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Patras

Greece, Patras
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"Patras " (Demotic Greek: "Πάτρα", "Pátra", , Classical Greek: "Πάτραι", "Pátrai", ) is Greece"s third largest urban centre and the capital of the prefecture of , located in northern Peloponnese, 215 kilometers west of Athens. The city is built at the foothills of Mount Panachaikon, overlooking the Gulf of Patras.

The Patras metropolitan area is a conurbation of 222,460 inhabitants. The core settlement has a history spanning four millennia. In the Roman period it had become a cosmopolitan centre of the eastern Mediterranean whilst, according to Christian tradition, it was also the place of Saint Andrew"s martyrdom. Dubbed Greece"s "Gate to the West", Patras is a commercial hub, while its busy port is a nodal point for trade and communication with Italy and the rest of Western Europe. The city has two public universities and one Technological Institute, hosting a large student population and rendering Patras a major scientific centre with a field of excellence in technological education. The Rio-Antirio bridge connects Patras" easternmost suburb of Rio to the town of Antirrio, connecting the Peloponnese peninsula with mainland Greece. Every spring, the city hosts one of Europe"s largest and most colourful carnivals; notable features of the Patras Carnival include its mammoth-sized satirical floats and extravagant balls and parades, enjoyed by hundreds of thousands of visitors in a pleasant Mediterranean climate, with relatively cool yet humid summers and rather mild winters. Patras is also famous for supporting an indigenous cultural scene active mainly in the performing arts and modern urban literature; it was 2006.

eography and climat
Satellite view of Patras.

Patras is located west of Athens by road, northeast of Pyrgos, south of Rio, west of Corinth, 77 kilometers northwest of Kalavryta, and northwest of Tripoli.

A central feature of the urban geography of Patras is its division in upper and lower sections, connected with stairs. This is the result of an interplay between natural geography and human settlement patterns; the lower section of the city, which includes the 19th century urban core and the port, is adjacent to the sea and stretches between the estuaries of the rivers of Glafkos and Haradros. It is built on what was originally a bed of river soils and dried-up swamps. The older upper section covers the area of the pre-modern settlement, around the Fortress, on what is the last elevation of Mount Panachaikon () - Accessed Feb. 9, 2007 before the Gulf of Patras.

The largest river in the area is Glafkos flowing to the south of Patras. Glafkos springs in Mount Panachaikon and its water is, since 1925, collected in a small mountainous reservoir-dam near the village of Souli and subsequently pumped in order to provide energy for the country"s first hydroelectric plant.Thomopoulos, St. N, "History of the City of Patras from Antiquity to 1821", Patrai 1952, (ed. Triantafyllou, K.N.) The water is also used for the orchards of Eglykas and as drinking water for the city. Other rivers are "Haradros", "Meilichos" and the mountain torrent "Diakoniaris".


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Of great importance for the biological diversity of the area and the preservation of its climate is the swamp of Agyia, a small and coastal aquatic ecosystem of only 30 hectares, located to the north of the city centre. The main features of this wetland are its apparent survival difficulty, being at the heart of a densely populated urban centre that features a relatively arid climate and its admittedly high level of biodiversity, with over 90 species of birds being observed until the early 1990s, according to a study by the Patras Bureau of the "Hellenic Ornithological Society".

Another geophysical characteristic of the region is its high level of seismicity. Small tremors are recorded along the coast of Patras almost constantly. Larger earthquakes hit the area every few years with potentially destructive effects. In 1993, a 5.0 magnitude earthquake caused some damage to several (mostly older) buildings throughout Patras due to the proximity of the epicenter to the city. In June 15, 1995, a 6.2 magnitude earthquake hit the nearby town of Aigion, causing some structural damage to a few buildings of Patras as well. The Ionian Islands are also frequently hit by even more severe earthquakes, some of which can be felt in the city. In antiquity, the most notable example of destruction caused by an earthquake in the region was the total submergence of the ancient n city of Helike, now Eliki.

