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France, Paris
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|population = 2203817
|population ranking = 1st in France
|urban area km2 = 2,723
|urban area date = 1999
|urban pop = 10,142,983
|urban pop date = 2006
|metro area km2 = 14518.3
|metro area date = 1999
|metro area pop = 11,769,433
|metro area pop date = 2006
|website =
}}

"Paris" ( in English, in French) is the capital of France and the country"s most populous city. It is situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region (also known as the "Paris Region"; ). The city of Paris, within its administrative limits largely unchanged since 1860, has an estimated population of 2,203,817 (January 2006), but the Paris "aire urbaine" (or metropolitan area) has a population of 11,769,433 (January 2006), and is one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe.

An important settlement for more than two millennia, Paris is today one of the world"s leading business and cultural centres, and its influence in politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world"s major global cities.

Paris and the Paris Region, with €533.6 billion (US$731.3 billion) in 2007, produces more than a quarter of the gross domestic product (GDP) of France. According to 2007 estimates, the Paris urban agglomeration is Europe"s biggest city economy and the sixth largest in the world. The Paris Region hosts 38 of the Fortune Global 500 companies in several business districts, notably La Défense, the largest purpose-built business district in Europe. Paris also hosts many international organizations such as UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and the informal Paris Club.

Paris is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world, with 45 million tourists every year in the Paris Region, 60% of whom are foreign visitors. There are numerous iconic landmarks among its many attractions, along with world-famous institutions and popular parks.



tymolog
The name "Paris" derives from that of its inhabitants, the Gaulish tribe known as the "Parisii". The city was called "Lutetia" (more fully, "Lutetia Parisiorum", "Lutetia of the Parisii"), during the first- to sixth-century Roman occupation, but during the reign of Julian the Apostate (360–363) the city was renamed Paris., official history of Paris by The Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau

Others consider that the name of the "Parisii" tribe comes from the Celtic Gallic word "parisio" meaning "the working people" or "the craftsmen." Since the early 20th century, Paris has been known as "Paname" () in French slang (File:ltspkr.png"Moi j"suis d"Paname", i.e. "I"m from Paname"), a slang name that has been regaining favor with young people in recent years.

Paris has many nicknames, but its most famous is "La Ville-Lumière" (most often translated as "The City of Light"), a name it owes first to its fame as a centre of education and ideas during the Age of Enlightenment, and later to its early adoption of street lighting.It is unlikely that Paris" modern appellation of "Ville Lumière" was given to the capital of France because it was a centre of education, ideas and culture, as it had been such a centre since the Middle Ages. It is more likely, however, that, aside from the apparition of street lighting at night, Paris became known as "Ville Lumière" in the second half of the 19th century, when baron Haussmann, who had been put in charge by emperor Napoléon III of the drastic transformation of Paris into a modern city, tore down whole "quartiers" of houses & narrow streets dating back to the Middle Ages, and opened large avenues which let light ("lumière") come into the former medieval city.

Paris" inhabitants are known in English as "Parisians" and in French as "Parisiens" (). Parisians are often pejoratively called "Parigots" (), a term first used in 1900Dictionnaire de la langue française, "Larousse étymologique", Librairie Larousse, Paris, 1971, p. 535 by those living outside the Paris region, but now the term may be considered endearing by Parisians themselves.

:"See Wiktionary for the name of Paris in various languages other than English and French."

istor


eginning
Roman bath beneath the Latin Quarter
The earliest archaeological signs of permanent habitation in the Paris area date from around 4200 BC. The "Parisii", a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the area near the river Seine from around 250 BChttp://www.celticgrounds.com/chapters/appendix/celtic_tribes.htm. The Romans conquered the Paris basin in 52 BC, with a permanent settlement by the end of the same century on the Left Bank Sainte Geneviève Hill and the Île de la Cité. The Gallo-Roman town was originally called Lutetia, but later Gallicised to "Lutèce". It expanded greatly over the following centuries, becoming a prosperous city with a forum, palaces, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre. The collapse of the Roman empire and the fifth-century Germanic invasions sent the city into a period of decline. By 400 AD, "Lutèce", by then largely abandoned by its inhabitants, was little more than a garrison town entrenched into the hastily fortified central island. The city reclaimed its original appellation of "Paris" towards the end of the Roman occupation. The Frankish king Clovis I established Paris as his capital in 508.

iddle ages to 19th centur
The Louvre fortress from the early 15th century illuminated manuscript "Book of Hours", Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, month of October.

