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Peterborough

Great Britain, Peterborough
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"" ( or ) is a cathedral city and unitary authority area in the East of England, with an estimated population of as of June 2007. Office for National Statistics, September 2009. For ceremonial purposes it is in the county of . The Town Hall is north of London at Charing Cross. The city stands athwart the , which flows into the North Sea approximately 30 miles (48 km) to the north-east, and the East Coast Main Line railway.

The local topography is flat and low-lying, and in some places lies below sea level. The area known as the Fens falls to the east of . The City of includes the outlying settlement at RAF Wittering, and as a unitary authority it borders Northamptonshire and Rutland to the west, Lincolnshire to the north, and to the south and east.

Human settlement in the area dates back to before the Bronze Age, as can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the current city centre. This site also shows evidence of Roman occupation. The period saw the establishment of a monastery, then known as Medeshamstede, which later became Cathedral. The population grew rapidly following the arrival of the railways in the nineteenth century, and became an industrial centre, particularly noted for its brick manufacture.

Following the Second World War, growth was limited until designation as a New Town in the 1960s. The population is once again undergoing rapid expansion and a £1 billion regeneration of the city centre and immediately surrounding area is under way. In common with much of the United Kingdom, industrial employment has fallen, with new jobs tending to be in financial services and distribution.

istor
arly histor
Present-day is the latest in a series of settlements which have at one time or other benefited from its situation, where the Nene leaves permanently drained land for the Fens. Remains of Bronze Age settlement and what is thought to be religious activity can be seen at the Flag Fen archaeological site to the east of the city centre. The Romans established a fortified garrison town at Durobrivae on Ermine Street, some five miles (8 km) to the west of the present city, around the middle of the first century AD. Durobrivae"s earliest appearance among surviving records is in the Antonine Itinerary of the late second century.Parthey, Gustav and Pinder, Moritz (eds.) "Itinerarivm Antonini Avgvsti et Hierosolymitanum: ex libris manu scriptis" (Iter V: Item a Londinio Luguvalio ad vallum mpm clvi "sic") Friederich Nicolaus, Berlin, 1848. See also Reynolds, Thomas "Iter Britanniarum or that part of the itinerary of Antoninus which relates to Britain with a new comment" J. Burges, Cambridge, 1799. There was also a large first-century Roman fort at Longthorpe, designed to house half a legion, or about 3,000 soldiers; Top 30 Roman sites (6), "Channel 4 Television" (retrieved 20 July 2008). it may have been established as early as around AD 44–48. Monument No. 364099, Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England (retrieved 20 July 2008). was an important area of ceramic production in the Roman period, providing Nene Valley Ware that was traded as far away as Cornwall and the Antonine Wall.

is shown by its original name Medeshamstede to have possibly been an Anglian settlement before AD 655, when Saxwulf founded a monastery on land granted to him for that purpose by Peada of Mercia, who was briefly ruler of the Middle Angles. The Chronicle, which contains unique information about the history of England after the Norman Conquest, was composed here in the twelfth century by monks of the abbey.Bodleian, MS. Laud 636 (E), see Ingram, James Henry (trans.) "The Chronicle" J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1823 ( from Project Gutenberg, retrieved 19 September 2007). . A modern edition, comparing the version with such others as survive, is in Garmonsway, George Norman (trans.) "The Chronicle" J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1972 & 1975. . For the Chronicle"s unique information, see also Clark, Cecily (ed.) "The Chronicle 1070–1154" (pp.xxi-xxx) Oxford University Press, 1958. This is the only known prose history in English between the conquest and the later fourteenth century.Bennett, Jack Arthur Walter "Middle English Literature" (ed. and completed by Douglas Gray), Oxford University Press, 1986. The town"s name changed to "Burgh" from the late tenth century, possibly after Abbot Kenulf had built a defensive wall around the abbey, and eventually developed into the form ; the town does not appear to have been a borough until the twelfth century.Originating in a new name for the abbey at Medeshamstede, and not the town, the name "Burh" was adopted for the abbey in the late tenth century, see Garmonsway (p. 117), also Mellows, William Thomas (ed.) "The Chronicle of Hugh Candidus a Monk of " (pp.38 & 480) Oxford University Press, 1949, ; the addition of "Peter", the name of the abbey"s principal titular saint, parallels development of eg. the name Bury St. Edmunds and will have served to distinguish between the two places. Exemplified in medieval records in the Latinised form "Burgus Sancti Petri", this gave rise to the modern name . The form "Gildenburgh" is also found, though only in local, twelfth century histories of the abbey, namely the version of the Chronicle and a history of the abbey by the monk Hugh Candidus.Garmonsway (pp.183 & 198-99); Mellows, 1949 (p.66). As a modern local historian has put it, this was "a rhetorical term," used in these twelfth-century local histories "to contrast the riches of the late monastery with the decrease in income caused by later impositions and the despoliation of the monastic treasure by Hereward," see Tebbs, Herbert F. ": A History" (p.23) The Oleander Press, Cambridge, 1979. The burgesses received their first charter from "Abbot Robert" — probably Robert of Sutton (1262–1273).Chisholm, Hugh (ed.) "Encyclopædia Britannica" (11th ed.) vol.21 Cambridge University Press, 1911 (text in the public domain).
West Front, Cathedral (1118–1238).
When civil war broke out, was divided between supporters of King Charles I (known as Cavaliers) and supporters of the Long Parliament (known as Roundheads). The city lay on the border of the Eastern Association of counties which sided with Parliament, and the war reached in 1643 when soldiers arrived in the city to attack Royalist strongholds at Stamford and Crowland. The Royalist forces were defeated within a few weeks and retreated to Burghley House, where they were captured and sent to Cambridge.Davies, Elizabeth et al. (pp.18-19) City Council and Pitkin Unichrome, 2001. While the Parliamentary soldiers were in , however, they ransacked the cathedral, destroying the Lady Chapel, chapter house, cloister, high altar and choir stalls, as well as medieval decoration and records.King, Richard J. (p.77) John Murray, London, 1862. .

Historically the dean and chapter, who succeeded the abbot as lords of the manor, appointed a high bailiff, and the constables and other borough officers were elected at their court leet; but the municipal borough was incorporated in 1874 under the government of a mayor, six aldermen and eighteen councillors.Under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 (5 & 6 Wm. IV c.76), Charter of Incorporation dated 17 March 1874. Among the privileges claimed by the abbot as early as the thirteenth century was that of having a prison for felons taken in the Soke. In 1576 Bishop Edmund Scambler sold the lordship of the hundred of "Nassaburgh", which was coextensive with the Soke, to Queen Elizabeth I, who gave it to Lord Burghley, and from that time until the nineteenth century he and his descendants, the Earls and Marquesses of Exeter, had a separate gaol for prisoners arrested in the Soke. The abbot formerly held four fairs, of which two, St. Peter"s Fair, granted in 1189 and later held on the second Tuesday and Wednesday in July, and the Brigge Fair, granted in 1439 and later held on the first Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday in October, were purchased by the corporation from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1876. The Bridge Fair, as it is now known, granted to the abbey by King Henry VI, survives."At the bridge of by the , as well in the county of Huntingdon as in the county of Northampton, on all sides of the bridge." Prayers for the opening of the fair were once said at the morning service in the cathedral, followed by a civic proclamation and a sausage lunch at the Town Hall which still takes place. The Mayor traditionally leads a procession from the Town Hall to the fair where the proclamation is read, asking all persons to "behave soberly and civilly, and to pay their just dues and demands according to the laws of the realm and the rights of the City of ."Tebbs (p.125).

