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Perugia

Italy, Perugia
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| province = (PG)
| frazioni = See list
| mayor_party = Democratic Party
| mayor = Wladimiro Boccali
| area_footnotes =
| area_total_km2 = 449.92
| population_footnotes =
| population_total = 166253
| population_as_of = 30 April 2009
| pop_dsity_footnotes =
| population_monym = Perugini
| elevation_footnotes =
| elevation_m = 493
| twin1 =
| twin1_country =
| saint = St. Constantius, St. Herculanus, St. Lawrce
| day = 29 January
| postal_co = 06100
| area_co = 075
| website =
| footnotes =
}}
"Perugia" () is the capital city of the region of Umbria in ctral aly, near the Tiber River, and the capital of the province of Perugia. The city symbol is the griffin, which can be se in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city.

Perugia is a notable artistic cter of aly. The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Città lla Pieve near Perugia. He corated the local "Sala l Cambio" with a beautiful series of frescoes; eight of his pictures can also be admired in the National Gallery of Umbria.cf. "Perugia", Raffaele Rossi, Pietro Scarpellini, 1993 (Vol. 1, pg. 337, 344) Perugino was the teacher of Raphael,"...it appears most probable that he did not ter Perugino"s studio till the d of 1499, as during the four or five years before that Perugino was mostly abst from his native city. The so-called Sketch Book of Raphael in the acamy of Vice contains studies appartly from the cartoons of some of Perugino"s Sistine frescoes, possibly done as practice in drawing." (Encyclopedia Britannica Elevth Edition). See also "Perugia". "The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia", Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2003 the great Raissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia (today no longer in the city)The precise role of Raphael in Perugino"s works, executed during his apprticeship, is disputed by scholars. The inpdt works picted in Perugia are: the "Ansii Madonna "(tak by the Frch unr the terms of the Treaty of Toltino in 1798), the Pala Baglioni (this masterpiece was expropriated by Scipione Borghese in 1608, cf. ), the Colonna Altarpiece (formerly located in the convt of St Anthony of Padua cf.), the "Connestabile Madonna "(this picture was lost to Perugia in 1871, wh Count Connestabile sold it to the emperor of Russia for £13,200, cf. "Encyclopedia Britannica"), the Oddi Altarpiece (requisitioned by the Frch in 1798) and one fresco. Another famous painter, Pinturicchio, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia.

History
Perugia was an Umbrian settlemtPerugia (2007). In "Encyclopædia Britannica". Retrieved May 21, 2007, from but first appears in writt history as "Perusia", one of the twelve conferate cities of Etruria; it was first mtioned in Q. Fabius Pictor"s account, utilized by Livy, of the expedition carried out against the Etruscan league by Fabius Maximus Rullianus"How much of his glory is due to his kinsman, Fabius Pictor, the first historian of Rome, or to the family legds, which found in Etruria the most fitting sce for the exploits of the great Fabian house, we cannot tell" (Walter W. How and Hry Devish Leigh, "A History of Rome to the Death of Caesar" London:Longmans, Gre 1898:112). in 310 or 309 BC. At that time a thirty-year "indutiae" (truce) was agreed upon;Livy ix.37.12). however, in 295 Perusia took part in the Third Samnite War and was reduced, with Volsinii and Arretium (Arezzo), to seek for peace in the following year.Livy ix.30.1-2, 31.1-3; "indutiae" with Volsinii, Perusia and Arretium, ix.37.4-5.

In 216 and 205 BC it assisted Rome in the Second Punic War but afterwards it is not mtioned until 41-40 BC, wh Lucius Antonius took refuge there, and was reduced by Octavian after a long siege, and its sators st to their ath. A number of lead bullets used by slingers have be found in and around the city.cf. "Corpus Inscr. Lat." xi. 1212 The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno— the massive Etruscan terrace-walls,. naturally, can hardly have suffered at all— and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whomever chose. must have be rebuilt almost at once, for several bases for statues exist, inscribed "Augusto sacr(um) Perusia restituta"; but it did not become a "colonia", until 251-253 AD, wh it was resettled as "Colonia Vibia Augusta Perusia", unr the emperor C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus.Latin inscriptions at two of the preserved Etruscan gates.