Paris" population was around 200,000. TED Case Studies. when the Black Death arrived in 1348, killing as many as 800 people a day, and 40,000 died from the plague in 1466.. 1911 Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Paris lost its position as seat of the French realm during occupation of the English-allied Burgundians during the Hundred Years" War, but regained its title when Charles VII of France reclaimed the city from English rule in 1436. Paris from then became France"s capital once again in title, but France"s real centre of power would remain in the Loire Valley, CNN.com until King François I returned France"s crown residences to Paris in 1528. During the French Wars of Religion, Paris was a stronghold of the Catholic party. In August 1572, under the reign of Charles IX, while many noble Protestants were in Paris on the occasion of the marriage of Henry of Navarre, the future Henry IV, to Marguerite de Valois, sister of Charles IX, the St. Bartholomew"s Day massacre occurred; begun on 24 August, it lasted several days and spread throughout the country., Britannica Online EncyclopediaBayrou, François, "Henri IV, le roi libre", Flammarion, Paris, 1994, pp. 121–130, (French). During the Fronde, Parisians rose in rebellion and the royal family fled the city (1648). King Louis XIV then moved the royal court permanently to Versailles in 1682. A century later, Paris was the centre stage for the French Revolution, with the Storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789 and the overthrow of the monarchy in September 1792.

ineteenth centur
1889 Universal Exposition.

Paris was occupied by Russian Cossack and Kalmyk cavalry units upon Napoleon"s defeat on the 31st of March 1814; this was the first time in 400 years that the city had been conquered by a foreign power. The ensuing Restoration period, or the return of the monarchy under Louis XVIII (1814–1824) and Charles X, ended with the July Revolution Parisian uprising of 1830. The new "constitutional monarchy" under Louis-Philippe ended with the 1848 "February Revolution" that led to the creation of the Second Republic.

Throughout these events, cholera epidemics in 1832 and 1849 affected the population of Paris; the 1832 epidemic alone claimed 20,000 of the then-population of 650,000.

The greatest development in Paris" history began with the Industrial Revolution creation of a network of railways that brought an unprecedented flow of migrants to the capital from the 1840s. The city"s largest transformation came with the 1852 Second Empire under Napoleon III; his "préfet" Haussmann levelled entire districts of Paris" narrow, winding medieval streets to create the network of wide avenues and neo-classical façades that still make much of modern Paris; the reason for this transformation was twofold, as not only did the creation of wide boulevards beautify and sanitize the capital, it also facilitated the effectiveness of troops and artillery against any further uprisings and barricades that Paris was so famous for.Jones, Colin (2005) "Paris: The Biography of a City" (New York, NY: Penguin Viking), pp. 318–319.

