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Finland, Oulu
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|native_name =
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|image_skyline = Uleåborg 2004-04-24.jpg
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|map_caption = Location of Oulu in Finland
|region = Northern Ostrobothnia
|subregion = Oulu sub-region
|leader_title = City manager
|leader_name = Matti Pennanen
|leader_title1 =
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|established_title = Charter
|established_date = 1605-04-08
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"Oulu" (pronounced ; , literally “Ule River Fort”) is a city and municipality of }} inhabitants ( }}) in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, in Finland. It is the largest city in Northern Finland and the sixth largest city in the country. Its population growth rate is almost comparable with that of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. Oulu has a namesake in the USA (Oulu, Wisconsin, which is a village with a population of about 540).

Oulu was founded on April 8, 1605, by King Charles IX of Sweden opposite to the fort built on the island of Linnansaari. This took place after favourable peace settlements with the Russians, which removed the threat of attack via the main east-west waterway, the river Oulu. The surrounding areas were populated much earlier. Oulu is situated by the Gulf of Bothnia, at the mouth of river Oulujoki, which is an ancient trading site. One possible source for the name Oulu is a word in the Sami language meaning "flood water", but there are other suggestions. Oulu was the capital of the Province of Oulu from 1776 to 2009.

Drawing of central Oulu from the 19th Century.

In 1822, a major fire destroyed much of the city. The architect Carl Ludvig Engel, chiefly known for the neoclassical (empire style) buildings around Helsinki Senate Square, was enlisted to provide the plan for the rebuilding of the city. With minor changes, this plan remains the basis for the layout of Oulu"s town center. The Oulu Cathedral was built in 1832 to his designs, with the spire being finished in 1844.

From being a town known for wood tar and salmon in the past, Oulu has evolved into a major centre of competence in the field of high technology, particularly IT and wellness technology. Other prominent industries include wood refining as well as paper and steel industry. The University of Oulu is located six kilometres north of the city center. The Oulu Airport, located in neighbouring municipality of Oulunsalo, is the second busiest in Finland.

The municipality of Ylikiiminki was consolidated with the city of Oulu on January 1, 2009.


ultural lif

The cultural life in Oulu is rich and varied. The best known cultural exports of the city of Oulu are Air Guitar World Championships, Mieskuoro Huutajat (also known as Screaming Men), and the now defunct metal band Sentenced. Oulu is home to the most northerly architecture school in the world. The school is best known for its strong regionalistic ideas for developing architecture. This movement is named "the Oulu school" ("Oulun koulu") of architecture.

There are many artists, writers and musicians resident in the city. A variety of concerts, both rock, classical music, and jazz, as well as other cultural events take place each year; for example, Oulu Music Video Festival – the host of the Air Guitar World Championships and Musixine Music Film Competition – in August, annual rock festival Qstock in July, the Oulu Music Festival in winter, the Oulunsalo Music Festival in summer, The Irish Festival of Oulu in October and the International Children"s Film Festival in November. Many people who have made a significant contribution to the cultural and political life of Finland have been born or have lived in Oulu, for example, the composer Leevi Madetoja, and the writer Paavo Rintala. Three former Presidents of the country, Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg, Kyösti Kallio and Martti Ahtisaari also went to school there, attending the Oulu Lyceum.

City Hall.
View over the river Oulu towards Tuira from Hupisaaret park. Water power plant can be seen on the right side. Tuira is one of the largest districts of Oulu with almost 7000 inhabitants.
*, a science center with over 150 exhibits
*Ainola Park, formerly a university botanical garden before the university was moved to Linnanmaa
*The Rapids Center, the area in the estuary of the Oulu river consisting of small islands connected with bridges, fountains in the middle of the river, and including a housing area of building blocks planned by Alvar Aalto
*Rotuaari pedestrian street
*The Market Square with the City Library, the City Theatre and old salt and tar storehouses
*Mannerheim Park
*The Oulu Cathedral
*Hupisaaret, a large park area located in the estuary of the Oulu river
*The F. M. Franzen memorial
*The Northern Ostrobothnia museum
*The Pateniemi Sawmill Museum
*The Vehicle Museum
*The University of Oulu Botanical Garden (situated in Linnanmaa)
*The Oulu Art Museum
*The Arctic Gallery
*Technopolis, the technology village
*Turkansaari () (historical outdoor museum)