is hardly mtioned except by the geographers until it was the only city in Umbria to resist Totila, who captured it and laid the city waste in 547, after a long siege, appartly after the city"s Byzantine garrison evacuated. Negotiations with the besieging forces fell to the city"s bishop, Herculanus, as represtative of the townspeople.Patrick Amory, "People and Idtity in Ostrogothic aly, 489-554" pp185-86, referring to Perugia in passing, notes the increasingly localized role assumed since the mid-fifth ctury by the bishops. Totila is said to have orred the bishop to be flayed and behead. St. Herculanus (Sant"Ercolano) later became the city"s patron saint.Procopius, "Bellum Gothicum", 3 (7).2.35.2, characteristically does not mtion the incidt, reported in Gregory the Great, , who imagines a sev-year siege (i.e. since 540, before the accession of Baduila) and dramatically reports Herculanus" grotesque murr.

In the Lombard period Perugia is spok of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia.Procopius of Caesarea, "Gothic Wars" I,16 and III,35. In the ninth ctury, with the const of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious, it passed unr the popes; but by the elevth ctury its commune was asserting itself, and for many cturies the city continued to maintain an inpdt life, warring against many of the neighbouring lands and cities— Foligno, Assisi, Spoleto, Todi, Sia, Arezzo, etc. In 1186 Hry VI, "rex romanorum" and future emperor, granted diplomatic recognition to the consular governmt of the city; afterward Pope Innoct III, whose major aim was to give state dignity to the dominions having be constituting the patrimony of St. Peter, acknowledged the validity of the imperial statemt and recognized the established civic practices having the force of law.cf. "Perugia", Raffaele Rossi, Attilio Bartoli Angeli, Roberta Sottani 1993 (Vol. 1, pp. 120-140)
Medieval aqueduct.

On various occasions the popes found asylum from the tumults of Rome within its walls, and it was the meeting-place of five conclaves, including those which elected Honorius III (1216), Clemt IV (1285), Celestine V (1294), and Clemt V (1305); the papal presce was characterized by a pacificatory rule betwe the internal rivalries. But Perugia had no mind simply to subserve the papal interests and never accepted papal sovereignty: the city used to exercise a jurisdiction over the members of the clergy, moreover in 1282 Perugia was excommunicated due to a new military offsive against the Ghibellines regardless of a papal prohibition. In the other hand si by si with the thirteth-ctury bronze griffin of Perugia above the door of the Palazzo i Priori stands, as a Guelphic emblem, the lion, and Perugia remained loyal for the most part to the Guelph party in the struggles of Guelphs and Ghibellines. However this dominant tdcy was rather an anti-Germanic and alian political strategy. The Angevin presce in aly appeared offer a counterpoise to papal powers: in 1319 Perugia clared the Angevin Saint Louis of Toulouse "Protector of the city"s sovereignty and of the Palazzo of its Priors"Avvocato lla Signoria cittadina e l Palazzo i suoi Priori" and set his figure among the other patron saints above the rich doorway of the Palazzo i Priori. At the half of the 14th ctury Bartholus of Sassoferrato, who was a rowned jurist, asserted that Perugia was pdt upon neither imperial nor papal support. In 1347, at the time of Rizi"s unfortunate terprise in reviving the Roman republic, Perugia st t ambassadors to pay him honour; and, wh papal legates sought to coerce it by foreign soldiers, or to exact contributions, they met with vigorous resistance, which broke into op warfare with Pope Urban V in 1369; in 1370 the noble party reached an agreemt signing the treaty of Bologna and Perugia was forced to accept a papal legate; however the vicar-geral of the Papal States, Gérard du Puy, Abbot of Marmoutier and nephew of Gregory IX,Ma a cardinal by his uncle, 20 December 1375 () was expelled by a popular uprising in 1375, and his fortification of Porta Sole was razed to the ground.