istor

Patras" Roman Odeum
Monument for the Greek Revolution(1821-1830).
The central square of Patras in the past century

The first traces of settlement in Patras date as early as in the 3rd millennium BC, in the area of modern Aroe. Patras flourished for the first time during the Post-Helladic or Mycenean period (1580–1100 BC). Ancient Patras was formed by the unification of three Mycenaean villages located in modern Aroe; namely Antheia and Mesatis. Mythology has it that after the Dorian invasion, a group of ns from Laconia led by the eponymous Patreus established a colony. During antiquity, Patras remained a farming city. It would be in Roman times that it was to become an important port.

After 280 BC and prior to the Roman occupation of Greece, Patras played a significant role in the foundation of the second "n League" (Achaiki Sympoliteia), along with the cities of Dyme, Triteia and Pharai. Later on, and following the Roman occupation of Greece in 146 BC, Patras played a key role, and Augustus founded a Roman colony in its area. Moreover, Patras became a Christian centre since the early days of Christianity, and it is the city where St. Andrew was crucified.

During Byzantine times Patras continued to be an important port as well as an industrial centre. One of the most scholarly philosophers and theologians of the time, Arethas of Caesarea was born at Patrae, at around 860. By the 9th century there are strong signs the city was prosperous: the widow Danielis from Patras had accumulated immense wealth in land ownership, the carpet and textile industry, and offered critical support in the ascent of Basil I the Macedonian to the Byzantine throne.

In 1204 Patras was conquered by the Fourth Crusade, and became the seat of the Latin Duchy of Athens within the Principality of . Captured in 1205 by William of Champlitte and Villehardouin, the city became a part of the principality of , and its archbishop primate of the principality while in 1387 Juan Fernández de Heredia, grand master of the order of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes, endeavoured to make himself master of and took Patras by storm. In 1408, Patras became Venetian, and by the close of the 15th century the city was governed by the archbishop in the name of the pope. It was nevertheless seized once more by the despot Constantine in 1430, who was immediately contested by the Ottoman Empire.

In 1458 Patras was conquered by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmet II. Under the Ottomans, it was known as Baliabadra, from the Greek Παλαιά Πάτρα, the town, as opposed to Νέα Πάτρα, the fortress. Though Mehmet granted the city special privileges and tax reductions, it never became a major centre of commerce. Venice and Genoa attacked and captured it several times during the 15th and 16th centuries, but never re-established their rule effectively except Venetian rule between 1687-1715.Encyclopaedia of Islam "s.v." Baliabadra It was here that the Greek Revolution began;Strategus Makrygiannis, "Memoirs", Book A, Chapter I, Athens, 1849, http://www.snhell.gr/testimonies/writer.asp?id=102 but the Turks, confined to the citadel, held out until 1828.

Patras was liberated on 7 October, 1828 by the French expeditionary force in the Peloponnese, under the command of General Maison. Patras developed quickly into the second largest urban centre in late 19th century Greece.Triantafyllou, Κ.Ν., "Historic Lexicon of Patras" The city benefited from its role as the main export port for the agricultural produce of the Peloponnese.Kounenaki Pegy, "19th Century Patras: how the character of the city changed with the development of the port after 1828" "Kathimerini" 14-10-01 http://news.kathimerini.gr/4dcgi/_w_articles_civ_491371_14/10/2001_3252

In the early 20th century, Patras developed fast and became the first Greek city to introduce public streetlights and electrified tramways.Thomopoulos The war effort necessitated by the first World War hampered the city"s development and also created uncontrollable urban sprawl with the influx of refugees from Asia Minor. During the Second World War, the city was a major target of Italian air raids; during the period of Axis occupation, a German military command was established and German and Italian troops stationed in the city.

rban landscap
Patras" western seafront.