The Second Empire ended in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), and a besieged Paris under heavy bombardment surrendered on the 28th of January 1871. The discontent of Paris" populace with the new armistice-signing government seated in Versailles resulted in the creation of a Parisian "Commune" government, supported by an army in large part created from members of the City"s former National Guard, that would both continue resistance against the Prussians and oppose the government "Versaillais" army. The result was a bloody "Semaine Sanglante" that resulted in the death, many by summary execution, of roughly 20,000 "communards" before the fighting ended on May 28, 1871.In : "In March 1871 the Commune took power in the abandoned city and held it for two months. Then Versailles seized the moment to attack and, in one horrifying week, executed roughly 20,000 Communards or suspected sympathizers, a number higher than those killed in the recent war or during Robespierre’s ‘Terror’ of 1793–94. More than 7,500 were jailed or deported to places like New Caledonia. Thousands of others fled to Belgium, England, Italy, Spain and the United States. In 1872, stringent laws were passed that ruled out all possibilities of organizing on the left. Not till 1880 was there a general amnesty for exiled and imprisoned Communards. Meantime, the Third Republic found itself strong enough to renew and reinforce Louis Napoleon’s imperialist expansion—in Indochina, Africa, and Oceania. Many of France’s leading intellectuals and artists had participated in the Commune (Courbet was its quasi-minister of culture, Rimbaud and Pissarro were active propagandists) or were sympathetic to it. The ferocious repression of 1871 and after was probably the key factor in alienating these milieux from the Third Republic and stirring their sympathy for its victims at home and abroad." The ease at which the "Versaillais" army overtook Paris owed much to Baron Haussmann"s earlier renovations.

France"s late 19th-century Universal Expositions made Paris an increasingly important centre of technology, trade and tourism.Jones, Colin (2005) "Paris: The Biography of a City" (New York, NY: Penguin Viking), p. 334. Its most famous were the 1889 Universal Exposition to which Paris owes its "temporary" display of architectural engineering prowess, the Eiffel Tower, a structure that remained the world"s tallest building until 1930; the 1900 Universal Exposition saw the opening of the first Paris Métro line.

wentieth centur
Liberation of Paris in August 1944.

During World War I, Paris was at the forefront of the war effort, having been spared a German invasion by the French and British victory at the First Battle of the Marne in 1914. In 1918–1919, it was the scene of Allied victory parades and peace negotiations. In the inter-war period Paris was famed for its cultural and artistic communities and its nightlife. The city became a gathering place of artists from around the world, from exiled Russian composer Stravinsky and Spanish painters Picasso and Dalí to American writer Hemingway.Jones, Colin (2005) Paris: The Biography of a City (New York, NY: Penguin Viking), pp. 388–391 On 14 June 1940, five weeks after the start of the Battle of France, Paris fell to German occupation forces, who remained there until the city was liberated in August 1944 after a resistance uprising, two and a half months after the Normandy invasion. Central Paris endured World War II practically unscathed, as there were no strategic targets for Allied bombers (train stations in central Paris are terminal stations; major factories were located in the suburbs). Also, German General von Choltitz did not destroy all Parisian monuments before any German retreat, as ordered by Adolf Hitler, who had visited the city in 1940.

In the post-war era, Paris experienced its largest development since the end of the "Belle Époque" in 1914. The suburbs began to expand considerably, with the construction of large social estates known as "cités" and the beginning of the business district La Défense. A comprehensive express subway network, the RER, was built to complement the Métro and serve the distant suburbs, while a network of freeways was developed in the suburbs, centred on the "Périphérique" expressway circling around the city.

Since the 1970s, many inner suburbs of Paris (especially the north and eastern ones) have experienced deindustrialization, and the once-thriving "cités" have gradually become ghettos for immigrants and oases of unemployment. At the same time, the city of Paris (within its "Périphérique" expressway) and the western and southern suburbs have successfully shifted their economic base from traditional manufacturing to high-value-added services and high-tech manufacturing, generating great wealth for their residents whose per capita income is among the highest in Europe. The resulting widening social gap between these two areas has led to periodic unrest since the mid-1980s, such as the 2005 riots which largely concentrated in the north-eastern suburbs.

wenty-first centur
La Défense.

In order to alleviate social tensions in the inner suburbs and revitalise the metropolitan economy of Paris, several plans are currently underway. The office of Secretary of State for the Development of the Capital Region was created in March 2008 within the French government. Its office holder, Christian Blanc, is in charge of overseeing President Nicolas Sarkozy"s plans for the creation of an integrated "Grand Paris" ("Greater Paris") metropolitan authority (see Administration section below), as well as the extension of the subway network to cope with the renewed growth of population in Paris and its suburbs, and various economic development projects to boost the metropolitan economy such as the creation of a world-class technology and scientific cluster and university campus on the Saclay plateau in the southern suburbs.