odern histor
Railway lines began operating locally during the 1840s, but it was the 1850 opening of the Great Northern Railway"s main line from London to York that transformed from a market town to an industrial centre. Lord Exeter had opposed the railway passing through Stamford, so , situated between two main terminals at London and Doncaster, increasingly developed as a regional hub.Brooks, John (p.12) The Welland Partnership and Jarrold Publishing, Norwich, 2004.
Burghley House (1555–1587), seat of the Marquess of Exeter, hereditary Lord Paramount of .
Coupled with vast local clay deposits, the railway enabled large-scale brick-making and distribution to take place. The area was the UK"s leading producer of bricks for much of the twentieth century. Brick-making had been a small seasonal craft since the early nineteenth century, but during the 1890s successful experiments at Fletton using the harder clays from a lower level had resulted in a much more efficient process.Davies (pp.23-24). The dominance of London Brick in the market during this period gave rise to some of the country"s most well-known landmarks, all built using the ubiquitous Fletton. Hanson Building Products, 2007. Perkins Engines was established in in 1932 by Frank Perkins, creator of the Perkins diesel engine. Thirty years later it employed more than a tenth of the population of , mainly at Eastfield.Baker, Anne Pimlott. "Perkins, Francis Arthur (1889–1967)". "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, 2004.. Baker Perkins had relocated from London to Westwood, now the site of HMP , in 1903, followed by Peter Brotherhood to Walton in 1906; both manufacturers of industrial machinery, they too became major employers in the city.Davies (pp.26-27). British Sugar remains headquartered in Woodston, although the beet sugar factory, which opened there in 1926, was closed in 1991., British Sugar (retrieved 5 January 2008).

Designated a New Town in 1967, Development Corporation was formed in partnership with the city and county councils to house London"s overspill population in new townships sited around the existing urban area.Under the New Towns Act 1965 (1965 cap.59) cf. (SI 1988/1410), the designation was made on 21 July 1967, see the There were to be four townships, one each at Bretton, Orton, Paston/Werrington and Castor. The last of these was never built, but a fourth, called Hampton, is now taking shape south of the city. It was decided that the city should have a major indoor shopping centre at its heart. Planning permission was received in late summer 1976 and Queensgate, containing over 90 stores and including parking for 2,300 cars, was opened by Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands in 1982. 34 miles (55 km) of urban roads were planned and a network of high-speed roads, known as parkways, was constructed.Hancock, Tom "Greater Master Plan" Development Corporation, 1971.

"s population grew by 45.4% between 1971 and 1991. New service-sector companies like Thomas Cook and Pearl Assurance were attracted to the city, ending the dominance of the manufacturing industry as employers. An urban regeneration company named Opportunity , under the chairmanship of Lord Mawhinney, was set up by the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister in 2005 to oversee "s future development., " Evening Telegraph", 2 March 2005. Between 2006 and 2012 a £1 billion redevelopment of the city centre and surrounding areas is planned. The master plan provides guidelines on the physical shaping of the city centre over the next 15–20 years. Proposals are already progressing for the north of Westgate, the south bank and the station quarter, where Network Rail is preparing a major mixed use development., City Council, East of England Development Agency and English Partnerships, February 2005. Whilst recognising that the reconfiguration of the relationship between the city and station was critical, English Heritage found the current plans for Westgate unconvincing and felt more thought should be given to the vitality of the historic core., Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission for England and Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, 16 March 2006.

dministratio
olitic
The city formed a parliamentary borough returning two members from 1541, with the rest of the Soke being part of Northamptonshire parliamentary county. The Great Reform Act did not affect the borough, although the remaining, rural portion of the Soke was transferred to the northern division of Northamptonshire.Formally the Representation of the People Act 1832 (2 & 3 Will. IV c.45). In 1885 the borough"s representation was reduced to one member,Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 (48 & 49 Vict. c.23). and in 1918 the boundaries were adjusted to include the whole Soke.Youngs, Frederic A. "Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England" Volume II: Northern England (Part III: Parliamentary Constituencies) Royal Historical Society, London, 1991. The serving member for is the Conservative, Stewart Jackson MP, who defeated Labour"s Helen Clark in the 2005 general election. In 1997 the North West North West constituency was formed, incorporating parts of the city and neighbouring Huntingdonshire. The serving member is the Conservative, Shailesh Vara MP, who succeeded the (then) Rt Hon Dr. Sir Brian Mawhinney, former Secretary of State for Transport and Chairman of the Conservative Party, in 2005. Mawhinney, who had previously served as Member of Parliament for from 1979, was created Baron Mawhinney of in the county of later that year. and North West are included in the East of England constituency for elections to the European Parliament. It currently elects seven members using the d"Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.

ocal governmen
The Town Hall, (1930–1933).
From 1889 the ancient Soke of formed an administrative county in its own right with boundaries similar, although not identical, to the current unitary authority.Under the Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict. c.41). The area however remained geographically part of Northamptonshire until 1965, when the Soke of was merged with Huntingdonshire to form the county of Huntingdon and .The Huntingdon and Order 1964 (SI 1964/367), see Local Government Commission for England (1958–1967), "Report and Proposals for the East Midlands General Review Area (Report No.3)", 31 July 1961 and "Report and Proposals for the Lincolnshire and East Anglia General Review Area (Report No.9)", 7 May 1965. Following a review of local government in 1974, Huntingdon and was abolished and the current district created by the merger of the Municipal Borough of with Rural District, Barnack Rural District, Thorney Rural District, Old Fletton Urban District and part of the Norman Cross Rural District, which had each existed since 1894.Under the Local Government Act 1894 (56 & 57 Vict. c.73). This became part of the non-metropolitan county of .Under the Local Government Act 1972 (1972 cap.70), see (SI 1972/2039) Part 5: County of . Letters patent were granted which continued the style of the city over the greater area.Issued under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 25 June 1974, see the In 1998 the city became autonomous of county council as a unitary authority, but it continues to form part of that county for ceremonial purposes. (SI 1996/1878), see Local Government Commission for England (1992), "Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of ", October 1994 and "Final Recommendations on the Future Local Government of Basildon & Thurrock, Blackburn & Blackpool, Broxtowe, Gedling & Rushcliffe, Dartford & Gravesham, Gillingham & Rochester upon Medway, Exeter, Gloucester, Halton & Warrington, Huntingdonshire & , Northampton, Norwich, Spelthorne and the Wrekin", December 1995. The leader and cabinet model of decision-making, first adopted by the city council in 2001, is similar to national government.Under the Local Government Act 2000 (2000 cap.22), see Department for Environment, Transport and the Regions, February 2001.

Policing in the city remains the responsibility of Constabulary; and firefighting, the responsibility of Fire and Rescue Service. Nowadays the Volunteer Fire Brigade, one of few of its kind, effectively functions as a retained fire station.Walton, Jemma , " Evening Telegraph", 26 July 2007. The Royal Anglian Regiment serves as the county regiment for . formed its first territorial army unit, the 6th Northamptonshire Rifle Volunteer Corps, in 1860., " Evening Telegraph", 3 April 2008.

ealth servic
NHS , the public-facing name of Primary Care Trust, guides primary care services (general practitioners, dentists, opticians and pharmacists) in the city, directly provides adult social care and services in the community such as health visiting and physiotherapy and also funds hospital care and other specialist treatments. and Stamford Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust is one of the country"s top performing acute trusts and, in 2004, became one of the first ten English NHS foundation trusts. (pp.22, 34 & 69) Commission for Healthcare Audit and Inspection, October 2006. A £300 million health investment plan will see the transfer of the city"s two hospitals to a single site by building a modern, flexible facility more suited to modern healthcare. The full planning application for the redevelopment of the Edith Cavell Hospital was approved by the council in 2006. Planning permission for the development of an integrated care centre on the existing site of the Fenland Wing at District Hospital was granted in 2003. and Stamford Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Primary Care Trust and and Mental Health Partnership Trust (retrieved 23 April 2007). and NHS Foundation Trust, a designated University of Cambridge teaching trust, provides services to those who suffer from mental health problems. Following merger of the , then East Anglian Ambulance Services, the East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust is responsible for the provision of statutory emergency medical services in .

ublic utilitie
The council"s budget for the financial year 2009/10 is £247.9 million. City Council, 1 April 2009. The main source of non-school funding is the formula grant, which is paid by government to local authorities based on the services they provide. The remainder, to which the police and fire authorities (and parish council where this exists) set a precept, is raised from council tax and business rates. Mains water and sewerage services are provided by Anglian Water, a former nationalised industry and natural monopoly, privatised in 1989 and regulated by OFWAT.

