl Benz in order to visit relatives. She had started her drive in Mannheim, which is located about  km (more than sixty miles) from Pforzheim. The very first gasoline-powered, automobile with an internal combustion engine of the inventor had hit the roads only two years earlier after a patent for this new technology had been granted to Karl Benz on January , . She bought the gasoline necessary for her trip back home in a "pharmacy" in Pforzheim. During the trip Bertha Benz had to make repairs with a hairpin to open a blocked fuel line, and after returning home, suggested to her husband that another gear be provided in his automobile for climbing hills. To commemorate this first long-distance journey by automobile the Bertha Benz Memorial Route was officially approved as a route of industrial heritage of mankind in . Now everybody can follow the  km of signposted route from Mannheim via Heidelberg to Pforzheim and back.

":" Inauguration of the Pforzheim Jewish Synagogue.

"From :" Revival of the Pforzheim watchmaking industry.

":" The st FC Pforzheim Football (soccer) Club was defeated by VfB Leipzig with a score of : in the final game of the German soccer championship.

"-:" Pforzheim was not a battlefield in World War I, but men from Pforzheim lost their lives as soldiers on the battlefields.

"s:" The Pforzheim watchmaking industry thrived due to the new popularity of wrist-watches.

":" Pforzheim-born () Professor of Munich University Heinrich Otto Wieland received the Nobel prize in chemistry.

From ":" Along with the installation of the Nazi government in Germany the local subsidiaries of all political parties, groups and organizations other than the NSDAP were gradually disbanded in town. Public life as well as individual affairs were increasingly affected by Nazi influences. Persecution of Jewish fellow citizens occurred in Pforzheim, too, with boycotts of Jewish shops and companies.

":" Establishment of the municipal Jewellery Museum.

":" On November , the so-called Kristallnacht, the Pforzheim Synagogue () of the Jewish community was so badly damaged by Nazi activists that it had to be demolished later on.

":" "Regional Administration Pforzheim" (Bezirksamt) was converted to the "Rural District Pforzheim" (Landkreis) with Pforzheim city as its istrative site. However, the town itself became a district-less istrative body.

":" Deportation of Jewish citizens of Pforzheim to the concentration camp in Gurs (France). Only of the deported persons escaped from the holocaust.

":" Many factories were converted to produce weaponry such as anti-aircraft shells, fuzes for bombs, and allegedly even parts for the V and V rockets.

":" On February, Pforzheim was bombed in one of the most devastating area bombardments of World War II. It was carried out by the Royal Air Force (RAF) on the evening of February , . About one quarter of the town"s population, over , people, were killed in the air raid, and about % of the town"s buildings were destroyed. The mission order to bomb Pforzheim issued by RAF Bomber Command states as the intention of the raid on Pforzheim "to destroy built up area and associated industries and rail facilities". The bombardment was carried out as part of the British carpet bombing campaign. The town was put on the target list for bombardments in November because it was thought by the Allies to be producing precision instruments for use in the German war effort and as transport centre for the movement of German troops.
(Additional details are given in Bombing of Pforzheim in World War II.)

There were also several minor raids in and .

After the main attack, about , people had to be fed by makeshift public kitchens because their housing had been destroyed. Almost % of the buildings in the core city area had been destroyed. Many Pforzheim citizens were buried in common graves at Pforzheim"s main cemetery because they could not be identified. There are also many graves of complete families. Among the dead were several hundred foreigners who had been in Pforzheim as forced labor workers.
The inner city districts were severely depopulated. According to the State Statistics Bureau (Statistisches Landesamt), in the Market Square area (Marktplatzviertel) in there were , registered inhabitants, in none (). In the Old Town area (Altstadtviertel) in there were , inhabitants, in only persons were still living there. In the Leopold Square area, in there were , inhabitants, in only .

The German Army Report of February , devoted only two lines to reporting the bombardment: "In the early evening hours of February , a forceful British attack was directed at Pforzheim." RAF Bomber Command later assessed the bombing raid as the one with "probably the greatest proportion (of destroyed built-up area) (of any target) in one raid during the war".