The city is divided into the upper and the lower sections, connected with roads and broad stairs. The upper section is the older and the more picturesque; however, the lower sections are attractively laid out, featuring a variety of squares in a unique geometric pattern. The most notable of these are the "Psila Alonia" and the "Georgiou I" . A number of exquisite neoclassical buildings are to be found, including the " "Apollon" Theatre" in Georgiou I Square, the "Town Hall", the headquarters of the "Local Trade Association" and the " Court of Justice".
View of the city from the stairs of Agios Nikolaos street

The most significant ancient monument, open to the public, is the "Roman Odeon", now reconstructed and in use as an open-air theatre used for performances and concerts during the summer months. Overlooking the whole town is the ruined "Castle", whose current outline dates back to the Venetian invasion of the town (1687-1715). Today, its interior is used as a public garden.

Near the seafront, between the sites of the new and the old port, stands the monumental church of Saint Andrew, the patron Saint of the city and the largest church of Greece. A replica of the city"s emblematic old lighthouse, built as a part of a coastline beautification project, rises at a nearby park. In general, much of Patras" coastline is framed by roads and avenues running alongside; these include " Dymaion Coast" to the south and "Iroon Polytechneiou Road" to the north. Unfortunately, due to insufficient urban planning as well as institutional weaknesses on behalf of the City Council (mainly due to a lack of proper financial planning), some of the city"s coastal areas are not in an ideal condition, with several areas illegally occupied by shops built along the coastline. This is contrary to what the Constitution of Greece of 2001 declares; that the Greek coastline is a "national treasure", and as such belongs to the Greek people.

rchitectur
Kolokotroni street in central Patras
Mansion in Psilalonia square

The city is endowed with a number of neoclassical buildings and mansions dating from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the past, years of neglect and the absence of protection enforcement, as well as recent earthquakes had contributed to the destruction of several such examples. Today, however, most surviving neoclassical buildings are under a strict protection status. The project for the restoration of the city"s architectural heritage is part of the 2006 Cultural Capital bid. Several (Λαϊκή) laikê (produce markets) take place across the city"s neighborhoods on weekdays, and on Saturdays.

andmark
The Achaia region is home to 4 museums, including the Patras Archaeological Museum and the Museum for the Sacrifice of the people of Kalavrita. - Accessed on Feb. 9, 2007 The Achaia Clauss wine tasting center is located on the outskirts in Petroto village. It was founded in 1861 by the Bavarian Gustav Clauss and is most famous for its Mavrodaphne. The winery is the main sponsor of the local basketball team, Apollon Achaia Clauss.

The region is also home to various Ancient Greek and Byzantine Monuments, including the Roman Odeum, the Castle of Rio and the Fortress of Patras.

silalonia Squar
"Psilalonia Square" ( or more formally Πλατεία Υψηλών Αλωνίων) is one of Patras"s most popular squares. The square is located 1.5 km from downtown Patras, next to the city"s main north-south street, Gounari Street.

The square features a fountain in the middle and until the 1950s with sidewalks. Trees surround the square and it features a grassy field, palm trees, a playground. A bronze statue of Germanos of Patras stands on the northern end, while a memorial plaque to people executed during the Axis occupation of Greece stands on the south-western corner. Several shops, chiefly restaurants and cafes, surround the square.

The square features modernistic buildings around and it had red shingles with arches. It was completed in the mid to late-19th century when the population boomed. Trees were added along with neoclassical buildings. After World War II and the Greek Civil War however, and through the 1960s and 1970s, most neoclassical buildings were replaced by eight-story residential buildings. Restaurants were added in the 1980s.