ther points of interes
Railway station area in Oulu, looking southwest along Hallituskatu.
Mannerheim Park is a favourite hangout place for many.
*Oulu Music Video Festival
*Air Guitar World Championships
*Qstock Rock Festival ()
*Jalometalli Metal Music Festival
*Jalometalli Winterfest
*The Irish Festival of Oulu ()
*Oulu City Theatre ()
*Madetoja Hall, housing the Oulu Music Centre () the residence of the Oulu Symphony Orchestra
*Oulu Children"s Theatre Festival ()
*The University of Oulu
*Oulu Hall (a large indoor sports facility consisting of a low dome, which looks somewhat like a landed flying saucer)
*Nallikari Recreational Centre (with sandy beach and camping grounds)
*Eden Hotel & Spa (in Nallikari)
* event in late May (since 1989)
*The Terva-skiing event in early March (since 1889)
*The Oulu Horse Show
*The American Car Show
*The Winter Swimming World Championship
*Oulu University of Applied Sciences (formerly Oulu Polytechnic)

Oulu is served by Oulu Airport, the second biggest airport in Finland by passenger volume. There are non-stop scheduled flights to Helsinki-Vantaa Airport (around 18 daily flights with Finnair and Blue1) and Rovaniemi Airport (1 daily with Finnair) as well as charter flights to Southern Europe, Canary Isles and Phuket in Thailand.

In October 2007, Air Baltic begun flying to Oulu Airport, offering a direct connection to its main hub Riga International Airport in Latvia, and connecting flights to airports in most European countries.

Oulu Airport is located in the neighbouring county of Oulunsalo, from the city centre. It can be reached by bus number 19 from the centre of the city and Technopolis.

Port of Oulu is one of the busiest harbours within the Bothnian Bay. Port of Oulu includes four separate harbour areas: Vihreäsaari oil and bulk docks, Nuottasaari docks, Oritkari docks and the Toppila docks.

The shortest travel time from Oulu Railway Station to Helsinki Central Railway Station is 5 h 44 mins, operated by VR. There are also night trains with beds taking 8–11 hours; the newest night train cars are double deckers and have showers and toilets in the cabins. Other destinations include, for instance, Kolari, Rovaniemi, Seinäjoki and Tampere.

The most important road in Oulu is highway 4 (E8/E75) that runs from Helsinki to Utsjoki via Lahti, Jyväskylä, Oulu, Kemi and Rovaniemi. Other highways running to and from Oulu are highway 20 to Kuusamo and highway 22 to Kajaani.

Distances to other Finnish cities:

As of December 31, 2005, the active working population was employed as follows:

In 2008, the most important employers were:

Stora Enso has an important paper manufacturing plant in Oulu.

Kärpät wins gold after beating Jokerit in 2005 Final.
The Oulu ice hockey team Kärpät have won the Finnish Elite League (SM-Liiga) Championship title five times (1981, 2004, 2005, 2007, and 2008). They have also been the runner-up in the European Champions Cup twice, in 2005 and 2006.

Oulu has 2 teams in the highest bandy division. Oulun Luistinseura, OLS, has become Finnish champions 14 times,Video from the victory 2008: and Oulun Palloseura, OPS, 7 times. In 2001 the city was the main venue for the Bandy World Championships.

event in late May (since 1989)

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Oulu is twinned with:
* Boden, Sweden "(since 1948)"
* Bursa, Turkey "(since 1978)"
* Halle, Germany "(since 1968)"
* Leverkusen, Germany "(since 1968)"
* Odessa, Ukraine "(since 1957)"
* Siófok, Hungary "(since 1978)"

Friendship cities
* Sendai, Japan (since 2005)

See also
*Chamber for Assistance of Finns and Foreigners (Oulu)


External links

* – Official website


Category:Cities and towns in Finland
Category:Municipalities of Northern Ostrobothnia Region

be:Горад Оўлу
et:Oulu linn
el:Όουλου (πόλη)
la:Uloa (urbs)
nl:Oulu (stad)
sk:Oulu (mesto)
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 18.05.2022 04:50 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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