In early April as the allied forces and notably the French Army advanced toward Pforzheim, the local German military commander gave orders to destroy the electric power generating plant and those gas and water supply lines that were still working, but citizens succeeded in persuading the staff sergeant in charge of the operation to refrain from this absurd endeavor in the face of the imminent and inevitable surrender of the German military. Likewise, orders were issued for the destruction of those bridges that had remained unscathed (some of the bridges had been destroyed by air strikes even before and after February ), and this could not be prevented. Only the Iron (Railway) Bridge in Weißenstein ward was saved by stout-hearted citizens who, during an unguarded moment, pulled off the fuze wiring from the explosive devices, which had already been installed, and dropped it into Nagold river. Soon after that on April , French troops (an armored vehicle unit) moved into Pforzheim from the northwest and were able to occupy the area north of Enz river, but the area south of the Enz river was defended by a German infantry unit using artillery. Fighting was especially fierce in Broetzingen. The French army units (including an Algerian and Moroccan unit) suffered heavy losses; among the dead was the commander the army unit, Capitaine Dorance. The advance of the French army came to a halt temporarily, but with the support of fighterbomber aircraft and due to the bad condition of the defenders (which included many old men and young boys who had been drafted in a last desperate war effort) the French troops finally succeeded and on April took possession of the vast rubble field which once was the proud residential town of the Baden Margraves.

The three months of French occupation were reportedly marked by hostile attitudes on both the French army side and the Pforzheim population side; incidences of rape and looting, mainly by Moroccan soldiers, were also reported. Au Bridge (Auerbruecke) and Wuerm Bridge received makeshift repairs by the French military. The US Army, which replaced the French troops on July , , helped repair Goethe Bridge, Benckiser Bridge, Old Town Bridge (Altstädterbrücke) and Horse Bridge (Roßbrücke) in and the following year. The relationship between the population and the US military was reportedly more relaxed than had been the case with the French army.

"-:" Pforzheim was gradually rebuilt, giving Pforzheim a quite modern look. In September the Northern Town Bridge (Nordstadtbrücke) was inaugurated (the ceremony was attended by then Federal President Prof. Dr. Theodor Heuss). Jahn Bridge followed in December , Werder Bridge in May , the rebuilt Goethe Bridge in October , and the rebuilt Old Town Bridge was inaugurated in .

":" On the occasion of the th birthday anniversary of Johannes Reuchlin, the city of Pforzheim established the Reuchlin Prize and awarded it for the first time in the presence of then President of the Federal Republic of Germany (West-Germany), Prof. Dr. Theodor Heuss.

":" Inauguration of the culture center "Reuchlinhaus", which from then on housed the Jewellery Museum, the Arts and Crafts Association, the City Library, the Homeland Museum (Heimatmuseum), and the City Archives.

":" On July shortly before :, Pforzheim and its surrounding areas were hit by a rare tornado. It had strength F on the Fujita scale. Two persons died and more than were injured, and buildings were damaged. Across the town between Buechenbronn ward and the village of Wurmberg the storm caused severe damage to forest areas (i.e. most trees fell to the ground). During the first night and the following days the soldiers of the French rd Husar Regiment and the US Army Unit, which were still ed at the Buckenberg Barracks, helped clear the streets of a lot of fallen trees (especially in the Buckenberg/Haidach area). It took about four weeks to carry out the most necessary repairs on buildings. The overhead electric contact wires for the electric trolley buses then still operating in town and the streetcar transport system to the village of Ittersbach were never repaired; those transport systems were retired.

"-:" The townships of Würm, Hohenwart, Buechenbronn, Huchenfeld and Eutingen were incorporated into the city istration.

":" Inauguration of the new Pforzheim City Hall.

"" As part of the reform of istrative districts, the rural district of Pforzheim was incorporated into the newly established Enz rural district, which has its istration in Pforzheim. But the city of Pforzheim itself remains a district-less city. In addition, Pforzheim became the istrative center of the newly formed Northern Black Forest Region.

"" On January , the population exceeded . and Pforzheim gained the status of a "large city" (Grossstadt).

":" Inauguration of the Pforzheim City Museum.