In the west end, a 15 m tall cliff overlooks the Trion Navarchon pedestrian street, and offers a wide vista across the western Corinthian Gulf, including the Arakynthos mountains and the mountains of Aitoloakarnania and Fokida. The Panachaiko and the mountains to the southeast including Omplos are also visible from the square.

ity pla
The first city plan of Patras, 1829

Patras is the first city of the modern Greek state to develop a city plan. In January 1829, Stamatis Voulgaris, a Greek engineer of the French army, presented the plan of the new city of Patras to the Governor Kapodistrias, who approved it. Voulgaris applied the orthogonal rule in the urban complex of Patras. The plan was divided into two sectors, the upper and the lower city, with a different city block layout; a revision of the proposal in 1858 was that finally realised.

eighbourhoods and district

Patras city districts

uburb
Nowadays, the municipalities of Rio and Antirrio have functionally become a part of the wider urban complex of Patras, other suburbs are:
*Aktaio (north)
*Agios Georgios Riou (north)
*Petroto (east)
*Saravali (southeast, south)
*Mintilogli (south)
*Monodendri (south)
*Ovria (south)
*Paralia (south)
*Vrachnaiika (south)
*Roitika (south)
*Tsoukaleika
*Zarouchleika(south)

emographic
The urban area of Patras includes the towns of Rion (12,674), Paralia (9,153), Vrachneika (4,805) and Messatida (12,246), comprising 18,5% of the urban population.



Population of Patras (dark blue) and the urban area of Patras (blue) from 1853 to 2007.
Patras suburbs



overnmen
Patras is the regional capital of Western Greece and the capital of the prefecture (the 5th most populous prefecture of Greece). The city is going to be the capital of one of the newly proposed regions of Greece, including Peloponnese and Ionian Islands.

onsulate
The city hosts consulates from several European countries (the only exception is the Lebanon consulate)


nfrastructur
The port of Patras

In the past, Patras lacked public investment in infrastructure; in recent years, this trend has changed significantly. Several important works have been recently completed to serve Patras as an Olympic city, a European capital of culture and one of the most populous Greek cities.

The city has always been a sea-trade hub due to its strategic position. The port manages more than half of the foreign sea-passenger transportation in Greece, and has excellent car-ferry links with the Ionian islands and the major Adriatic ports of Italy. Additionally, a new port is under construction in the southern section of the city to accommodate the increased traffic and relieve the city centre from port operations.

A newly constructed, ring road was first opened in 2002 in order to alleviate heavy traffic throughout the city. A mini ring road is now being constructed to alleviate heavy traffic-related problems in the city centre. Two large highways are under construction that will connect the seacoast and the new port with the external ring road that surrounds the city of Patras. The first is over the small Diakoniaris river while the second consists of two roads, each, that will run in parallel with the Glaykos river. Another project will lead to an additional entrance to the downtown area by expanding the Kanakari street.

Rio-Antirio bridge.

The highway connection with Athens and Pyrgos is to be drastically upgraded. Patras will also be the central hub of the Ionia Odos highway, intended to bridge western Greece from Kalamata to Ioannina. The Rio-Antirio bridge is located to the north of the city and links Peloponnese to mainland Greece, and was completed in August 2004.

A rudimentary single, narrow gauge railway track crosses the city and connects it to Athens and to Pyrgos-Kalamata, while the central passenger train station lies to the west of the downtown area, between Aghiou Nikolaou Street and Othonos-Amalias Avenue. The main freight station of Aghios Andreas lies further to the south, next to the homonymous church. Finally, the old depot of Aghios Dionysios, consisting of about ten tracks, offers basic turntable and roundhouse facilities; its length is approximately 400 m. A new standard gauge railway to Korinth and further to Athens is under construction.

Other heavy infrastructure works include the Peiros-Parapeiros dam (to provide water supply for Patras and surrounding towns) and a "small industries" park that will be constructed next to the Glaykos river and provide an easy connection with the new port.

The city is one of the main Greek internet and GRNET hubs and is connected with high speed lines to Athens as part of the backbone. A metropolitan optical network will be deployed in the city, with a total length of .

The New Archaeological Museum of Patras.