In parallel, President Sarkozy also launched in 2008 an international urban and architectural competition for the future development of metropolitan Paris. Ten teams which bring together architects, urban planners, geographers, landscape architects will offer their vision for building a Paris metropolis of the 21st century in the Kyoto Protocol era and make a prospective diagnosis for Paris and its suburbs that will define future developments in Greater Paris for the next 40 years. The goal is not only to build an environmentally sustainable metropolis but also to integrate the inner suburbs with the central City of Paris through large-scale urban planning operations and iconic architectural projects.

Meanwhile, in an effort to boost the global economic image of metropolitan Paris, several skyscrapers ( and higher) have been approved since 2006 in the business district of La Défense, to the west of the city proper, and are scheduled to be completed by the early 2010s. Paris authorities also made public they are planning to authorise the construction of skyscrapers within the city proper by relaxing the cap on building height for the first time since the construction of the Tour Montparnasse in the early 1970s.

eograph
Paris seen from Spot Satellite


Paris is located in the north-bending arc of the river Seine and includes two islands, the Île Saint-Louis and the larger Île de la Cité, which form the oldest part of the city. Overall, the city is relatively flat, and the lowest elevation is above sea level. Paris has several prominent hills, of which the highest is Montmartre at .

Paris, excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, covers an oval measuring in area. The city"s last major annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form but created the twenty clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs). From the 1860 area of , the city limits were expanded marginally to in the 1920s. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes forest parks were officially annexed to the city, bringing its area to the present .

limat
Paris has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification "Cfb") and is affected by the North Atlantic Current, so the city rarely sees extremely high or low temperatures, such as the heat wave of 2003 and the cold wave of 2006.

Paris has warm and pleasant summers with average high temperatures of and low of . Winter is chilly, but temperature is around to , and rarely falls below the freezing point. Spring and autumn have mild to occasionally warm days and cool evenings. Rain falls throughout the year, and although Paris is not a very rainy city, it is known for sudden showers. Average annual precipitation is with light rainfall fairly distributed throughout the year. Snowfall is rare, but the city sometimes sees light snow or flurries without accumulation. The highest recorded temperature is on 28 July 1948, and the lowest is a on 10 December 1879.


|accessdate = 2009-01-06
}}

ityscap
Panoramic view over the western side of Paris, at dusk, from the top of the Tour Montparnasse.

rchitectur
7th arrondissement.
Much of contemporary Paris is the result of the vast mid-nineteenth century urban remodelling. For centuries, the city had been a labyrinth of narrow streets and half-timber houses, but, beginning in 1852, the Baron Haussmann"s urbanisation program involved leveling entire quarters to make way for wide avenues lined with neo-classical stone buildings of "bourgeoisie" standing. Most of this "new" Paris is the Paris we see today. The building code has seen few changes since, and the Second Empire plans are in many cases still followed. The "alignement" law is still in place, which regulates building facades of new constructions according to a pre-defined street width. A building"s height is limited according to the width of the streets it lines, and under the regulation, it is difficult to get an approval to build a taller building.

Many of Paris"s important institutions are located outside the city limit. The financial (La Défense) business district, the main food wholesale market (Rungis), schools ("École Polytechnique", HEC, ESSEC, INSEAD), research laboratories (in Saclay or Évry), the largest stadium (the "Stade de France"), and government offices (Ministry of Transportation) are located in the city"s suburbs.