":" Inauguration of the "Technical Museum of the Jewellery and Watchmaking Industry" and the "Citizens Museum".

":" Inauguration of the City Convention Center.

"/:" Inauguration of the City Theater at the Waisenhausplatz.

":" Sister City agreement with the City of Gernika, Spain.

":" Sister City agreement with the City of Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France.

":" Sister City agreement with the City of Vicenza, Italy.

":" State Gardening Expo in Pforzheim. Enzauenpark was created and part of the Enz river was re-naturalized.

":" Inauguration of the cultural institution "Kulturhaus Osterfeld".

":" Merger of the Pforzheim Business School and the Pforzheim School of Design to form the Pforzheim University of Applied Sciences in Design, Technology and Business.

":" Inauguration of the Archeological Site Kappelhof.

":" Inauguration of the Pforzheim Gallery.

":" In November, during excavation works for a new shopping center right in the center of the city, a power shovel hit a  kg bomb which had not gone off during the bombardment of . On a Sunday, about citizens had to temporarily leave their homes as a precautionary measure while specialists were defusing and disposing of the (so far) last of a large number of unexploded explosive
devices found in Pforzheim"s grounds since .

See also History of Baden.

dministrative union
Formerly independent communities and districts which were incorporated into the City of Pforzheim.

opulation growt
The table below shows the number of inhabitants for the past years. Until the numbers represent estimates, after that they represent census results (¹) or official recordings by the Statistics Offices or the city istration.

¹ Result of census

Pforzheim"s population growth -.
Pforzheim"s population growth -.

The population growth diagrams show that the largest growth rates were recorded between about and , which was the period following the political reorganisation of Europe agreed upon at the Vienna Congress of after the violent period that was so much dominated by Napoleon Bonaparte of France. This high population growth period coincided with the period of intensive industrialisation of Germany. Population growth weakened due to the effects of World War I and World War II. The population declined sharply due to the destruction on February , , and increased sharply in the post-WWII era due to high economic growth levels in West-Germany and the rapid rebuilding efforts in Pforzheim. Earlier setbacks were recorded during the Thirty Years" War period in the th century.

After margrave Karl II of Baden in installed the Protestant Reformation in the Margraviate of Baden, of which Pforzheim was the capital in those days, Pforzheim continued to be a Protestant town for several centuries. The congregations in Pforzheim were affiliated with the deanery (Dekanat) of Pforzheim of the Protestant National Church of Baden, unless they were members of one of the independent churches (Freikirche).

Since the th century at the latest Catholics settled in Pforzheim again. They are affiliated with the deanery of Pforzheim which belongs to Archdiocese of Freiburg.

Other denominations and religious sects in Pforzheim are:

* Israelite Congregation
* Islamic Congregation
* Adventist Congregation
* Jehovah"s Witnesses
* Baptist Church
* Salvation Army
* Methodist Church
* Church of Christ, Scientist

The city of Pforzheim consists of the Lord Mayor as its president and elected (part-time) lors. It is democratically elected by the citizens for a period of five years. The last election was June , . The city is the main representative body of the city and determines the goals and frameworks for all local political activities. It makes decisions about all important issues regarding the public life and istration of the city and directs and monitors the work of the
city istration. It forms expert committees in order to deal with
specialized issues.

ity istratio
The city istration is lead by the Lord Mayer (presently Christel Augenstein) and three Mayors (presently Alexander Uhlig, Gert Hager and Andreas Schuetze). The istration consists of four departments (Dezernat) which are in charge of the following areas:

"Department I": Personnel, finances, business development, general
istration. (Managed by Christel Augenstein.)

"Department II": Construction and planning, environment. (Managed by Alexander Uhlig.)

"Department III": Education, culture, social affairs, sports. (Managed by Gert Hager.)

"Department IV": Security and public order, health, energy and water supply, local transportation and traffic. (Managed by Andreas Schuetze.)

Lord) Mayor
At an early stage, the town istration was led by the mayor
(Schultheiss) who used to be appointed by the lord (owner) of the town. Later on, there was a with a mayor leading it, who since holds the title "Lord Mayor". The terms of office of the mayors until are unknown. Only the names of the mayors are mentioned in historical documents.