Palazzo i Priori: the cter of communal governmt.
Civic peace was constantly disturbed in the fourteth ctury by struggles betwe the party represting the people ("Raspanti") and the nobles ("Beccherini"). After the assassination in 1398 of Biordo Michelotti, who had ma himself lord of Perugia, the city became a pawn in the alian Wars, passing to Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1400), to Pope Boniface IX (1403), and to Ladislas of Naples (1408-14) before it settled into a period of sound governance unr the "Signoria" of the condottiero Braccio da Montone (1416-24), who reached a concordance with the Papacy. Following mutual atrocities of the Oddi and the Baglioni families, power was at last conctrated in the Baglioni, who, though they had no legal position, fied all other authority, though their bloody internal squabbles culminated in a massacre, 14 July 1500. Gian Paolo Baglioni was lured to Rome in 1520 and behead by Leo X; and in 1540 Rodolfo, who had slain a papal legate, was feated by Pier Luigi Farnese, and the city, captured and plunred by his soldiery, was prived of its privileges. A cital known as the Rocca Paolina, after the name of Pope Paul III, was built, to signs of Antonio da Sangallo the Younger "ad coercdam Perusinorum audaciam"."in orr to bring to heel the audacious Perugini".
In the Rocca Paolina
In 1797, the city was conquered by Frch troops. On 4 February 1798, the "Tiberina Republic" was formed, with Perugia as capital, and the Frch tricolour as flag. In 1799, the Tiberina Republic merged to the Roman Republic.

In 1832, 1838, 1854, and 1997, Perugia was hit by earthquakes. Following the collapse of the Roman republic of 1848-49, wh the Rocca was in part molished,cf. Touring Club aliano, "Guida d"alia: Umbria" (1966) it was seized in May 1849 by the Austrians. In June 1859 the inhabitants rebelled against the temporal authority of the Pope and established a provisional governmt, but the insurrection was quashed bloodily by Pius IX"s troops.cf. and In September 1860 the city was united finally, along with the rest of Umbria, as part of the Kingdom of aly.

Economy
Perugia has become famous for chocolate, mostly because of a single firm, Perugina, whose Baci (kisses) are wily exported.Nestlè-Perugina produced in 2005 about 1.5 million Baci a day. Each October, Perugia has an annual chocolate festival called EuroChocolate.

Perugian chocolate is very popular in aly,The company"s plant located in San Sisto (Perugia) is the largest of Nestlé"s nine sites in aly.. According to the today Baci is the most famous chocolate brand in aly. and the city hosts a chocolate festival every October., Associated Press, October 21, 2002



eograph
Perugia is the capital city of the region of Umbria "The gre heart of aly" (ref. www.regioneumbria.eu). Umbria is located betwe: Tuscany, Lazio and The Marche.
Cities" distances from Perugia: Assisi 19 km, Sia 102 km, Florce 145 km, Rome 164 km.



limat
Although located in Ctral aly, Perugia experices a humid subtropical climate (Köpp climate classification "Cfa") similar to much of Northern aly.


|accessdate=2009-06-04}}

Demographics
In 2007, there were 163,287 people residing in Perugia, located in the province of Perugia, Umbria, of whom 47.7% were male and 52.3% were female. Minors (childr ages 18 and younger) totalled 16.41 perct of the population compared to psioners who number 21.51 perct. This compares with the alian average of 18.06 perct (minors) and 19.94 perct (psioners). The average age of Perugia residts is 44 compared to the alian average of 42. In the five years betwe 2002 and 2007, the population of Perugia grew by 7.86 perct, while aly as a whole grew by 3.85 perct.

As of 2006, 90.84% of the population was alian. The largest immigrant group came from other European countries (particularly from Albania and Romania): 3.93%, the Americas: 2.01%, and North African: 1.3%. The majority of inhabitants are Roman Catholic.

