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"Palermo" (, Sicilian: "Palermu", , from , "Panormos") is a historic cy in Southern Italy, the capal of the autonomous region Sicily and the . The cy is noted for s rich history, culture, archecture and gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of s existence; is over 2,700 years old. Palermo is located in the north west of the island of Sicily, right by the Gulf of Palermo in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

The cy was founded by the Phoenicians, but named by the Ancient Greeks as "Panormus" meaning "all-port". Palermo became part of the Roman Republic and eventually part of the Byzantine Empire, for over a thousand years. For a brief period was under Arab rule during the Emirate of Sicily where first became a capal. Following the Norman reconquest, Palermo would become capal of a new kingdom from 1130 to 1816, the Kingdom of Sicily. Eventually would be uned wh the Kingdom of Naples to form the Two Sicilies until the Italian unification of 1860.

The population of the Palermo urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 855,285, while s metropolan area is the fifth most populated in Italy wh around 1.2 million people. In the central area, the cy self has a population of around 670 thousand people, the inhabants are known as "Palermans" or poetically "panormi", the languages spoken by s inhabants are the Italian language and the Sicilian dialect.

Palermo is Sicily"s cultural, economic and touristic capal. It is a cy rich in history, culture, art, music and food, and numerous tourists are attracted to the cy for s good Mederranean weather, s renowned gastronomy and restaurants, s Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque churches, palaces and buildings, and s nightlife and music Palermo is the main Sicily"s industrial and commercial center: the main industrial sectors include tourism, services, commerce and agriculture Palermo currently has an international airport, and a significant underground economy.

The religion of Roman Catholicism is highly important in Palerman culture, the patron saint of the cy is Saint Rosalia, her feast day on July 15 is perhaps the biggest social event in the cy. The area attracts significant amounts of tourists each year and is widely known for s colourful fru, vegetable and fish market at the heart of Palermo known as the "Vucciria".


ncient er
Ancient Sicani cave art at Addaura.
Evidence for human settlement in the area now known as Palermo goes back to the Pleistocene Epoch, around 8000 BC. This evidence is present in the form of cave drawings at nearby Addaura crafted by the Sicani, who according to Thucydides arrived from the Iberian Peninsula (perhaps Catalonia). During 734 BC the Phoenicians, a sea trading peoples from the north of ancient Canaan built a small settlement on the natural habour of Palermo, some sources suggest they named the settlement "Ziz." The Greeks, who were the most dominant culture on the island of Sicily due to the powerful cy state of Syracuse to the east, instead called the settlement "Panormus". Its Greek name means "all-port" and was named as so because of s fine natural harbour. Palermo was then passed on to the Phoenician"s descendants and successors, in the form of the Carthaginians.

During this period was a centre of commerce; however a power struggle between the Greeks and the Carthaginians broke out in the form of the Sicilian Wars, causing unrest. It was from Palermo that Hamilcar"s fleet which was defeated at the Battle of Himera was launched. Palermo eventually became a Greek colony when Pyrrhus of Epirus gained during the Pyrrhic War period in 276 BC. However as the Romans flooded into Sicily during the First Punic War, the cy became under Roman rule only three decades later. The Romans made sure that, in the words of Roman consul M. Valerian to the Roman Senate; "no Carthaginian remains in Sicily". This period was que a calm time for Palermo, which was growing into an important Roman trade centre, also during this period Christiany first began to be practised in Palermo.

he Middle Age
San Giovanni degli Eremi, domes show elements of Arab archecture.

As the Roman Empire was falling apart, Palermo fell under the control of several Germanic tribes; first were the Vandals in 440 AD under the rule of their king Geiseric. The Vandals had already invaded other parts of Western Europe establishing themselves as a significant force. However, they soon lost these newly acquired possessions to another East Germanic tribe in the form of the Goths. The Ostrogothic conquest under Theodoric the Great began in 488; although the Goths were Germanic, Theodoric sought to revive Roman culture and government instead. The Gothic War took place between the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire. Sicily was the first part of Italy to be taken under General Belisarius who was commissioned by Eastern Emperor Justinian I who solidified his rule in the following years.

Cappella Palatina, decorated wh Norman, Byzantine and Arabic influences.