* -: Ernst Matthaeus Kummer
* -: W.C. Steinhaeuser
* -: Weiss
* -: Kissling
* -: Guenzel
* -: Geiger
* -: Jakob Friedrich Dreher
* -: Christoph Friedrich Krenkel
* -: Wilhelm Lenz
* -: Rudolf Deimling
* -: Christian Crecelius
* -: Karl Zirenner
* -: Kaspar Schmidt
* -: Karl Gross
* -: Emil Kraatz
* -: Ferdinand Habermehl
* -: Erwin Guendert
* : Dr. Emil Goelser
* : Dr. Hans Gottlob
* -: Hermann Kuerz
* -: Karl Mohrenstein
* -: Ludwig Seibel
* : Albert Hermann
* : Wilhelm Becker
* -: Friedrich Adolf Katz
* -: Dr. Johann Peter Brandenburg, FDP/DVP
* -: Dr. Willi Weigelt, SPD
* -: Dr. Joachim Becker, SPD
* -: Christel Augenstein, FDP/DVP
* -now: Gert Hager, SPD

he coat of arm
The coat of arms of Pforzheim city shows in the left-hand half of a shield an inclined bar in red color on a golden background, and the right-hand half is divided into four fields in the colors red, silver, blue and gold. The city flag is white-blue.

The inclined bar can be traced back to the th century as the symbol of the lords (owners) of Pforzheim, which later on also became the National Coat of Arms of Baden, but its meaning is unknown. Since the coat of arms in its entire form can be verified, but its meaning is not known, either. Current coloring has been used only since ; in earlier times the coloring was different.

conomy and infrastructur
Pforzheim is one of the regional centers (Oberzentrum) in Baden-Württemberg and has one of the highest densities of industrial activity in the state.

Pforzheim is historically an important jewelry and watch-making centre in Germany. Due to this reason, Pforzheim is nicknamed as Golden City. Jewelry and watch-making industry is first set up by Jean François Autran after receiving an edict from then overlord Margrave Karl Friedrich von Baden. This enterprise is later joined by other commercial enterprises and helped Pforzheim to become an important manufacturing city. Pforzheim accounts for just under percent of the total sales of the German jewelry and silverware industry and around percent of all the pieces of jewelry exported by Germany come from Pforzheim.

However, a smaller fraction of the economy nowadays is dedicated to producing the traditional products of watches and jewellery. Only , people are employed in the jewelry and watch-making industries. Two thirds of all employment positions are made available in the areas of metal processing, dental industry electronics and electro-technology. The mail order companies (Bader, Klingel, Wenz) with their sales volumes in the order of millions of Euros occupies a leading position in Germany. Tourism is gaining importance. In this respect the city benefits from its favorable Three-Valleys location at the gateway to the Black Forest, and related to this, from the starting points of a large number of hiking, cycling and waterway routes. The European long-distance trail E passes through Pforzheim. It is also the starting point of the Black Forest Hiking Routes Westweg, Mittelweg and Ostweg.

The Federal Freeway A (Perl - Bad Reichenhall) runs by just to the north of the city. The city can be accessed via three freeway exits. The Interstate Road B (Lebach - Augsburg) and B (Gundelfingen - Bretten) run through the city. The B Interstate Road running toward Nagold has its starting point here.

Pforzheim is located at the railway line Karlsruhe-Stuttgart. In addition there are two railway lines into the Black Forest to Bad Wildbad and Nagold. Pforzheim is connected to the Karlsruhe Light Rail network. Other public transportation services in the city area are provided by buses of the Pforzheim Municipal Transport, subsidiary of Veolia Transport Company (SVP) and several other transportation companies. They all offer unified fares within the framework of the "Pforzheim-Enzkreis Verkehrsverbund".
Between and a light rail connection existed between Ittersbach and Pforzheim, operated by Pforzheim Municipal Transportation Company ("SVP"). Before that ("since ") the railroad belonged to the BLEAG (Baden Local Railway Inc., Badische-Lokaleisenbahn-Aktiengesellschaft). The only remaining light rail service "S " connecting Pforzheim to Bietigheim-Bissingen, Karlsruhe and Wörth am Rhein is operated by Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft (Albtal Transportation Company), which since also operates the Enz Valley Light Rail route to Bad Wildbad.