Following deregulation, the consumer has a choice of energy supplier. Electricity was formerly provided by Eastern Electricity, which was privatised in 1990. In 2002 the supply business was sold to Powergen and the distribution rights sold to EDF Energy. Natural gas was (and still is) supplied by British Gas, which was privatised in 1986. Distribution and, as with electricity, transmission, is the responsibility of the National Grid, having been demerged as Transco in 1997. These industries are regulated by OFGEM. Power Station is a 360 MWe gas-fired plant in Fengate operated by Centrica Energy.

British Telecommunications, privatised in 1984, provides fixed ADSL enabled (8 Mbit/s) telephone lines. The subscriber trunk dialling code for is 01733, deriving from 73 for PE. Local loop unbundling, giving other internet service providers direct access, is completed at four out of 12 exchanges. The city is cabled by Virgin Media. Samknows (retrieved 28 August 2007). These businesses are regulated by OFCOM.

conom
egeneratio
is currently experiencing an economic boom compared to the rest of the country, believed in part to be due to the regeneration plan running to 2012. In 2005 economic growth was on average 5.5%, whilst in it was 6.9%, the highest in the UK. Greater Partnership, Progress Report Summary 2006.

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added, an important measure in the estimation of gross domestic product, of at current basic prices, with figures in millions of pounds sterling:Marais, John (pp.240-253) Office for National Statistics, December 2006.


Recent figures, plotting growth from 1995 to 2004, reveal that has become the most successful economy among unitary authorities in the East of England. The chart also reveals that the city"s economy is growing faster than the East of England average and any other economy in the region.Hastings, David and Swadkin, Claire Economic and Labour Market Review, vol.1 no.2 (pp.52-64) February 2007. leads the UK’s business population growth, with a 3.78% increase between April and September 2006, according to Royal Mail"s Business Barometer., Royal Mail (press release), 19 January 2007. It has a strong economy in the environmental goods and services sector and has the largest cluster of environmental businesses in the UK. The UK Centre for Economic and Environmental Development (retrieved 20 December 2007).
In 1994 was designated one of four environment cities in the UK and it is now working to become the UK"s acknowledged environment capital. Greater Partnership (retrieved 20 December 2007). The council and regional development agency are taking advice on regeneration issues from a number of internationally recognised experts, including Benjamin Barber (formerly an adviser to President Bill Clinton), Jan Gustav Strandenaes (United Nations adviser on environmental issues) and Patama Roorakwit (a Thai "community architect").Salman, Saba, , "The Guardian", London,
8 October 2008.

mploymen
According to the 2001 census, the workplace population of 90,656 is divided into 60,118 people who live in and 30,358 people who commute in. A further 13,161 residents commute out of the city to work. East of England Regional Assembly, 11 April 2005. Earnings in are lower than average. Median earnings are £9.77 per hour, less than the regional median of £11.69 and the national median hourly rate of £11.26. Office for National Statistics (retrieved 31 March 2006). As part of the government"s M11 corridor, is committed to creating 17,500 jobs with the population growing to 200,000 by 2020., " Evening Telegraph", 23 March 2006.

Future employment will also be created through the plan for the city centre launched by the council in 2003. Predictions of the levels and types of employment created were published in 2005. These include 1,421 jobs created in retail; 1,067 created in a variety of leisure and cultural developments; 338 in three hotels; and a further 4,847 jobs created in offices and other workspaces. Recent relocations of large employers include both Tesco (1,070 employees) and Debenhams (850 employees) distribution centres., " Evening Telegraph", 18 April 2005. A further 2,500 jobs are to be created in the £140 million Gateway warehouse and distribution park, this is expected to compensate for the 6,000 job losses as a result of the decline in manufacturing, anticipated in a report cited by the cabinet member for economic growth and regeneration in 2006., " Evening Telegraph", 12 September 2006.

With traditionally low levels of unemployment, is a popular destination for workers and has seen significant growth through migration since the post-war period. The leader of the council said he believed had taken up to 80% of the 65,000 people who had arrived in East Anglia from the Baltic states., " Evening Telegraph", 23 August 2006. To help cope with this influx the council has put forward plans to construct an average of 1,300 homes each year until 2021. City Council, July 2004. Demand for short term employees remains high and the market supports up to 20 high street recruitment agencies at any given time.

ranspor
is a major stop on the East Coast Main Line, 45–50 minutes" journey time from central London, with high-speed intercity services from King"s Cross to Edinburgh WaverleyEdinburgh Waverley operated by the East Coast Main Line Company at around a 20-minute frequency, and slower commuter services terminating at operated by First Capital Connect. It is a major railway junction where a number of cross-country routes converge. East Midlands Trains operate the to Lincoln Line, with through services to Doncaster and a route from Liverpool Lime StreetLiverpool Lime Street to Norwich or Cambridge via the main line north of ; CrossCountry operate the Birmingham to Line and with National Express East Anglia, the Ely to Line, with through services to Cambridge and Stansted Airport operated by the former and to Ipswich and London Liverpool Street by the latter., National Rail Enquiries, 28 November 2006. has a business airport with a paved runway at Holme and a recreational airfield hosting a parachute school at Sibson.

The , made navigable from the port at Wisbech to Northampton by 1761,Under the Nene Navigation Acts 1714 (12 Anne c.7), 1725 (11 Geo. I c.19), 1756 (29 Geo. II c.69) and 1794 (34 Geo. III c.85). passes through the city centre and a green bridge carries the railway over the river. It was built in 1847 by Lewis Cubitt, who was more famous for his bridges in Australia, India and South America. Apart from some minor repairs in 1910 (the steel bands and cross braces around the fluted legs) the bridge remains as he built it. Now a listed structure, it is the oldest surviving cast-iron railway bridge in the UK.Labrum, Edward A. (pp.78-79) Thomas Telford, London, 1994. See also Cossey, F. Cast Iron Railway Bridge at in Hudson, Kenneth (ed.) "Industrial Archaeology" vol. 4 (pp.138-147) David & Charles, Newton Abbot, 1967. By the Town Bridge, the Customs House, built in the early eighteenth century, is a visible reminder of the city"s past function as an inland port.Brandon, David and Knight, John " Past: The City and The Soke" (p.54) Phillimore & Co., Chichester, 2001. The Environment Agency navigation starts at the junction with the Northampton arm of the Grand Union Canal and extends for 91 miles (147 km) ending at Bevis Hall just upstream of Wisbech. The tidal limit used to be Woodston Wharf until the Dog-in-a-Doublet lock was built five miles (8 km) downstream in 1937. The Environment Agency (retrieved 29 August 2007).

The A1/A1(M) broadly follows the path of the historic Great North Road from St Paul"s Cathedral in the heart of London, through (Junction 17), continuing north a further 335 miles (539 km) to central Edinburgh. In 1899 the British Electric Traction Company sought permission for a tramway joining the northern suburbs with the city centre. The system, which operated under the name Electric Traction Company, opened in 1903 and was abandoned in favour of motor buses in 1930, when the company was merged into the Eastern Counties Omnibus Company.Brandon and Knight (pp.47-49). Today, bus services in the city are operated by several companies including the Stagecoach Group (Cambus and Viscount) and Delaine Buses. Despite its large-scale growth, has the fastest peak and off-peak travel times for a city of its size in the UK, due to the construction of the parkways. The Local Transport Plan anticipates expenditure totalling around £180 million for the period up to 2010 on major road schemes to accommodate development. City Council, March 2006.