After the Byzantines were betrayed by admiral Euphemius, who fled to Tunisia and begged the Aghlabid leader Ziyadat Allah to help him there was a Muslim conquest of Sicily, putting in place the Emirate of Sicily. The Arab rulers allowed the natives freedom of religion on the condion that they paid a tax. Although their rule was short in time, was then that Palermo (Balharm during Arab rule) displaced Syracuse as the prime cy of Sicily; was said to have competed wh Córdoba and Cairo in terms of importance and splendor. The Arabs also introduced many agricultural ems which remain a mainstay of Sicilian cuisine. After dynasty related quarrels however, there was a Christian reconquest in the form of the Normans from the Duchy of Normandy, descendants of the Vikings; the family who returned the cy to Christiany were called the Hautevilles . Palermo was conquered in 831 by Arabs from North Africa and became the capal of the Arabian Emirate of Sicily until 1072 where was back under Christian rule due largely to the efforts of Robert Guiscard and his army, who is regarded as a hero by the natives.Appleton, "The World in the Middle Ages", 100. For more than two hundred years Palermo, was the capal of a flourishing Islamic civilisation in Sicily.Joseph Strayer, "Dictionary of the Middle Ages", Scribner, 1987, t.9, p.352 By 1050, Palermo had a population of 350,000, making one of the largest cies in Europe, second only to Islamic Spain"s capal Cordoba, which had a population of 450,000.

It was under Roger II of Sicily that his holdings of Sicily and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula were promoted, from the County of Sicily into the Kingdom of Sicily; the kingdom was ruled from Palermo as s capal, wh the king"s court held at Palazzo dei Normanni. Much construction was undertaken during this period, such as the building of the Palermo Cathedral. The Kingdom of Sicily became one of the wealthiest states in Europe, as wealthy as the fellow Norman state, the Kingdom of England. Though the cy"s population had dropped to 150,000, became the largest cy in Europe, due to the larger decline in Cordoba"s population.

Sicily in 1194 fell under the control of the Holy Roman Empire. Palermo was the preferred cy of the Emperor Frederick II. Muslims of Palermo were migrated and expelled during Holy Roman rule. After an interval of Angevin rule (1266–1282), Sicily came under the house of Aragon. By 1330, Palermo"s population had declined to 51,000. From 1479, was ruled by the Kingdom of Spain until 1713 and between 1717–1718. Palermo was also managed by Savoy between 1713–1717 and 1718–1720 and Austria between 1720–1734.

wo Sicilies and Italian unificatio
Sicily"s unification (1734) wh the Bourbon-ruled Kingdom of Naples as the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies inflicted a devastating blow on the ele of Palermo, as the cy was reduced to just another provincial cy, the royal court residing in Naples. Palermo rebelled in 1848 and held out against the Neapolan crown until May 1849.

The Italian "Risorgimento" and Sicily"s annexation (1860) to the Kingdom of Italy gave Palermo a second chance. It was once again the administrative centre of Sicily, and there was a certain economic and industrial development. In the second half of the 19th century Palermo expanded beyond the historical centre, especially towards Via della Libertá. Monumental public buildings were erected and a new thoroughfare was cut into the dense old town, called Via Roma. The cy was one of the main centres of Art Nouveau style in Italy.

During the Allied invasion of Sicily in July 1943 the cy suffered heavy damage.

The importance of Palermo got another boost when Sicily became (1947) an autonomous region wh extended self-rule. But any improvement was thwarted by the rising power of the Mafia, which still today is a dramatic feature of the cy, as well as the whole Southern Italy.

Quarters of Palermo

Shown above are the thirty five quarters of Palermo: these thirty five neighbourhoods or "quartiere" as they are known, are further divided into eight governmental communy boards.

Palermo experiences a hot-summer Mederranean climate (Koppen climate classification: "Csa"). Winters are mild and wet, while Summers are warm to hot, and dry. Palermo is one of the warmest cies in the Mederranean, wh an average annual ambient air temperature of 20°C. It receives approximately 2530 hours of sunshine per year.

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ain sight

Panoramic view of Palermo from Monte Pellegrino.

Palermo has a large archectural herage and is notable for s many Norman buildings.


Palermo Cathedral.

San Cataldo"s Church.