ajor local enterprise
* Victor Mayer GmbH&Co. KG, Workmaster of Fabergé
* Schmid Machine Tools
* Klingel Mail Order Company
* Bader Mail Order Company
* Wenz Mail Order Company
* Witzenmann GmbH (Specialized Metal Goods)
* Mapal WWS
* Thales (Electronics)
* Allgemeine Gold- und Silberscheideanstalt (metal processing)

The daily newspapers "Pforzheimer Zeitung", independent) and the "Pforzheimer Kurier", which is a regional edition of "Badische Neueste Nachrichten" (BNN) with main editorial offices in Karlsruhe, are published in Pforzheim.

ourts of Justic
Pforzheim is the site of a "Local Court of Justice" which belongs to the District Court and Higher District Court Precinct of Karlsruhe. It is also the domicile of a "Local Labor Court".

Pforzheim is the domicile of the following public authorities and public incorporated bodies:

* Pforzheim Employment Exchange (a federal government agency; "Arbeitsagentur Pforzheim").
* Pforzheim Internal Revenue Agency (a state agency; "Finanzamt Pforzheim")
* Northern Black Forest Chamber of Commerce (a public incorporated body; "IHK Nordschwarzwald"). The precinct of the chamber is the Northern Black Forest Region.
* Northern Black Forest Regional Association (a public incorporated body; "Regionalverband Nordschwarzwald").

ducational institution
* Pforzheim University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule Pforzheim - Hochschule fuer Gestaltung, Technik und Wirtschaft) enrolls about students. It was formed in by way of merging the former Pforzheim School of Design (Fachhochschule fuer Gestaltung) and Pforzheim Business School (Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft) and additionally establishing the Faculty of Engineering. The Pforzheim School of Design had its roots in the "Ducal Academy of Arts and Crafts and Technical School for the Metal Processing Industry", established . The Pforzheim Business School was the successor institution of the "National Business College", which was established in . The campuses of the Faculty of Design and the Faculties of Economics and Engineering are located at separate sites in the city area. The "Pforzheim University of Applied Sciences" fosters international exchange. Among other relationships, it is affiliated with the NIEBES Association and has close academic ties to Osijek University of Croatia and academic exchange programs with many institutions abroad, among them Auburn University and the Illinois Institute of Technology, in Chicago, of the United States of America.

* The "Goldsmith and Watchmaking Vocational School" is the only school of its kind in Europe. It is attended by many students from abroad.

* The general qualification for university admission (Abitur) can be obtained through an education at the "Reuchlin-Highschool", the "Kepler-Highschool", the "Hebel-Highschool", the "Theodor-Heuss-Highschool", the "Hilda-Highschool", the "Schiller-Highschool", the "Fritz-Erler-Highschool" (economics-oriented highschool), the "Heinrich-Wieland-Highschool" (technology-oriented highschool), der "Johanna-Wittum-Highschool" (home economics-oriented highschool), as well as the "Waldorfschule".

* Pforzheim also has many schools providing the mandatory general elementary and secondary education ("Grundschule", "Realschule") as well an institution which is dedicated to further education of grown-ups ("Volkshochschule"). There are also several state-run vocational schools leading to professional diplomas in the crafts and trades.

ulture and places of interes
* Municipal Theater of Pforzheim (opera, operetta, musical, drama)

* Southwest German Chamber Orchestra - This orchestra was founded by Friedrich Tilegant in . It participated in the world premiere of a work of Boris Blacher and has a good reputation beyond the region.
* Sinfonic Orchestra of the City of Pforzheim