The Millennium Green Wheel is a 50-mile (80 km) network of cycleways, footpaths and bridleways which provide safe, continuous routes around the city with radiating spokes connecting to the city centre. The project has also created a sculpture trail, which provides functional, landscape artworks along the Green Wheel route and a Living Landmarks project involving the local community in the creation of local landscape features such as mini woodlands, ponds and hedgerows., "The Guardian", London, 3 March 2007. Another long-distance footpath, the Hereward Way, runs from Oakham in Rutland, through , to East Harling in Norfolk.

emographic
thnicit
Butter Cross (1669–1671), Cathedral Square, .
is home to one of the largest concentrations of Italian immigrants in the UK. This is mainly as a result of labour recruitment in the 1950s by the London Brick Company in the southern Italian regions of Puglia and Campania. By 1960 approximately 3,000 Italian men were employed by London Brick, mostly at the Fletton works.Colpi, Terry "The Italian Factor: The Italian Community in Great Britain" (p.149) Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh, 1991. In 1962 the Scalabrini Fathers, who first arrived in 1956, purchased an old school and converted it into a church named after the patron saint of workers San Giuseppe. By 1991 over 3,000 christenings of second-generation Italians had been carried out there.Colpi (p.235). The population of has grown much faster than the national average over the last few years, mainly as a result of immigration. In the late twentieth century the main source of immigration has been from Commonwealth countries such as India and Pakistan. A more recent issue is that an unknown number of eastern Europeans from accession states have moved to since 2004. This may mean that the population figures, based on the 2001 census, are an underestimate. County Council, June 2003. The East of England Regional Assembly estimate that 16,000 eastern Europeans are now living in the city, one in ten of the population.Reid, Sue , "The Mail on Sunday", London, 24 August 2006. Modern is a rapidly developing city and one that continues to change. The change has not been without problems however. In May 2004 groups of Pakistani residents clashed with Afghan and Iraqi asylum seekers. In the "running street battles," houses and cars were set alight and windows were smashed. Some people were hospitalised. The fighting occurred in the multicultural Millfield area of the city., "BBC News Online", 20 May 2004. In July of that year, a festival set up by the Indian community to celebrate the city"s diversity turned violent. Pakistanis and Iraqis clashed over the weekend, leaving a man in hospital and large gangs fighting., "BBC News Online", 26 July 2004. Since then, race relations have improved significantly.

East Anglia is the leading destination for new migrants and half of the 83,000 who have registered to work in the region have settled in . According to a report published by the police in 2007 "the hidden scale of migration into the county is demonstrated by the different number of languages officers and staff deal with, which now exceeds 100. Translation costs linked to dealing with incidents and crime are close to £1 million a year." The report says the migrant communities have led to a change in the nature of crime in the county, with an increase in drink-driving offences, knife crime and an international dimension added to activities such as running cannabis factories and human trafficking. The number of foreign nationals arrested in the north of the county rose from 894 in 2003 to 2,435 in 2006, but the report also says "inappropriately negative" community perceptions about migrant workers often complicate routine incidents, raising tensions and turning them "critical;" the fact that many new migrants are crowded into privately rented accommodation, often in multiple occupation, is a potentially destabilising factor in many communities, raising problems of noise, parking, waste disposal, petty robbery, household disputes and assaults against women in mixed houses., Constabulary and Police Authority, 19 September 2007. Julie Spence OBE, the Chief Constable, was careful to add there was "little evidence that the increased numbers of migrant workers have caused significant or systematic problems in respect of community safety or cohesion." She also emphasised that the dramatic change in the county"s profile — from a rural county in which four years ago 95% of teenagers were white to one of the country"s major ethnically mixed growth points — has had a positive impact in development and jobs. "s population is one of the fastest growing in Britain and is projected to rise by a further 12.5% or 94,000 by 2016, mostly fulled by 69,000 eastern European migrants.Travis, Alan , "The Guardian", London, 20 September 2007. On 11 March 2008, the BBC broadcast "The Poles are Coming!", a controversial documentary by award-winning filmmaker Tim Samuels, as part of its "White Season"., Is white working class Britain becoming invisible? A season of programmes on "BBC Two" (retrieved 19 March 2008). June 2007 estimates by the Office of National Statistics give the following percentage break down into broad ethnic groups: 86.8% White, 8.2% Asian or Asian British, 2.1% Black or Black British, 1.1% Chinese or Other, and 1.8% Mixed Race.

The number of languages in use is growing and diversity is spreading where previously few languages other than English were spoken. now offers classes in Italian, Urdu and Punjabi in its primary schools. (p.6) CILT the National Centre for Languages, 2006. As the city expands the council has introduced a new statutory development plan. City Council, July 2005. Its aim is to accommodate an additional 22,000 homes, 18,000 jobs and over 40,000 people living in by 2020. The newly developing Hampton township will be completed, there will be a 1,500 home development at Stanground and a further 1,200 home development at Paston.

eligio
Norman gateway below the chapel of St. Nicholas (1177–1194), Minster Precincts.
Christianity has the largest following in , in particular the Church of England, with a significant number of parish churches and a cathedral. Recent immigration to the city has also seen the established Roman Catholic population increase substantially.Walton, Jemma. , " Evening Telegraph", 27 February 2007. Other denominations are also in evidence; the latest church to be constructed is a £7 million "superchurch," KingsGate, formerly Community Church, which can seat up to 1,800 worshippers.Sandall, Jonathan , " Evening Telegraph", 21 September 2006. In comparison with the rest of the country, has a lower proportion of Christians, Buddhists, Hindus, Jews and Sikhs. However, the city has a higher percentage of Muslims and people with no religion than the national average. County Council, October 2004. The majority of Muslims reside in the Millfield and New England areas of the city, where two large mosques (including the Faidhan-e-Madina Mosque) are based. also has both Hindu (Bharat Hindu Samaj) and Sikh (Singh Sabha Gurdwara) temples in these areas.

The Anglican Diocese of covers roughly 1,200 square miles (3,100 km²), including the whole of Northamptonshire, Rutland, and the Soke of (the area to the north of the ). Historically in Huntingdonshire, the parts of the city south of the river fall within the Diocese of Ely, which covers the remainder of and western Norfolk. However, the current Bishop of has been appointed Assistant Bishop in the Diocese of Ely, with pastoral care for these parishes delegated to him by the Bishop of Ely., " Evening Telegraph", 2 August 2004., Diocese of Ely, Ref. 0471, 29 July 2004. The city falls wholly within the Roman Catholic Diocese of East Anglia, which has its seat at the Cathedral Church of Saint John the Baptist, Norwich.

ultur
ducatio
has one independent boarding school; High School, formerly Westwood House. The school caters for girls and now boys up to the age of 18. "s state schools are currently undergoing immense change. Five of the city"s 15 secondary schools were closed in July 2007 and are to be demolished over the coming years. John Mansfield, Hereward (formerly Eastholm) and Deacon"s were replaced with the flagship Thomas Deacon Academy, designed by Lord Foster of Thames Bank which opened in September 2007. The Voyager School, which has specialist media arts status, replaced Bretton Woods and Walton comprehensive. The schools that remain will be extended and enlarged. Over £200 million is to be spent and the changes on-going to 2010. City Council (retrieved 15 April 2007). The King"s School is one of seven schools established, or in some cases re-endowed and renamed, by King Henry VIII during the Dissolution of the Monasteries to pray for his soul.Orme, Nicholas "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" Oxford University Press, October 2006. In 2006, 39.4% of local education authority pupils attained five grades A* to C, including English and Mathematics, in the General Certificate of Secondary Education, lower than the national average of 45.8%., "BBC News Online", 19 January 2007 .