Two major state hospitals operate in the city: the Saint Andreas Hospital is the oldest of the two; named after the city"s patron saint. The University Hospital of Rio is a prominent university hospital, where intern medical students specialize on their major. There exist, in addition, two smaller state hospitals, Karamandanio - children"s hospital, and the Center of Chest Diseases of Southwest Greece, and the Greek army operates the 409 army hospital in the city. A large range of private hospitals and clinics operate in parallel.

Numerous art venues and an ultra-modern archaeological museum were constructed for the needs of European Culture Capital designation. The cultural and educational facilities include the city and university libraries, many theatres and a municipal art gallery, in the host city of the University of Patras, the Hellenic Open University and the Technical Institute of Patras. A number of research facilities also surround the university.

conom



The economy of the city largely depends on a thriving service sector. Its main economic activities include retailing, logistics, financial and the public sector services. Patras suffered a severe problem of deindustrialization during the late 1980s and 1990s; a number of major productive units shut down in successive order. As a result, a considerable portion of the city"s workforce and the city"s economic planning in its entirety had to be re-evaluated and restructured by the authorities. The University of Patras contributed by working towards this goal, using its widely respected service and technology sectors. The area still retains some of its traditional winemaking and foodstuff industries as well as a small agricultural sector, and
its industrial area lies approximately 20 km to the south of the downtown area, located between the 16th km of GR-9 and Fares/Phares (pro. FAH-rehs). Major businesses in Patras include:

ankin
Most Greek Banks have their regional headquarters for Western Greece located in Patras.

onstruction and real estat
Numerous small local companies are involved in the construction sector.

ertiary educatio
The University of Patras with the Rio-Antirio bridge in the background

(University of Patras, Hellenic Open University, TEI of Patras)

etailin
Most of the large retail and super-market chains operate in the city. Patras has also some local but dynamic companies.

ouris
The prefecture has 4,800 hotels rooms and in 2006 286,000 tourists, mainly Greeks, stayed for a total of 634,000 days.

ranspor
The railway station of Patras

*Araxos airport, which is mainly a military airport, since it"s in a Hellenic Air Force air base (used by the 116 Combat Wing), and is used as a civilian airport too, mainly in the summer, to service certain charter flights,
*Hellenic Railways Organisation,
*, which operate transportation to and from the rest of Greece, like Athens, Thessaloniki etc, but also to and from places in the province of ,
*,
*,
*City Buses, which operate in the city, but also operate a transport line to and from the University of Patras, and some close by suburbs, like Saravali, Zarouchleika, Paralia etc.

anufacturin
*Titan Cement Company operates a large cement factory, with a private port, in Psathopyrgos, a suburb of Patras.

nerg

Acciona has recently completed the largest wind park in Greece, on the Panachaiko mountain, overlooking the city of Patras. The Public Electric Company, operates a small hydroelectric plant on river Glafkos.

oodstuf
The most numerous industries in the city include many local juice and drinks producers and two large facilities from Coca Cola HBC and Athenian Brewery. The largest local company in soft-drinks production is "Lux" (ΛΟΥΞ). The city is also home to many leading Greek wineries and distilleries, among them the venerable Achaia Clauss. In the food sector, Friesland Foods, through the local subsidiary "NoyNoy", operates a new yogurt factory in the industrial area. Patras is also home to important fish-farming companies ("Andromeda", "Nireus") . ECOFEED operates in the industrial zone of Patras, the largest fish-feeds factory in the Mediterraneanhttp://www.lkmk.gr/index.php?page=projects&category=1&project=0. The city hosts the second largest flour-mills in Greece, "Kepenou-Mills".

achiner
Patras has several packing and industrial equipment companies. The most important of them are the local "Antzoulatos" and the multinational Frigoglass, a subsidiary of Coca-Cola, headquartered in the suburbs of Patras.
"Ideal"is a leading bike producer in Greece, with large export activities.