Chiesa della Martorana

* Palermo Cathedral
* San Giovanni dei Lebbrosi
* San Giovanni degli Eremi
* Chiesa della Martorana
* San Cataldo
* Santa Maria della Gancia
* Santa Maria della Catena
* San Giuseppe dei Teatini
* Oratorio di San Lorenzo
* Oratorio del Rosario
* Santa Teresa alla Kalsa, that derives s name from Al-Khalisa, an Arab term meaning "elected". The church, constructed in 1686–1706 over the former emir"s residence, is one of the most outstanding examples of Sicilian Baroque. It has a single, airy nave, wh stucco decorations from the early 18th century.
*Santa Maria dello Spasimo was built in 1506 and later turned into a hospal. For this temple Raphael painted his famous "Sicilia"s Spasimo", now in the Museo del Prado of Madrid. The church today is a fascinating air-open ruin, which occasionally houses exhibions and musical shows.
*the Church of the Jesus ("Chiesa del Gesù") was built by the Jesus in the centre of the cy from 1564, over a pre-existing convent of Basilian monks. The edifice was further enlarged starting from 1591, becoming one of the most relevant examples of Sicilian Baroque, though retaining some severe late Renaissance fashion. The church was heavily damaged after the 1943 bombings, which destroyed most of the frescoes. The interior has a Latin cross plan wh a nave and two aisles, characterized by a particularly rich decoration of marbles, tarsias and stuccoes, especially in the St. Anne"s Chapel. At the right is the Casa Professa, wh a 1685 portal and a precious 18th century cloister. The Church of the Jesus is home to the Municipal Library, placede here in 1775.
*The church of St. Francis of Assisi, erected in what was once the market district of the cy. It was built between 1255 and 1277 in the se of two pre-existing churches and was largely renovated in the 15th, 16th, 18th and 19th centuries, the latter after an earthquake. After the 1943 bombings, the church was restored to s Mediaeval appearance, which now includes part of the original building such as part of the right side, the apses and the Gothic portal in the façade. The interior has a typical Gothic flavour, wh a nave and two aisles separated by two rows of cylindrical pilasters. Some of the chapels are in Renaissance style, as well as the late 16th century side portals. The church includes precious sculptures by Antonio and Giacomo Gagini and Francesco Laurana, plus a noteworthy wooden choir dating from the 16th century. Of note are also the allegorical statues by Giacomo Serpotta (1723), also author of the stucco decoration.
*The church of the Magione (officially church of the Holy Triny), an ancient example of Norman archecture. The church was founded in 1191 by Matteo d"Ajello, who donated to the Cistercian monks.

alaces and museum

Palazzo dei Normanni, seat of the Sicilian Regional Assembly.

* Palazzo dei Normanni, one of the most beautiful Italian palaces and a notable example of Norman archecture, probably built over an Arab fortress. It houses the famous Cappella Palatina.
* Zisa (1160) and Cuba, magnificent castles/houses used by the kings of Palermo for hunting. Similar buildings were common in northern Africa, but today these two are the only ones remaining. The Zisa houses the Islamic museum. The Cuba was once encircled by water.
* Palazzo Chiaramonte
* Palazzo Abatellis, wh the Regional Gallery. It was built at the end of the 15th century for the prefect of the cy, Francesco Abatellis. It is a massive though elegant construction, in typical Catalan Gothic style, wh Renaissance influences. The Gallery houses an Eleonora of Aragon bust by Francesco Laurana (1471) and the "Malvagna Triptych" (c. 1510), by Jan Gossaert and the famous "Annunziata" by Antonello da Messina. The exposion in the museum has been designed by the archect Carlo Scarpa.
* The Museo Archeologico Regionale is one the main museums of Italy: includes numerous remains from Etruscan, Carthaginian, Roman and Hellenistic civilizations. It houses all the decorative parts from the Sicilian temples of Segesta and Selinunte.

pera house

Teatro Massimo opera house.

*The Teatro Massimo ("Greatest Theatre") was opened in 1897. Closed for renovation from 1974 until 1997, is now carefully restored and has an active schedule. Enrico Caruso sang in a performance of "La Gioconda" during the opening season, returning for "Rigoletto" at the very end of his career. It is the largest theater in Italy and the third largest in Europe (8000 sm) .
*The Teatro Poleama was built between 1867 and 1874.

* Quattro Canti is a small square at the crossing of the ancient main roads (now: Corso Vtorio Emanuele and Via Maqueda) dividing the town into s quarters ("mandamenti"). The buildings at the corner have diagonal baroque facades so that the square gets an almost octagonal form.
* Piazza Pretoria was planned in the 16th century near the Quattro Canti as the se of a fountain by Francesco Camilliani, the Fontana Pretoria.

ther sight

Palermo Botanical Garden: the Winter Garden greenhouses.

The cathedral has a heliometer (solar "observatory") of 1690, one of a number built in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries. The device self is que simple: a tiny hole in one of the minor domes acts as Pinhole camera, projecting an image of the sun onto the floor at solar noon (12:00 in winter, 13:00 in summer). There is a bronze line, "la Meridiana " on the floor, running precisely N/S. The ends of the line mark the posions as at the summer and winter solstices; signs of the zodiac show the various other dates throughout the year.

The purpose of the instrument was to standardise the measurement of time and the calendar. The convention in Sicily had been that the (24 hour) day was measured from the moment of sun-rise, which of course meant that no two locations had the same time and, more importantly, did not have the same time as in St. Peter"s Basilica in Rome. It was also important to know when the Vernal Equinox occurred, to provide the correct date for Easter.

The Orto botanico di Palermo, founded in 1785, is the largest in Italy wh a surface of 10 ha.