The city has its own Further Education colleges, Regional College (established in 1946 as Technical College) and College of Adult Education. Regional College attracts over 15,000 students each year from the UK and abroad and is currently ranked in the top five per cent of colleges in the UK.Nasta, Tony under Section 3 of the School Inspections Act 1996 (1996 cap.57) Office for Standards in Education and Adult Learning Inspectorate, 17 October 2006.

The city is currently without a university, since Loughborough University closed its campus in 2003. 3.2.3 Improving further and higher education provision (p.19) Llewelyn Davies for the East of England Regional Assembly, November 2003. Consequently it is the second largest centre of population in the UK (after Swindon) without its own higher education institution. In 2006 however, Regional College was in talks with Anglia Ruskin University to develop a new university campus for the city. Anglia Ruskin University, 22 February 2006. Anglia Ruskin University, 11 December 2006. The college and the university have now officially completed the legal contracts for the creation of a new joint venture company. The formation marks the culmination of legal negotiations and securing of funds required in order to build the new higher education centre. Anglia Ruskin University, 3 April 2007.

rt
enjoys a wide range of events including the annual East of England Show, Festival and CAMRA beer festival, which takes place on the river embankment in late August. English Tourist Board (retrieved 20 April 2007).
A section of the Triumph of Arts and Sciences at the Royal Albert Hall (1867–1871), depicting Cathedral.
The Key Theatre, built in 1973, is situated on the embankment, next to the . The theatre aims to provide entertainment, enlightenment and education by reflecting the rich culture has to offer. The programme is made up of home-grown productions, national touring shows, local community productions and one-off concerts. There is disabled access, an infrared hearing system for the deaf and hard of hearing and there are also regular signed performances.
"The Key Times" is the theatre"s newspaper, available free of charge from the last Saturday of each month. In 1937 the Odeon Cinema opened on Broadway, where it operated successfully for more than half a century. In 1991 the Odeon showed its last film to the public and was left to fall into a state of disrepair, until 1997, when a local entrepreneur purchased the building as part of a larger project, including a restaurant and art gallery. The Broadway, designed by Tim Foster Architects, was one of the largest theatres in the region and offered a selection of live entertainment, including music, comedy and films., " Evening Telegraph", 18 April 2001. In January 2009, it was severely damaged by arsonists, resulting in closure when its insurers refused to pay the claim due to faulty fire detection systems.Baker, Marie, , " Evening Telegraph", 26 January 2009. The Embassy Theatre, now a public house, also opened here in 1937, later becoming a cinema., Cannon Cinema, , 1987. The John Clare Theatre within the new central library, again on Broadway, is home to the Film Society. One of the region"s leading venues, The Cresset in Bretton, provides a wide range of events for the residents of the city and beyond, including theatre, comedy, music and dance. has a 13-screen Showcase Cinema, an ice rink and two indoor swimming pools open to the general public. A diverse range of restaurants can be found throughout the city, including Chinese & Cantonese, Indian & Nepalese, Thai and many Italian restaurants. In the closing months of 2006, Polish, Japanese and Mexican restaurants were all opened.

A regional magazine, Art and Soul, encouraging the arts and local music was started in 2007. The magazine covers many aspects of the arts and music scene, including organising gigs in the city., Art and Soul Magazine (retrieved 19 January 2009). has recently been used as the setting for two popular novels, "A Short History of Tractors in Ukrainian" by Marina Lewycka 2005 shortlist title "A Short History of Tractors in Ukrainian" by Marina Lewycka (336 pp. Viking, London, 2005) Orange Home UK (retrieved 26 January 2008). and "A Spot of Bother" by Mark Haddon.Ness, Patrick (review of "A Spot of Bother" by Mark Haddon, 390 pp. Jonathan Cape, London, 2006), "The Guardian", London, 26 August 2006.

por
United Football Club, known as "The Posh", has been the local football team since 1934. The ground is situated at London Road on the south bank of the . United have a proud history of cup giant-killings.Plummer, Russell, " United on the FA Cup Trail", and , United Football Club, 3 & 4 January 2002. They set the record for the highest number of league goals (134, Terry Bly alone scoring 52) in 1960/1; their first season in the Football League, in which they won the Fourth Division title. The club"s highest standing to date was tenth place in the First Division, then the second tier of English football, in 1992/3. United Football Club, 9 May 2007. Irish property developer Darragh MacAnthony was appointed chairman in 2006 and is now owner, having undertaken a lengthy purchase from Barry Fry who remains director of football. MacAnthony has promised to move "The Posh" to a new all-seater stadium.Conn, David , "The Guardian", London, 25 October 2006.

As well as football, has teams competing in rugby, cricket, hockey, ice hockey, rowing and athletics. Although is not a first-class cricket county, NorthamptonshireNorthamptonshire staged some home matches in the city between 1906 and 1974. Town Cricket Club and the City of Hockey Club compete at their shared ground in Westwood; Town changed its name for the 2006/7 season following a merger with Athletic Hockey Club, see for more details. whereas the city"s oldest and most successful rugby team, Rugby Union Football Club, now play at Fortress Fengate.Bath, David An extended version of a paper delivered to the Burgh Society, October 2002.

City Rowing Club moved from its riverside setting to the current Thorpe Meadows location in 1983. The spring and summer regattas held there attract rowers and scullers from competing clubs all over the country. Every February the adjacent is host to the head of the river race, which again attracts hundreds of entries., " Evening Telegraph", 7 February 2006. Athletic Club train and compete at the embankment athletics arena. In 2006, after 10 years, the Great Eastern Run returned to the racing calendar, around 3,000 runners raced through the flat streets of for the half-marathon, supported by thousands of spectators along the course. City Council (retrieved 30 September 2007).

Phantoms are the city"s ice hockey team, playing in the English Premier League at the East of England Ice Rink. Motorcycle speedway is also a popular sport in , with race meetings held at the East of England Showground. The team, known as the Panthers, have operated regularly in the Elite League. Speedway Showcase (retrieved 19 March 2008). The Showground hosts the annual British Motorcycle Federation Rally each May. In June 2009, will host one of the first rounds of The Tour Series, a new series of televised town and city centre cycling races.

edi
There is a major radio transmitter at Morborne, approximately eight miles (13 km) west of , for national FM radio (BBC Radios 1–4 and Classic FM) and BBC Radio . This facility includes a 154 metre (505 ft) high guyed radio mast which collapsed in 2004 after a fire and has since been re-built., "BBC News Online", 1 November 2004., " Evening Telegraph", 1 November 2004. Another transmission site at Gunthorpe in the north east of the city transmits AM/MW and local FM radio. The site is only 3 metres (10 ft) above sea level and has an 83 metre (270 ft) high active insulated guyed mast situated on it.

has four local radio stations and one regional station. Heart , formerly Hereward FM, the original independent local radio station, still holds a large section of the market on 102.7 MHz. Hereward"s sister station, Classic Gold 1332, is now part of the national Classic Gold network; Lite FM 106.8 is the second commercial radio station and Radio , which also has a studio in the city, broadcasts local output in place of countywide programming on 95.7 MHz at peak listening times. Kiss 105-108 is the regional station for the East of England, broadcasting on 107.7 MHz in . NOW is the local DAB multiplex; BBC National DAB and the national commercial multiplex, Digital One, are also available in the city. Radio Authority, News Release 161/01, 9 November 2001. is in the Anglia Television transmission area for ITV, with a small studio in the city (although it borders ITV Central). This is broadcast with BBC One and Two (East), Channel 4 and Channel 5 from Sandy Heath. The digital switchover will take place in 2011 in the East of England. Shopping channel Ideal World is broadcast nationwide from studios in Fengate, .