harmaceutica
*CBL is headquartered in Patras
*Vianex, (Pavlos Giannakopoulos), has its largest production facilities in the industrial area of the city.

extile
The omnipresent textile industry of the city is now almost defunct after the shut-down of the huge factory of "Piraiki-Patraiki" ("Πειραϊκή-Πατραϊκή"), followed by numerous smaller textile industries. The remains of the facilities, still cover hundreds of acres in the south side of the city. Nowadays, Patras companies focus in dress production, the most important amongst them being DUR.

imber and pape
Patras hosts several timber manufacturing companies, and a wood distribution center of Shelman. The largest local company is "Abex".

The paper sector is also active including a paper-factory belonging to Georgia-Pacific ("Delica") and two important Greek companies, "Elite" and "El-pack", headquartered in the city.

esearc
There has been a significant development in the R&D sector, during the last years, as a result of the many research institutes and the University impact in the area.
*The Computer Technology Institute and the
*Industrial Systems Institute of Greece are headquartered in Patras.
*The city is also a host to the FORTH-ICE-HT (Institute of Chemical Engineering & High Temperature Chemical Processes) and the Institute of Biomedical Technology.
*Atmel Corporation has an important R&D facility in Patras with more than 200 employees
*Bytemobile has its European Development Center in Patras.
*Intracom facilities in Patras house the offices of Telecommunications Software Development, Terminal Equipment Design, Development Programmes, and Support Services divisions. Expansion plans have recently been completed.
*CBL Patras, a global manufacturer of specialty chemicals and active pharmaceutical ingredients, is a startup from a professor of the University of Patras
*Patras science park is an incubator for many small but upcoming technology companies.

ultur
Patras Carnival; the float of the king of Carnival

The current cultural activity of the city includes the "Patras International Festival" (various artistic activities, mainly in the field of music), the "Patras Carnival" and the Poetry Symposium. The city hosts several conservatoires and schools of music, including one devoted exclusively to Byzantine music, and several orchestras and choirs. There is one full-time theatre group in the city, as well as several amateur groups. A number of schools teach dancing, and there are plans to set up a dance theatre within the context of the Patras Municipal Regional Theatre. Patras has a visual arts workshop, a school of icon painting and a carnival float workshop, and hosts a Municipal Gallery as well as private art galleries; there is also a Municipal Library, an archaeological museum, a folk art museum, an historical and ethnological museum and a museum of the press. The architectural heritage of the city is dominated by neo-classicism, but also includes structures from other periods.

* Patras is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and EU "Intercultural cities" programme.

ntertainment and performing art
Apollon Theatre


The Patras Municipal Theatre was founded in June 1988 and was renamed as "Patras Municipal and Regional Theatre" in 1989. The theatre"s founding artistic directors were the actors Maya Liberopoulou and Viktor Arditis, and the institution draws its funding from the Municipality of Patras and the Ministry of Culture, with a main stage at the landmark Apollon Theatre. Throughout its existence it has mounted critically acclaimed performances ranging from ancient dramaturgy, modern Greek to international repertoire, with other theatre groups nearby the "Viomichaniki"(Industrial) and "Michani Technis" (Art Machine). The ancient Roman Odeum hosts ancient dramas during the summer months, while the Pantheon theatre and the Art Factory, the Lithographeion and Agora theatres provide additional venues.

The "Patras Carnival", "Patrino karnavali" is the largest event of its kind in Greece and one of the biggest in Europe, with a heritage reaching back 160 years. The events begin on January 17 and lasts until Clean Monday. The carnival is not a single event but a variety of events that include balls, parades, a children"s carnival and artistic projects. Its apogee comes in the last weekend of Carnival with the Saturday evening parade of carnival groups, the extravagant Sunday parade of floats and groups, and finally the ritual burning of king carnival in the mole of Saint Nikolaos street in the harbour of Patras. Its characteristic principles are spontaneity, improvisation, inspiration and volunteerism.