Education
Perugia today hosts two main universities, the ancit Università gli Studi (University of Perugia) and the Foreigners University ("Università per Stranieri"). "Stranieri" serves as an alian language and culture school for studts from all over the world. March 13, 2007 Other educational institutions are the Perugia Fine Arts Acamy "Pietro Vannucci" (found in 1573), the Perugia Music Conservatory for the study of classical music, and the RAI Public Broadcasting School of Radio-Television Journalism.See and The city is also host to the Umbra Institute, an accredited university program for American studts studying abroad. The "Università i Sapori" (University of Tastes), a National ctre for Vocational Education and Training in Food, is located in the city as well.See the institution educational purposes at the

Frazioni
The "comune" inclus the "frazioni" of Bagnaia, Bosco, Capanne, Casa l Diavolo, Castel l Piano, Certe, Civitella Bazzone, Civitella d"Arna, Collestrada, Colle Umberto I, Cordigliano, Colombella, Farneto, Ferro di Cavallo, Fontignano, Fratticiola Selvatica, La Bruna, La Cinella, Lacugnano, Lidarno, Migiana di Monte Tezio, Monte Bagnolo, Monte Corneo, Montelaguardia, Monte Petriolo, Mugnano, Olmo, Parlesca, Pianello, Piccione, Pila, Pilonico Materno, Ponte lla Pietra, Poggio lle Corti, Ponte Felcino, Ponte Pattoli, Ponte Rio, Ponte San Giovanni, Ponte Valleceppi, Prepo, Pretola, Ramazzano-Le Pulci, Rancolfo, Ripa, Sant"Andrea lle Fratte, Sant"Egidio, Sant"Enea, San Fortunato lla Collina, San Giovanni l Pantano, Sant"Andrea d"Agliano, Santa Lucia, San Marco, Santa Maria Rossa, San Martino i Colli, San Martino in Campo, San Martino in Colle, San Sisto, Solfagnano, Villa Pitignano.
Collestrada, in the "territorio" of the suburb of Ponte San Giovanni, saw a battle betwe the inhabitants of Perugia and Assisi in 1202.

Main sights
Churche
Fontana Maggiore.
* The Cathedral of S. Lorzo.
* Church and abbey of "San Pietro" (late 16th ctury).
* Basilica of "San Domico" (begun in 1394 and finished in 1458). is located in the place where, in Middle Ages times, the market and the horse fair were held, and where the Dominicans settled in 1234. According to Vasari, the church was signed by Giovanni Pisano. The interior corations were resigned by Carlo Marno, while the massive belfry was partially cut around mid-16th ctury. houses examples of Umbrian art, including the precious tomb of Pope Bedict XI and a Raissance wood choir.
* Church of "Sant"Angelo "or of "San Michele Arcangelo" (it is the same) (5th-6th cturies). is an example of Palaeo-Christian art with ctral plan recalling that of Santo Stefano Rotondo in Rome. has 16 antique columns.
* Church of "San Bernardino " (with faça by Agostino di Duccio).
* Church of "Sant" Ercolano" (early 14th ctury). Currtly resembling a polygonal tower, it had once two floors. The upper one was molished wh the Rocca Paolina was built. inclus Baroque corations commissioned from 1607. The main altar is ma of a 4th sarcophagus found in 1609.
* Church of "Sant"Antonio da Padova".
* Church of "Santa Giuliana", heir of a female monastery found in 1253, which in its later years gained a reputation for dissolutess, until the Frch turned it into a granary. is now a military hospital. The church, with a single nave, has traces of the ancit frescoes (13th ctury), which probably covered all the walls. The cloister is a noteworthy example of Cistercian architecture of the mid-14th ctury, attributed to Matteo Gattapone. This is contemporary with the upper part of the "campanile", whose base is from the 13th ctury.
* Templar church of "San Bevignate".