The " Evening Telegraph" or "ET" (established 1948) is the city"s newspaper, published Monday to Saturday with jobs, property, motors and entertainment supplements. The Evening Telegraph is now owned by East Midlands Newspapers Ltd., part of Johnston Press Plc of Edinburgh., Johnston Press website (retrieved 18 September 2007). Its website, Today, is updated six days a week. The "ET"s" sister paper, the " Citizen" (1898), is a weekly paper delivered free to many homes in the city. The " Herald and Post" (1989, a replacement for the " Standard", established 1872) ceased publication in 2008., Trinity Mirror, London (retrieved 18 September 2007). The publisher Emap, which specialises in the production of magazines and the organisation of business events and conferences, traces its origins back to in 1854.Newton, David. "Men of Mark: Makers of East Midland Allied Press" Emap, , 1977. As Mayor of , Sir Richard Winfrey founder of what would become the East Midland Allied Press, was perhaps the last person to read the Riot Act in 1914.Walton, Jemma. , " Evening Telegraph", 14 June 2007.

has been used as a location for various television programmes and films. In 1995 Pierce Brosnan OBE filmed train crash sequences for the 17th James Bond film, GoldenEye, at the former sugar beet factory. In 1983 opening scenes for the 13th 007 film, Octopussy, starring Sir Roger Moore, were filmed at Orton Mere. A music video for the song BreakThru by the band Queen was also shot on the preserved Nene Valley Railway in 1989. A scene for the film The Da Vinci Code was filmed at Burghley House during five weeks secret filming in 2006; and actor, Lee Marvin, found himself camping in Ferry Meadows during the filming of The Dirty Dozen: Next Mission in 1985., " Evening Telegraph", 13 June 2008. In October 2008 Hollywood returned to Wansford for the filming of the musical Nine, starring Penelope Cruz and Daniel Day-Lewis., " Evening Telegraph", 7 November 2008.

laces of interes
Longthorpe Tower (1310), a Grade I listed building.
The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, whose statues look down from the three high gables of the West Front, was originally founded as a monastery in AD 655 and re-built in its present form between 1118 and 1238. It has been the seat of the Bishop of since the Diocese was created in 1541. Cathedral is known for its imposing early English Gothic West Front which, with its three enormous arches, is without architectural precedent and with no direct successor. The Cathedral has the distinction of having had two queens buried beneath its paving, Katherine of Aragon and Mary, Queen of Scots. The remains of Queen Mary were later removed to Westminster Abbey by her son James I when he became King of England.Sweeting, Walter Debenham. "The Cathedral Church of : A Description of its Fabric and a Brief History of the Episcopal See" (pp.3-35) G. Bell & Sons, London, 1898 ( from Project Gutenberg, retrieved 23 April 2007).

The general layout of is attributed to Martin de Vecti who, as abbot from 1133 to 1155, rebuilt the settlement on dry limestone to the west of the monastery, rather than the often-flooded marshlands to the east. Abbot Martin was responsible for laying out the market place and the wharf beside the river. "s magnificent seventeenth century Guildhall, built shortly after the restoration of King Charles II, is supported by columns, to provide an open ground floor for the butter and poultry markets which used to be held there. The Market Place was renamed Cathedral Square and the adjacent Gates Memorial Fountain moved to Bishop"s Road Gardens in 1963, when the weekly market was transferred to the site of the old cattle market.Skinner, Julia (with particular reference to the work of Robert Cook) "Did You Know? : A Miscellany" (pp.33, 25 & 16) The Francis Frith Collection, Salisbury, 2006. The city has a large Victorian park containing formal gardens, children"s play areas, an aviary, bowling green, tennis courts, pitch and putt course and tea rooms. The Park has been awarded the Green Flag Award, the national standard for parks and green spaces, by the Civic Trust. (p.13) The Civic Trust, 21 July 2006. is registered with the Civic Trust. The Lido, a striking building with elements of art deco design, was opened in 1936 and is one of the few survivors of its type still in use.Brandon and Knight (pp.111-112).

Museum (free) Museum and Art Gallery, built in 1816, housed the city"s first infirmary from 1857 to 1928. The museum has a collection of some 227,000 objects, including local archaeology and social history, from the products of the Roman pottery industry to Britain"s oldest known murder victim; a collection of marine fossil remains from the Jurassic period of international importance; the manuscripts of John Clare, the "Northamptonshire Peasant Poet" as he was commonly known in his own time;Grainger, Margaret. "A Descriptive Catalogue of the John Clare Collection" Museum and Art Gallery, 1973. and the Norman Cross collection of items made by French prisoners of war. These prisoners were kept at Norman Cross on the outskirts of from 1797 to 1814, in what is believed to be the world"s first purpose built prisoner of war camp. The art collection contains an impressive variety of paintings, prints and drawings dating from the 1600s to the present day. Museum also holds regular temporary exhibitions, weekend events and guided tours.

Historical House Burghley House to the north of , near Stamford, was built and mostly designed by Sir William Cecil, later 1st Baron Burghley, who was Lord High Treasurer to Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign.Leatham, Victoria "Burghley: The Life of a Great House" The Herbert Press, London, 1992. See also Becker, Alida (review of "Life at Burghley: Restoring One of England"s Great Houses" by the same author), "The New York Times", 27 December 1992. The country house, with a park laid out by Lancelot "Capability" Brown in the eighteenth century, is one of the principal examples of sixteenth century English architecture.Turner, Roger "Capability Brown and the Eighteenth Century English Landscape" (pp.110-112) Phillimore & Co., Chichester, 1999. The estate, still home to his descendants, hosts the Burghley Horse Trials, an annual three day event. Another Grade I listed building, Milton Hall near Castor, ancestral home of the Barons and later Earls Fitzwilliam, also dates from the same period. For two centuries following the restoration the city was a pocket borough of this family. City Council (retrieved 22 September 2007).

English Heritage Longthorpe Tower, a fourteenth century three-storey tower and fortified manor house in the care of English Heritage, is situated about two miles (3 km) west of the city centre. A scheduled ancient monument protected by law, it contains the finest and most complete set of domestic paintings of the period in northern Europe.Salter, Mike "The Castles of East Anglia" (p.21) Folly Publications, Malvern, 2001. Nearby Thorpe Hall is one of the few mansions built in the Commonwealth period. A maternity hospital from 1943 to 1970, it was acquired by the Sue Ryder Foundation in 1986 and is currently in use as a hospice.Brandon and Knight (p.17).

Museum Flag Fen, the Bronze Age archaeological site, was discovered in 1982 when a team led by Dr. Francis Pryor carried out a survey of dykes in the area. Probably religious, it comprises a large number of poles arranged in five long rows, connecting Whittlesey with across the wet fenland. The museum exhibits many of the artefacts found, including what is believed to be the oldest wheel in Britain. An exposed section of the Roman road known as the Fen Causeway also crosses the site.Pryor, Francis "Flag Fen: Life and Death of a Prehistoric Landscape" Tempus Publishing, Stroud, 2005.

Heritage Railway The Nene Valley Railway, a seven and a half mile (12 km) heritage railway, was one of the last passenger lines to fall under the Beeching Axe. In 1974 the former development corporation bought the line, running from the city centre to Yarwell Junction just west of Wansford, via Orton Mere and the 500 acre (202 ha) Ferry Meadows country park, and leased it to the Railway Society.Rhodes, John. "The Nene Valley Railway", Turntable Publications, Sheffield, 1976.

Country Park The Nene Park, which opened in 1978, covers a site three and a half miles (5.6 km) long, from slightly west of Castor to the centre of . The park has three lakes, one of which houses a watersports centre. Ferry Meadows, one of the major destinations and attractions signposted on the Green Wheel, occupies a large portion of Nene Park. Orton Mere provides access to the east of the park. The Urban and Economic Development Group (retrieved 2 May 2007).