The "International Festival of Patras" takes place every summer, with a program consisting mostly of plays—both ancient drama and modern theatre—as well as various musical events.

usic scen
Patras is also responsible for a very strong indie rock scene with critically acclaimed bands such as Raining Pleasure, Abbie Gale, Serpentine, Doh an Doris and others. The city is also the birthplace of Karagiozis, the Greek shadow theatre, with Dimitris Sardounis as founder.

200
Patras 2006 logo

Patras was chosen by the European Commission to be the for the year 2006. The concept of the event revolved around the main theme of "Bridges" and "Links", taking benefit from the City"s rich history and its position as a "Gate to the West", to underline the essence of the productive interaction of culture and civilisation in Europe. The EU Commission found Patras" plans very ambitious and also commented that a successful hosting of the title by a medium sized city would make it possible to redefine the meaning of the term Cultural Capital. During 2006 various cultural events took place.

The "Selection Panel" for 2006 noted in its final report:

The current cultural activity of the city includes the "Patras International Festival" (various artistic activities, mainly in the field of music), the "Patras Carnival" and the (organized each year for the 25 years by an ad hoc committee at the University of Patras). The city hosts several conservatoires and schools of music, including one devoted exclusively to Byzantine music, and several orchestras and choirs. There is one full-time theatre group in the city, the, as well as several amateur groups. A number of schools teach dancing, and there are plans to set up a dance theatre within the context of the Patras Municipal Regional Theatre. Patras has a visual arts workshop, a school of icon painting and a carnival float workshop, and hosts a Municipal Gallery as well as private art galleries. The city has a Municipal Library, an archaeological museum, a folk art museum, a historical and ethnological museum and a museum of the press. The architectural heritage of the city is dominated by neo-classicism, but includes also constructions from other periods.

The Patras 2006 proposal focuses on two central ideas: “bridges” and “dialogues”. Cultural managers from Patras and the general public will be involved in developing these ideas. Further, four poles/programmes of cultural attraction will be developed. The first, “A city for Europe”, will relate to the architectural heritage, the industrial revolution and similar subjects. “The counterpart cities” programme will be developed in the fields of human and social sciences and in diverse artistic fields. “The three sea battles” will present a cultural programme focusing on peace and understanding. The last theme, “The many homelands”, is directly linked to the etymology of the name of the city. This programme will amongst other things concentrate on art workshops, the transfer of know-how, way of life and entertainment.
"Excerpt from the Report of the Selection Panel for the 2006"

With the completion of the Capital of Culture programme, a part old factory was renovated to host exhibitions and house a small theatre, and neoclassical buildings around the city were renovated as part of a plan to preserve the city"s architectural heritage and link it to its cultural life.

A major new archaeological museum is being built, which with its globe-like roof and modern architectural design, will enhance the town"s northern entrance and take its place among the other town landmarks.

port


Patras has many sports facilities and important teams in all the major Greek leagues. Panachaiki Gymnastiki Enosi, Apollon Patras and EA Patras are the major sports club based in Patras, the first specializing in football, the second in basketball and the third in volleyball.



2009 the International Children"s Games had taken place in Patras.

eligio
"Agios Andreas"|thumb|right

The city is the seat of a Greek Orthodox archbishopic, while there is a living community of Roman Catholics and a historical Anglican church.
The most significant church in the city is the Greek Orthodox cathedral "Agios Andreas", in the east side of the city. The church, of Greek Byzantine style, construction began in 1908 under the supervision of the architect Anastasioa Metaxas, followed by Georgios Nomikos. It was inaugurated in 1974. It is the largest church in Greece and the largest Byzantine-style church in the Balkans. It keeps the relics of the apostle Saint Andrew, which were sent there from St. Peter"s Basilica, Rome in September, 1964, on the orders of Pope Paul VI.