* Archeological Site Kappelhof - Roman and medieval excavation objects
* Civic Museum Eutingen
* Museum on the German Democratic Republic (former east Germany)
* The Center of Fellow-Countrymen Associations (Landsmannschaften; especially those from eastern Europe)
* The Pforzheim Minerals Museum
* The Pforzheim Gallery (paintings)
* Reuchlinhaus
* The Pforzheim Jewellery Museum in the Reuchlinhaus
* The Pforzheim City Museum Pforzheim (on city history)
* The Technical Museum of the Jewellery and Watchmaking Industry of Pforzheim
* Weissenstein Station - On Railway History in the area of Pforzheim
* Roman Estate in the Kanzlerwald (the excavated remains of an estate built by Roman settlers)
* The Product Exhibition of Pforzheim (jewellery) Companies (Industriehaus)
* The Exhibition of Precious Stones by Widow Mrs. Schuett

ultural institution
* The House of Culture Osterfeld (a sociocultural center: theater, music, dance, cabaret, musical, arts, exhibitions etc.)
* Kupferdaechle (The Copper Roof Teenage Culture Center)
* The Puppet Theater of Raphael Muerle / The Marionette Stage Mottenkaefig
* The Communal Cinema of Pforzheim
* CongressCenter Pforzheim (CCP)
* City Library

otable examples of architectur
* The Old and New City Hall
* The Archive Building (Archivbau)
* The House of Industry (Industriehaus)
* Reuchlinhaus
* The look-out tower on Büchenbronn Hill
* The Arch Bridge at Dillweißenstein
* The ruins of Liebeneck Castle
* Churches:
** The Palais and Monastery Church St. Michael (Schloss- und Stiftskirche); it is the city"s landmark.
** The Old Town Church St. Martin (Altstadtkirche; Protestant)
** Resurrection Church (Auferstehungskirche; Protestant)
** The Bare Feet Church (Barfüsserkirche; Catholic)
** Christ Church of Brötzingen (Protestant)
** The Protestant City Church (Stadtkirche)
** Heart of Christ Church (Herz-Jesu-Kirche; Catholic)
** Matthew Church (Matthäuskirche; Protestant). This church was designed by architect Eiermann and is a precursory structure of the famous New Berlin Memorial Church (Gedächtniskirche)
** St. Franziskus Church (Catholic)
** The Islamic Mosque
** The notable New Synagogue () was lost n Kristallnacht
* Leitgastturm
* Seehaus (formerly a hunting villa of the Margrave; now a popular destination for Sunday afternoon walks away from the city)
* The Old Grapes Press of Brötzingen
* Hachel Tower
* The Copper Hammer (Kupferhammer; a traditional water-powered sledge hammer which was used for metal forming)
* The Enz Flood-Plains Park (Enzauenpark; a park to walk, play or cycle along the river Enz)

ther sites of interes
* The Alpengarten Pforzheim, closed since
* The Main Cemetery (Hauptfriedhof)
* Wallberg. The debris from the destroyed town (February , ) was dumped onto this hill. The Wallberg-Monument on the top is meant to remind people of the city"s history; it was erected in on the occasion of the th anniversary of the bombing raid.
* The Game Animals Zoo (Wildpark Pforzheim)
* Brötzingen Valley Stadium. This is the classical soccer stadium of the st FC Pforzheim soccer club of , which was inaugurated in . It accommodated a record number of ". to ." spectators on the occasion of the match between South Germany against Central Hungary in . In the post-nd-world-war era it accommodated . spectators at the cup matches st FC Pforzheim - . FC Nuremberg (score : after extension; ) and st FCP - Werder Bremen (score : after extension; ). The soccer club (simply called the "club"), which during its history supplied the first national team captain and a total of eleven first league players, had to file for bankruptcy in February and for the first time in history is playing in the th league, i.e. the Soccer Association"s Northern Baden League, during the - season. In , the club lost the final of the German Soccer Championship against VfB Leipzig : in Nuremberg.

egularly scheduled event
* February: Carnival Procession (Faschingsumzug) in Dillweissenstein
* May: International Pentecost Tournament of the VfR Pforzheim
* June: "Pforzemer Mess" (a fun fair)
* July: Pforzheim Goldsmith"s Market (Goldschmiedemarkt), last held in .
* July: "Lust auf Schmuck" (a jewellery market taking up where Goldschmiedemarkt left off, with change of venue and change of focus).
* July: "Gruschtelmarkt" (a flea market)
* July: International Pforzheim Music & Theater Festival
* July: "Marktplatzfest" (market place festival, every years; this is one of the largest free-of-charge open air festivals in Soutwestern Germany)
* August: "Öchsle-Fest" (a festival celebrating local wines)
* September: "Brötzingen Saturday"
* November: Pre-Christmas Handicraft Market (Weihnachtsbastelmarkt)
* November/December: Christmas Market (Weihnachtsmarkt) in the inner city area

onorary citizen
(a small selection)