One se of interest is the Capuchin Catacombs, wh many mummified corpses in varying degrees of preservation.

Close to the cy is the 600 m-high Monte Pellegrino, offering a panorama of the cy, s surrounding mountains and the sea.


In 2007, there were 666,552 people residing in Palermo (in which 1 million live in the greater Palermo area), of whom 47.6% were male and 52.4% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 21.64 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 16.54 percent. This compares wh the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Palermo resident is 37 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Palermo declined by 2.92 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The reason for Palermo"s decline is a population flight to the suburbs, and Northern Italy. The current birth rate of Palermo is 10.75 births per 1,000 inhabants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2006, 97.79% of the population was of Sicilian/Italian descent. The largest immigrant group came from South Asia (mostly from Sri Lanka): 0.80%, other European countries (mostly from Albania, Romania,Serbia, Macedonia and Ukraine,): 0.3%, and North Africa (mostly from Tunisia): 0.28%.http://demo.istat./str2006/dati/

Palermo has s own football team, U.S. Ctà di Palermo, playing in Italian Serie A and in UEFA Cup first round of the 2007–2008 season. The chairman is Maurizio Zamparini and the coach is Delio Rossi.
The Targa Florio was an open road endurance car race held near Palermo. Founded in 1906, used to be one of the oldest sports car racing events until was discontinued in 1977 due to safety concerns but has since run as a rallying event.

Palermo was home to the grand depart of the 2008 Giro d"Italia. The inial stage was a 28.5 km long TTT (Team Time Trial) held on May 10.

Internazionali Femminili di Palermo is a WTA Tour Tier IV tournament in Palermo.


Being Sicily"s administrative capal, Palermo is home to much of the region"s main economic, financial, touristic and commercial life. The cy currently hosts an international airport, and Palermo"s economic growth over the years has brought to the opening of many new businesses and entrepreneurial opportunies. The economy mainly relies on tourism and services, but also commerce, shipbuilding, trade and agriculture. The cy, however, still has high unemployment levels, high corruption and a significant black market empire (Palermo being the home of the Sicilian Mafia). Even though the cy still suffers from widespread corruption, inefficient bureaucracy and organized crime (Mafia), Palermo"s crime level has gone down dramatically, unemployment has been decreasing and many new, profable, strategies (especially regarding tourism) have been introduced, making the cy safer and better to live in.

atron saint

The patron saint of Palermo is Santa Rosalia, who is still widely venerated.
On 14 July, people in Palermo celebrate the "Festino", the most important religious event of the year. The Festino is a procession in the main street of Palermo to remember the miracle attributed to Santa Rosalia who, is believed, freed the cy from the Black Death in 1624. The cave where the bones of Santa Rosalia were discovered is on Monte Pellegrino (see above): when her relics were carried around the cy three times, the plague was lifted. There is a Santuario marking the spot and can be reached via a scenic bus ride from the cy below.

Before 1624 Palermo had four patron saints, one for each of the four major parts of the cy. They were Saint Agatha, Saint Christina, Saint Ninfa and Saint Olivia.

Saint Lucy is also honoured wh a peculiar celebration, during which inhabants of Palermo do not eat anything made wh flour, but boil wheat in s natural state and use to prepare a special dish called cuccìa. This commemorates the saving of the cy from famine through the intercession of St Lucia. A ship full of grain mysteriously arrived in the cy"s harbour and the population was so hungry that they did not waste time in making flour but ate the grain as had arrived.

Palermo International Airport, also known as Falcone-Borsellino Airport, Punta Raisi Airport: dedicated to Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, two anti-mafia judges killed by the mafia in early 1990s, is located 32 km (19 miles) west of Palermo (Punta Raisi).

The airport can also be reached by trains departing from the railway station of Palermo Centrale, Palermo Notarbartolo and Palermo Francia.

Palermo-Boccadifalco Airport is the second airport of the cy.

win towns – Sister cie
Palermo is twinned wh:

* Palermo, Colombia
* Bizerte, Tunisia
* Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo
* Chengdu, China
* Timişoara, Romania
* Gdańsk, Poland
* Miami, USA
* Monterey, Canada
* Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
* Tblisi, Georgia
* Yaroslavl, Russia

ee als
*List of mayors of Palermo
*Sack of Palermo
*Hugo Falcandus
*U.S. Ctà di Palermo
*Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor




External links

* (In Italian)
* (In Italian and German)
* useful information for visors (in English)

Category:Coastal cies and towns in Italy
Category:Mederranean port cies and towns in Italy
Category:Municipalies of the

Category:Phoenician colonies in Sicily
Category:Settlements established in the 8th century BC

fy:Palermo (stêd)
nl:Palermo (stad)
tl:Lungsod ng Palermo
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 26.09.2022 12:16 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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