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Russia, Orsk
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"Orsk" () is a city in Orenburg Oblast, Russia, situated in the southern Urals. The city straddles the Ural River. Since this river is considered a boundary between Europe and Asia, Orsk can be said to lie in two continents. It is served by Orsk Airport. Population: 251,900 (2007 est.);

Orsk is the second largest city in Orenburg Oblast. The mayor of the city is Yuri Alexandrovich Berg, who was elected in October 2005.

Orsk was founded in 1735 in the process of the Russian colonization of the Southern Ural region. The first settlement was founded by an expedition headed by Ivan Kirilov as a military fortification at the Mount Preobrazhenskaya on the left bank of the Yaik River (presently Ural River). Originally called "Orenburg", the Orsk fortress gave the Ural river the significance of the borderline of the Russian state. In 1739, the fortress was officially renamed to Orsk. It housed an exchange post and Russian customs that dealt with traders from Kazakhstan and Asia.

From June 22, 1847 to May 11, 1848 the fortress of Orsk was home of the exiled Ukrainian poet and painter Taras Shevchenko. In 1861, the fortress was decommissioned and became a station of the Orenburg Cossack army. In 1865, Orsk was granted the city status and became the provincial center of the Orenburg region.

The city grew dramatically starting from the 1870s. The population was mainly occupied with trade in cattle and grain, reprocessing of agricultural products, and various arts and crafts. Many women were involved in the business of weaving famous Orenburg shawls. By 1913, the population of Orsk was over 21,000, and by 1917 there were eleven churches and minarets, and sixteen educational facilities of various types and levels. During the Russian Civil War, from 1918 to 1919, Orsk withstood a three-month long blockade and then four times changed hands between warring sides.

In the 1930s began the construction of large industrial enterprises that drew their resources from the mineral rich soils of the region. One of the most notable stones excavated within the Orsk city line in the Mount Polkovnik is jasper. Orsk jasper is revered for its variety of natural designs and colors. All colors except for blue are represented in this stone.

Orsk is the most important industrial center of Orenburg Oblast. The main industries are metallurgy, machine building, petroleum chemistry, food and light industries. Most important enterprises are "Yuzhuralnikel", "Orsknefteorgsintez", and "Yuzhuralmashzavod".

There is one major institute in Orsk: Orsk" humanitary-technological institute. There are also a number of different schools and colleges, State Drama Theater, Museum of Local history, Laboratory of Archeological Studies, Children’s Art Gallery, Children’s Folk Theater "Blue Bird", and a municipal brass band.

Some of the peculiar landmarks of industrial Orsk are forty archeological monuments including ancient settlements, mass and single grave sites. Those that have been excavated became famous in the scientific world. For instance, grave sites in Kumak, that date back to the Bronze Age provide convincing evidence to the hypothesis of Eastern European roots of Indo-European peoples.

In the grave sites that date back to the early Iron Age (6th–7th centuries BCE) left by "savromatian" or "sormatian" tribes scientists found many ancient items including a clay vessel bearing the name of the Persian ruler Artakserks I, the sixth such vessel found in the world.


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be:Горад Орск
pl:Orsk (miasto)
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 22.01.2019 22:57 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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