* Alfons Kern, historian
* Dr. Johann Peter Brandenburg, German politician (FDP/DVP), Member of State Parliament, Lord Mayor of Pforzheim
* Dr. Willi Weigelt, German politician (SPD), Lord Mayor of Pforzheim
* Richard Ziegler, painter
* Rolf Schweizer, church music director

amous citizens born in Pforzhei
* , January , Johannes Reuchlin, † June , in Stuttgart; humanist and philosopher
* , October , Karl Heinrich Baumgaertner, † December , in Baden-Baden; pathologist
* , May , Bertha Benz, née Ringer, † ; wife of Karl Benz
* , January , Emil Strauss, † August , in Freiburg (Breisgau); German poet
* , Prof. Dr. Heinrich Otto Wieland, † ; Nobel Prize laureate in chemistry
* , December , Karl Abt, † December ; painter
* , January , Hans Lutz Merkle, † September , ; chairman of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH
* , June , Manfred Mohr; artist and one of the pioneers of computer-generated graphic art (living in New York since )
* , June , Klaus Mangold; former chairman of the board of management of Toll Collect
* , May , Dieter Kosslick; director of the Berlinale Film Festival
* , March , Rene Weller; former boxing world champion, presently poet
* , September , Peter Bofinger; member of the "Advisory Board on the Assessment of Macroeconomic Trends" in the Federal Republic of Germany
* , April , Uwe Huebner; TV and radio show host (for example "ZDF-Hitparade")

iscellaneous topic
* The Freemasons Lodge "Reuchlin" is located in Pforzheim.
* The internationally successful rock band Fool"s Garden ("Lemon Tree") has its origins in Pforzheim.


*Klaus Kortüm: PORTUS - Pforzheim. Untersuchungen zur Archäologie und Geschichte in römischer Zeit, Sigmaringen, Germany; (); (=Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Stadt Pforzheim ); in German.
*Hans-Peter Becht (Hg): Pforzheim im Mittelalter, Pforzheimer Geschichtsblätter, Band , Thorbecke, Sigmaringen, Germany; ISBN ---; (); in German.
*Hans-Peter Becht (Hg): Pforzheim in der frühen Neuzeit, Pforzheimer Geschichtsblätter, Band , Thorbecke, Sigmaringen, Germany; ISBN ---; (); in German.