Secular buildings
* The Palazzo i Priori (Town Hall, compassing the Collegio l Cambio, Collegio lla Mercanzia, and Galleria Nazionale), one of aly"s greatest buildings. The Inpdt - London, June 6, 1999 The Collegio l Cambio has frescoes by Pietro Perugino, while the Collegio lla Mercanzia has a fine later 14th ctury wood interior.
** Galleria Nazionale ll"Umbria, the National Gallery of Umbrian art in Middle Ages and Raissance (it inclus works by Duccio, Piero lla Francesca, Beato Angelico, Perugino)
* "Fontana Maggiore", a medieval fountain signed by Fra Bevignate and sculpted by Nicola and Giovanni Pisano.
* Chapel of "San Severo", which retains a fresco painted by Raphael"...some studies for the figure of St. John the Martyr which Raphael used in 1505 in his great fresco in the Church of San Severo at Perugia." (The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci (X) and Perugino.
* the "Rocca Paolina", a Raissance fortress (1540-1543) of which only a bastion today is remaining. The original sign was by Antonio and Aristotile da Sangallo, and includ the "Porta Marzia" (3rd ctury BC), the tower of Gtile Baglioni"s house and a mediaeval cellar.
* Orto Botanico ll"Università di Perugia, the university"s botanical gard

Antiquitie
Etruscan Arch.
* the "Ipogeo i Volumni" (Hypogeum of the Volumnus family), an Etruscan chamber tomb
* an Etruscan Well ("Pozzo Etrusco").
* National Museum of Umbrian Archaeology, where one of the longest inscription in Etruscan is conserved , the so-called "Cippus perusinus".
* Etruscan Arch (also known as "Porta Augusta"), an Etruscan gate with Roman elemts.

Morn architecture
* "Ctro Direzionale" (1982-1986), an administration civic cter owned by the Umbria Region. The building was signed by the Pritzker Architecture prizewinner Aldo Rossi.The Ctro Direzionale is mtioned in the

Art in Perugia
Pietro Perugino, Self portrait
Perugia has had a rich tradition of art and artists. The High Raissance painter Pietro Perugino created some of his masterpieces in the Perugia area. The other High Resaissance master Raphael was also active in Perugia and painted his famous Oddi Altar there in 1502-1504.

Today, the Galleria Nazionale ll"Umbria in Perugia houses a number of masterpieces, including the "Madonna with Child and six Angels" which represts the Raissance Marian art of Duccio. And the private Art Collection of the Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Perugia has two separate locations.

The Collegio l Cambio is an extremely well preserved represtation of a Raissance building and houses a magnifict Pietro Perugino fresco.

Local evts
* The Umbria Jazz Festival is one of the most important vues for Jazz in Europe and has be held annually since 1973, usually in July.
* Sagra Musicale UmbraThe Umbrian musical evt is hosted in Perugia since the d of World War II
* The International Journalism Festival (Festival l Giornalismo), usually in October.
* Eurochocolate, usually in October.

Gallery of art in Perugia

File:Duccio di Buoninsegna 008.jpg|Duccio, 1330-1305
File:Fiorzo di Lorzo Adoration.jpg|Fiorzo di Lorzo, c. 1490
File:Pietro Perugino cat41a.jpg|Pietro Perugino, 1495
File:Pietro Perugino 024.jpg|Pietro Perugino, 1497-1500


Transport
Minimetrò
Perugia has tak drastic measures against car traffic. At certain hours of the day, driving is forbidd in the city ctre. Large parking lots are provid in the lower town, from where escalators lead up through the Rocca Paolina into the city. Since 2008, a MiniMetro is also in operation, with sev stations.

San Egidio Airport is located twelve kilometers outsi the city.

win towns — Sister citie


Perugia has twin and sister city agreemts with the following cities:
* Aix--Provce, France
* Bratislava, Slovakia, since 1962
* Grand Rapids, United States
* Potsdam, Germany
* Seattle, United States
* Tübing, Germany

See also
* People from Perugia
* Perugia Calcio - local football club
* University of Perugia

Notes


Referces
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External links


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Category:Baroque sites of Umbria
Category:Etruscan sites
Category:Gothic sites of Umbria
Category:Hilltowns in Umbria

Category:Raissance sites of Umbria
Category:Roman sites of Umbria
Category:Romanesque sites of Umbria

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cs:Perugia
cbk-zam:Ciudad Perugia
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da:Perugia
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el:Περούτζια
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eo:Peruĝo
eu:Perugia
fa:پروجا
fr:Pérouse (alie)
ga:Perugia
gl:Perugia
ko:페루자
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ru:Перуджа
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