eopl
Kostis Palamas

The city boasts a relatively large number of politicians in the national political arena as its natives. Most particularly in the first century after liberation, when the city lay second only to Athens in the urban hierarchy of the country, significant personalities shaping the character of Greece were associated with Patras. Its famous natives include the prime ministers Dimitrios Gounaris the main leader of the anti-venizelist party in the 1910s, Stylianos Gonatas a high-ranking officer, politician and one of the leaders of the “1922 Revolution”, Andreas Michalakopoulos, a prominent liberal party cadre, foreign minister and prime minister, and Dimitrios Maximos a distinguished economist, minister and finally prime minister during the civil war era. More recent figures include George Papandreou (senior) leader of the Center Union and one of the most important political personalities in post World War II Greece, Panagiotis Kanellopoulos, the last democratically elected head of government before the establishment of the 1967 junta, and Costis Stephanopoulos, the former president of the Hellenic Republic.



ransportatio
irport
*Araxos Airport is located about 40 km from the city.

oad


*GR-5/E55
*GR-8/E55 and E65 (partly Panepistimiou Street)
*GR-8A
*GR-9/E55 (partly Akti Dymaion)
*GR-33 (partly Kalavryton, Georgiou Papandreou Street and Akrotiriou)
*Patras Bypass

win citie


ee als
Patras 2006 commemorative coin

*Patras was recently selected as main motif for a high value euro collectors" coins; the €10 Greek Patras 2006 commemorative coin, minted in 2006. This coin commemorates the event that signalled a new enlightened course for Patras and serves as a reminder of the fact that culture can stimulate the economy and promote development; when Patras was appointed as . On the obverse the logo for Patras 2006 around the words " can be seen.
*Apollon Theatre (Patras)
*Archaeological Museum of Patras
*Cities in Greece
*Communities of Achaia
*Kalavryta
*Panachaiko
*Patras wireless metropolitan network
*Rio-Antirio bridge
*Rio, Greece
*Intercultural cities

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Category:
Category:Ancient Greek cities
Category:Carnival cities and towns
Category:Cities, towns and villages in the Prefecture
Category:Coastal settlements in Greece
Category:Greek prefectural capitals
Category:Greek regional capitals
Category:Tourism in Greece
Category:Mediterranean port cities and towns in Greece
Category:Roman colonies
Category:Roman sites in Greece

ar:باتراس
be:Горад Патры
bg:Патра
ca:Patres
cy:Patras
da:Patras
de:Patras
et:Pátra
el:Πάτρα
es:Patras
eo:Patraso
fa:پاتراس
fr:Patras
gl:Patras
ko:파트라
hr:Patras
id:Patras
it:Patrasso
he:פטרס
la:Patrae
lv:Patra
lt:Patrai
hu:Pátra
nl:Patras
ja:パトラ
nn:Pátra
pl:Patras
pt:Pátras
ro:Patras
ru:Патры
scn:Patrassu
simple:Patras
sl:Patras
sr:Патра
fi:Patras
sv:Patras
tr:Patras
uk:Патри
vec:Patraso
vi:Patras
war:Patras
zh:帕特雷
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 14.04.2021 02:45 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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"Athen" may refer to:* Athens, capital of Greece - "Athen" in German, Norwegian, and Danish* The "Athen", German ship that was in the Bay of Lübeck during the sinking of the "Cap Arcona". All 1,998 prisoners aboard the "Athen" survivedSee also*
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"Thessaloniki" (, ), "Thessalonica", or "Salonica" is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia.Not to be confused with the neighbouring Republic of Macedonia. It is honourably called the
"Thessaloniki" (, ), "Thessalonica", or "Salonica" is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia.Not to be confused with the neighbouring Republic of Macedonia. It is honourably called the
"Thessaloniki" (, ), "Thessalonica", or "Salonica" is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia.Not to be confused with the neighbouring Republic of Macedonia. It is honourably called the
 
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