Forestry Commission Southey Wood, once included in the Royal Forest of Rockingham, is a mixed woodland maintained by the Forestry Commission between the villages of Upton and Ufford. County Council, 2004. Nearby, Castor Hanglands, Barnack Hills and Holes and Bedford Purlieus national nature reserves are each sites of special scientific interest. English Nature, 2004.Barkham, John "Bedford Purlieus: Its History, Ecology and Management" by George Frederick Peterken and Robert Colin Welch (eds.) Journal of Biogeography, vol.3 no.3 (pp.322-323) September 1976. In 2002 the Hills and Holes, one of Natural England"s 35 spotlight reserves, was designated a special area of conservation as part of the Natura 2000 network of sites throughout the European Union. English Nature, 2004.

amous Peterborian
Garter robes. City Council (retrieved 22 September 2007).
The City of (including its outlying villages) is the birthplace of many notable people, including the astronomer George Alcock MBE, one of the most successful visual discoverers of novas and comets; Journal of the British Astronomical Association, vol.111 no.2 (pp.64-66) February 2001. John Clare, from Helpston, now considered to be one of the most important poets of the nineteenth century;Robinson, Eric H. "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required , retrieved 10 September 2007). artist, Christopher Perkins;Collins, R. D. J. "Dictionary of New Zealand Biography" vol.4 Auckland University Press, 1998. and Sir Henry Royce, 1st Baronet of Seaton, engineer and co-founder of Rolls-Royce.Jeremy, David J. "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required , retrieved 10 September 2007). Physician, actor and author, Sir John Hill, credited with 76 separate works in the Dictionary of National Biography, the most valuable of which dealing with botany, is also said to have been born in .O"Connor, Barry "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required , retrieved 30 September 2007). The socialist writer and illustrator, Frank Horrabin, who was born in the city, was elected its member of parliament in 1929.Cole, Margaret (rev. Amanda L. Capern) "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required , retrieved 06 October 2007).

The utilitarian philosopher, Richard Cumberland, was 14th Lord Bishop of from 1691 until his death in 1718;Parkin, Jon "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required , retrieved 30 September 2007). and Norfolk-born nurse and humanitarian, Edith Cavell, who received part of her education at Laurel Court in the Minster Precinct, is commemorated by a plaque in the Cathedral and by the name of the hospital.Daunton, Claire "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required , retrieved 30 April 2007). Two prominent historical figures were born locally, Hereward the Wake, an outlaw who led resistance to the Norman Conquest and now lends his name to several places and businesses in ;Mellows, William Thomas (ed.) "The Chronicle of Hugh Candidus" (p.41) Natural History, Scientific and Archæological Society, 1941. and St. John Payne, one of the group of prominent Catholics martyred between 1535 and 1679 and later designated the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales, who was beatified by Pope Leo XIII in 1886 and canonised with the other 39 by Pope Paul VI in 1970. "Omelia del Santo Padre Paolo VI" The Holy See, 25 October 1970.

Musicians include Sir Thomas Armstrong, organist, conductor and former principal of the Royal Academy of Music;Stoker, Richard "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required , retrieved 24 April 2007). Andy Bell, lead vocalist of the electronic pop duo Erasure;, "BBC News Online", 10 February 2003. Barrie Forgie, leader of the BBC Big Band;, Vinyl Vulture (retrieved 24 April 2007). Don Lusher OBE, trombonist and former professor of the Royal College of Music and the Royal Marines School of Music;Voce, Steve (obituary), "The Independent", London, 7 July 2006. Paul Nicholas, actor and singer; Internet Movie Database (retrieved 24 April 2007). Keith Palmer, better known as Maxim Reality, MC with dance act The ProdigyMontalbano, Dan "The Independent", London, 31 August 2006. — Graham "Gizz" Butt, who played live guitar with The Prodigy, lives in the area — Nigel Sixsmith, keytar player and founder member of The Art Of Sound; SoundClick (retrieved 24 April 2007). Skins actor Luke Pasqualino;Reinis, Nick, , " Evening Telegraph", 22 January 2009.. Jonathan Gill (Arishay) and his fellow bandmate Aston Merrygold, who is lead singer of The X Factor (Series 5) runners-up JLS are also from ., " Evening Telegraph", 27 October 2008.

Other living personalities include television presenter, Sarah Cawood, who grew up in Maxey;, "Liverpool Daily Post", 3 February 2004. actor, Luke Pasqualino; and presenter, Jake Humphrey who was born in the city., " Evening Telegraph", 4 August 2009. Adrian Durham, football journalist and radio broadcaster;Kirby, Terry. , "The Independent", London, 31 August 2006. and biologist, author and broadcaster, Prof. Brian J. Ford, who attended the King"s School and still lives in Eastrea near Whittlesey.Pearson, Mark , " Evening Telegraph", 7 October 2005 (facsimile of p.23 from the Brian J. Ford Website, retrieved 24 April 2007). Local businessman Peter Boizot MBE OMRI, founder of the Pizza Express restaurant chain, has supported the cultural and sporting life of and received its highest accolade, the freedom of the city.Muir, Jonny , " Evening Telegraph", 4 October 2007. City Council, 29 February 2008. Tottenham Hotspur and England footballer, David Bentley, was born in the city;, ESPNsoccernet (retrieved 27 May 2007). and Stoke City midfielder, Matthew Etherington, started his career in the youth academy at United;, Football Database (retrieved 24 April 2007). in the same team was Simon Davies, with whom Etherington made a joint transfer to Tottenham Hotspur., Football Database (retrieved 18 August 2008). Former England goalkeeper, David Seaman MBE, also first began to make a name for himself while at the club., "The Guardian", London, 14 January 2004. Motorcycle racer, Craig Jones, lived in city until his death after a high-speed crash at Brands Hatch;, " Evening Telegraph", 4 August 2008. as does Louis Smith, who in 2008 became Great Britain"s first gymnast to win an individual Olympic medal in a century. "BBC News Online", 17 August 2008.

eograph
limat
According to the Köppen classification the British Isles experience a maritime climate characterised by relatively cool summers and mild winters. Compared with other parts of the country, East Anglia is slightly warmer and sunnier in the summer and colder and frostier in the winter. Owing to its inland position, furthest from the landfall of most Atlantic depressions, is one of the driest counties in the UK, receiving, on average, less than 600 mm (2 ft) of rain per year. The mean annual daily duration of bright sunshine is four hours and 12 minutes; the absence of any high ground is probably responsible for the area being one of the sunniest parts of the British Isles.Brown, Chris Chapter 11: Physical Background (pp.305-306) County Council (retrieved 19 July 2007).



opograph
East Anglia is most notable for being almost flat. During the Ice Age much of the region was covered by ice sheets and this has influenced the topography and nature of the soils.Brown (p.301). Much of is low-lying, in some places below present-day mean sea level.Brown (p.304). The lowest point on land is supposedly just to the south of the city at Holme Fen, which is 2.75 metres (9 ft) below sea level. The largest of the many settlements along the Fen edge, has been called the "Gateway to the Fens". Before they were drained the Fens were liable to periodic flooding so arable farming was limited to the higher areas of the Fen edge, with the rest of the Fenland dedicated to pastoral farming. In this way, the medieval and early modern Fens stood in contrast to the rest of southern England, which was primarily arable. Since the advent of modern drainage in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries the Fens have been radically transformed such that arable farming has almost entirely replaced pastoral. The city includes the outlying settlement at RAF Wittering, the "Home of the Harrier",Blatch, James "BBC News Online", 21 April 1999. and as a unitary authority borders Northamptonshire to the west, Lincolnshire to the north, and non-metropolitan to the south and east. The city centre is located at 52°35"N latitude 0°15"W longitude or Ordnance Survey national grid reference TL 185 998.