istricts and historical centre
Place de la Concorde.
The Sacré-Cœur Basilica.
Galeries Lafayette department store in boulevard Haussmann

ity of Pari

* Place de la Bastille (4th, 11th and 12th arrondissements, right bank) is a district of great historical significance, not only for Paris, but for France, too. Because of its symbolic value, the square has often been a site of political demonstrations.
* Champs-Élysées (8th arrondissement, right bank) is a seventeenth century garden-promenade-turned-avenue connecting the Concorde and "Arc de Triomphe". It is one of the many tourist attractions and a major shopping street of Paris.
* Place de la Concorde (8th arrondissement, right bank) is at the foot of the Champs-Élysées, built as the "Place Louis XV", site of the infamous guillotine. The Egyptian obelisk is Paris" "oldest monument". On this place, on either side of the "Rue Royale", there are two identical stone buildings: The eastern one houses the French Naval Ministry, the western the luxurious "Hôtel de Crillon". Nearby Place Vendôme is famous for its fashionable and deluxe hotels (Hôtel Ritz and Hôtel de Vendôme) and its jewellers. Many famous fashion designers have had their salons in the square.
* Les Halles (1st arrondissement, right bank) was formerly Paris" central meat and produce market, and, since the late 1970s, a major shopping centre around an important metro connection station (Châtelet-Les Halles, the biggest in Europe). The past Les Halles was destroyed in 1971 and replaced by the Forum des Halles. The central market of Paris, the biggest wholesale food market in the world, was transferred to Rungis, in the southern suburbs.
* Le Marais (3rd and 4th arrondissements) is a trendy Right Bank district. It is architecturally very well-preserved, and some of the oldest houses and buildings of Paris can be found there. It is a very culturally open place.
* Avenue Montaigne (8th arrondissement), next to the Champs-Élysées, is home to luxury brand labels such as Chanel, Louis Vuitton (LVMH), Dior and Givenchy.
* Montmartre (18th arrondissement, right bank) is a historic area on the Butte, home to the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur. Montmartre has always had a history with artists and has many studios and cafés of many great artists in that area.
* Montparnasse (14th arrondissement) is a historic Left Bank area famous for artists" studios, music halls, and café life. The large Montparnasse - Bienvenüe "métro" station and the lone Tour Montparnasse skyscraper are located there.
* Avenue de l"Opéra (9th arrondissement, right bank) is the area around the Opéra Garnier and the location of the capital"s densest concentration of both department stores and offices. A few examples are the Printemps and Galeries Lafayette "grands magasins" (department stores), and the Paris headquarters of financial giants such as Crédit Lyonnais and American Express.
* Quartier Latin (5th and 6th arrondissements, left bank) is a twelfth-century scholastic centre formerly stretching between the Left Bank"s Place Maubert and the Sorbonne campus. It is known for its lively atmosphere and many bistros. Various higher-education establishments, such as the École Normale Supérieure, TELECOM ParisTech, and the Jussieu university campus, make it a major educational centre in Paris.
* Faubourg Saint-Honoré (8th arrondissement, right bank) is one of Paris" high-fashion districts, home to labels such as Hermès and Christian Lacroix.

Avenue des Champs-Élysées at Christmas 2008.

n the Paris are
* La Défense (straddling the communes of Courbevoie, Puteaux, and Nanterre, west of the city proper) is a key suburb of Paris and is one of the largest business centres in the world. Built at the western end of a westward extension of Paris" historical axis from the Champs-Élysées, La Défense consists mainly of business high-rises. Initiated by the French government in 1958, the district hosts of offices, making it the largest district in Europe specifically developed for business. The Grande Arche (Great Arch) of la Défense, which houses a part of the French Transports Minister"s headquarters, ends the central Esplanade, around which the district is organised.Val de Seine
* Plaine Saint-Denis (straddling the communes of Saint-Denis, Aubervilliers, and Saint-Ouen, immediately north of the 18th arrondissement, across the "Périphérique" ring road) is a former derelict manufacturing area that has undergone large-scale urban renewal in the last 10 years. It now hosts the Stade de France, around which is being built the new business district of LandyFrance
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 16.12.2017 17:50 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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