# References Brief history on the official Web site of the City of Pforzheim.
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim im Mittelalter, p. .
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim im Mittelalter, chapters "Pforzheim im Mittelalter", pp. –, and "Commercium et Connubium", pp. –.
# References In: Die Pest: Das grosse Sterben um .
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim im Mittelalter, chapter "Pforzheim in muenzgeschichtlicher Sicht". p. .
# References Klaus Kortuem: PORTUS - Pforzheim.
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim im Mittelalter, p. .
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim in der fruehen Neuzeit, chapter "Melanchthons Pforzheimer Schulzeit", pp. –.
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim im Mittelalter, chapter "St. Michael in Pforzheim", pp. –.
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim im Mittelalter, p. .
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim in der fruehen Neuzeit, chapter "Der Pforzheimer Privilegienstreit (-)", pp. , .
# References Christian Groh: Pforzheim und Baden zur Zeit Johannes Reuchlin.
# References Thomas Frei: Pforzheim im . Jahrhindert.
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim im Mittelalter, p. .
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim in der fruehen Neuzeit, chapter "Pforzheim im Pfaelzischen Krieg -", pp. –.
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim in der fruehen Neuzeit, chapter "Der Pforzheimer Privilegienstreit (-)", pp. –.
# References Pforzheimer Zeitung, June , No., p. , headline "Ein lokales Geschichtswerk".
# The number of dead , is taken from References Groh.
# References % from RAF Web Site: Campaign Diary February ,
# The , people fed by makeshift kitchens is reported in References Pforzheimer Zeitung of February , .
# The number of foreign workers killed in the bombings is reported in References Pforzheimer Zeitung of February , .
# These figures are similar to References Groh, but must be from another source which is not recorded.
# References The German army report is taken from References Pforzheimer Zeitung of February , , under headline "Sofortmeldung nach dem Angriff". Its original in German reads: "In den fruehen Abendstunden richtete sich ein schwerer britischer Angriff gegen Pforzheim".
#References Pforzheimer Zeitung of March , .
#References Pforzheimer Zeitung of April , .
# References Pforzheimer Zeitung of March , .
# A more detailed discussion on the reasons for the main air raid is given in the discussion section of this page. (Talk:Pforzheim Draft of text: On the reason for the Pforzheim bombardment.)
# Pforzheim is situated in a valley and also spread out across the adjacent hill slopes. On the northern slope there is a level, narrow plateau that is about meters wide and about kilometers in length. The railway facilities, including the main and what used to be the freight loading facilities, are located on this plateau. This is the only level space that can possibly be used for railway facilities there. If the RAF would have been only aiming at destroying the railway facilities, a few aircraft would have sufficed to finish this job in a short time. There was no need to bomb an area that was wider than one kilometer and had a length of more than three kilometers using more than Lancasters, as was the case in the big raid on February . The existence and size of the plateau on the northern slope can be verified by examining any topographic map featuring the Pforzheim city area, and the map showing the destroyed city area. (refer to References Map of destroyed town area). And besides that, the area bombardment obviously was not even effective in destroying the railway facilities, because less than one month after the big raid in mid-March the railway facilities were bombed again several times by the USAF, this time focussing mainly on the suspected military target, not civilian estates (refer to References Pforzheimer Zeitung of March , ).
# References Web page of the City of Pforzheim: City Council; in German.
# References Web page of the City of Pforzheim: City Administration; in German.
# References Hans-Peter Becht: Pforzheim im Mittelalter, chapter "Wappen und Siegel der Stadt Pforzheim". pp. –.
# The core of this section was translated from the corresponding section of the article about Pforzheim in the References German language Wikipedia, as of May .

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Category:Karlsruhe region
Category:Cities in Baden-Württemberg

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|pop_date = 2008-12-31|pop_urban = 3700000|pop_metro = 5000000|elevation = 34 - 115|GDP = 81.7|GDP_year = 2007|Website = / |leader_title = Governing Mayor|leader = Klaus Wowereit|leader_party = SPD|ruling_party1 = SPD|ruling_party2 = Die Linke|votes
|pop_date = 2008-12-31|pop_urban = 3700000|pop_metro = 5000000|elevation = 34 - 115|GDP = 81.7|GDP_year = 2007|Website = / |leader_title = Governing Mayor|leader = Klaus Wowereit|leader_party = SPD|ruling_party1 = SPD|ruling_party2 = Die Linke|votes
|pop_date = 2007-10-31|pop_metro = 4300000|GDP = 86.153|GDP_year = 2006|GDP_percent = 3.9|Website = |leader_title = First Mayor|leader = Ole von Beust|leader_party = CDU|ruling_party1 = CDU|ruling_party2 = Green
|pop_date = 2007-10-31|pop_metro = 4300000|GDP = 86.153|GDP_year = 2006|GDP_percent = 3.9|Website = |leader_title = First Mayor|leader = Ole von Beust|leader_party = CDU|ruling_party1 = CDU|ruling_party2 = Green
|pop_date = 2007-10-31|pop_metro = 4300000|GDP = 86.153|GDP_year = 2006|GDP_percent = 3.9|Website = |leader_title = First Mayor|leader = Ole von Beust|leader_party = CDU|ruling_party1 = CDU|ruling_party2 = Green
"Frankfurt am Main" (, ), commonly known simply as "Frankfurt", is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2008 population of 670,000. The urban area had an estimated population of 2.26 million in
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