"Urban areas of the city"
"Townships are in bold type. Bretton, Orton Longueville and Orton Waterville are parished. The city council also works closely with Werrington neighbourhood association which operates on a similar basis to a parish council"
"Bretton" - Dogsthorpe - Eastfield - Eastgate - Fengate - Fletton - Gunthorpe - "The Hamptons" - Longthorpe - Millfield - Netherton - Newark - New England - "The Ortons" - Parnwell - Paston - Ravensthorpe - Stanground - Walton - "Werrington" - West Town - Westwood - Woodston

"Surrounding villages in the district"
"Civil parishes do not cover the whole of England and mostly exist in rural areas. They are usually administered by parish councils which have various local responsibilities"
Ailsworth - Bainton - Barnack - Borough Fen - Castor - Deeping Gate - Etton - Eye - Eye Green - Glinton - Helpston - Marholm - Maxey - Newborough - Northborough - Peakirk - Southorpe - St. Martin"s Without - Sutton - Thorney - Thornhaugh - Ufford - Upton - Wansford - Wittering - Wothorpe

These are further arranged into 24 electoral wards for the purposes of local government. (SI 2003/161) and (SI 2004/721), see Boundary Committee for England report to the Electoral Commission , July 2002. 15 wards comprise the constituency for elections to the House of Commons, while the remaining nine fall within the North West constituency.Clegg, William Assistant Commissioner"s report to the Chairman and Members of the Boundary Commission for England, 18 March 2004 and Boundary Commission for England, 19 January 2005.

inguistic
lies in the middle of several distinct regional accent groups and as such has a hybrid of Fenland East Anglian, East Midland and London Estuary English features. The city falls just north of the A vowel isogloss and as such most native speakers will use the flat A, as found in "cat", in words such as "last". Yod-dropping is often heard from Peterborians, as in the rest of East Anglia, for example "new" as . However, the large number of newcomers has impacted greatly on the English spoken by the younger generation. Common so-called Estuary English features such as L-vocalisation, T-glottalisation and Th-fronting give today"s accent a definite south-eastern sound.Britain, David Essex Research Reports in Linguistics, vol.41 (pp.74-103) University of Essex, Department of Language and Linguistics, 2002.

ffiliation
Town twinning started in Europe after the Second World War. Its purpose was to promote friendship and greater understanding between the people of different European cities. A twinning link is a formal, long-term friendship agreement involving co-operation between two communities in different countries and endorsed by both local authorities. The two communities organise projects and activities around a range of issues and develop an understanding of historical, cultural, lifestyle similarities and differences. is twinned with the following towns:

Alcalá de Henares, Spain "Queen Katherine"s birthplace" (since 1986)
Bourges, France (since 1957)
Forlì, Italy (since 1981)
Viersen, Germany (since 1982)
Vinnytsya, Ukraine (since 1991)

The city also has more informal friendship links with Ballarat, Australia; Foggia, Italy; Kwe Kwe, Zimbabwe; Pécs, Hungary; and all s around the world. City Council (retrieved 24 April 2007). The county of has been twinned with Kreis Viersen, Germany since 1983.

ee als

*Soke of
*Anglican Diocese of
* (UK Parliament constituency)
*Local government in
* Development Corporation
*Opportunity

eference
ootnote



ibliograph

*Banham, John "Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of " HMSO, London, 1994.
*Banham, John "Final Recommendations on the Future Local Government of Basildon & Thurrock, Blackburn & Blackpool, Broxtowe, Gedling & Rushcliffe, Dartford & Gravesham, Gillingham & Rochester upon Medway, Exeter, Gloucester, Halton & Warrington, Huntingdonshire & , Northampton, Norwich, Spelthorne and the Wrekin" HMSO, London, 1995.
*Beckett, John V. "City Status in the British Isles, 1830–2002" Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, 2005 (ISBN 0-75465-067-7).
*Bennett, Jack Arthur Walter "Middle English Literature" (ed. and completed by Douglas Gray) Oxford University Press, 1986 (ISBN 0-1981-2214-4).
*Brandon, David and Knight, John " Past: The City and The Soke" Phillimore & Co., Chichester, 2001 (ISBN 1-86077-184-X).
*Chisholm, Hugh (ed.) "Encyclopædia Britannica" (11th ed., 28 vols.) Cambridge University Press, 1911 (text in the public domain).
*Clark, Cecily (ed.) "The Chronicle 1070–1154" Oxford University Press, 1958 (ISBN 0-19811-136-3).
*Colpi, Terry "The Italian Factor: The Italian Community in Great Britain" Mainstream Publishing, Edinburgh, 1991 (ISBN 1-85158-344-0).
*Davies, Elizabeth et al. ": A Story of City and Country, People and Places" City Council and Pitkin Unichrome, 2001 (ISBN 1-84165-050-1).
*Garmonsway, George Norman (trans.) "The Chronicle" J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1972 & 1975 (ISBN 0-46087-038-6).
*Grainger, Margaret "A Descriptive Catalogue of the John Clare Collection" Museum and Art Gallery, 1973 (ISBN 0-90410-800-7).
*Hancock, Henry Drummond "Report and Proposals for the East Midlands General Review Area" (LGCE Report No.3) HMSO, London, 1961.
*Hancock, Henry Drummond "Report and Proposals for the Lincolnshire and East Anglia General Review Area" (LGCE Report No.9) HMSO, London, 1965.
*Hancock, Tom "Greater Master Plan" Development Corporation, 1971.
*Ingram, James Henry (trans.) "The Chronicle" J. M. Dent & Sons, London, 1823 (1847 Everyman"s Library ed. with additional readings from the translation of John Allen Giles).
*King, Richard John "Handbook to the Cathedrals of England" John Murray, London, 1862.
*Labrum, Edward A. "Civil Engineering Heritage: Eastern and Central England" Thomas Telford, London, 1994 (ISBN 0-7277-1970-X).
*Leatham, Victoria "Burghley: The Life of a Great House" The Herbert Press, London, 1992 (ISBN 1-87156-947-8).
*Matthew, Henry Colin Gray and Harrison, Brian Howard (eds.) "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" (60 vols.) Oxford University Press in association with the British Academy, 2004–2006 (ISBN 0-19861-411-X).
*Mellows, William Thomas (ed.) "The Chronicle of Hugh Candidus a Monk of ", Oxford University Press, 1949 (scholarly ed. in Latin).
*Mellows, William Thomas (ed.) "The Chronicle of Hugh Candidus" (trans.) Natural History, Scientific and Archæological Society, 1941 (popular ed. in English).
*Newton, David "Men of Mark: Makers of East Midland Allied Press" Emap, , 1977 (ISBN 0-95059-540-3).
*Parthey, Gustav and Pinder, Moritz (eds.) "Itinerarivm Antonini Avgvsti et Hierosolymitanum: ex libris manu scriptis" Friederich Nicolaus, Berlin, 1848.
*Pryor, Francis "Flag Fen: Life and Death of a Prehistoric Landscape" Tempus Publishing, Stroud, 2005 (ISBN 0-7524-2900-0).
*Rhodes, John "The Nene Valley Railway" Turntable Publications, Sheffield, 1976 (ISBN 0-90284-460-1).
*Salter, Mike "The Castles of East Anglia" Folly Publications, Malvern, 2001 (ISBN 1-87173-145-3).
*Skinner, Julia (with particular reference to the work of Robert Cook) "Did You Know? : A Miscellany" The Francis Frith Collection, Salisbury, 2006 (ISBN 1-84589-263-1).
*Sweeting, Walter Debenham "The Cathedral Church of : A Description of its Fabric and a Brief History of the Episcopal See" G. Bell & Sons, London, 1898 (1926 reprint of the 2nd ed. of Bell"s Cathedrals).
*Tebbs, Herbert F. ": A History" The Oleander Press, Cambridge, 1979 (ISBN 0-900891-30-0).
*Turner, Roger "Capability Brown and the Eighteenth Century English Landscape" Phillimore & Co., Chichester, 1999 (ISBN 1-86077-114-9).
*Youngs, Frederic A. "Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England" (2 vols.) The Offices of the Royal Historical Society, University College London, 1991 (ISBN 0-86193-127-0).


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