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Russia, Orenburg
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"Orenburg" () is a city on the Ural River and the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast in the Volga Federal District of Russia. It lies 1,478 km southeast of Moscow, very close to the border with Kazakhstan. Population: 542,700 (2005 est.); 549,361 (2002 Census). Highest point: 154.4 m. International dialing code: +7 (3532). Postal code: 460000. As of 2006, the mayor of the city is Yuri Meshcheryakov.


A city street in Orenburg
The Russian Empire began plans for the construction of an eastern frontier fortress town in the southern Ural region to be named "Orenburg" in 1734. The colonists originally founded a settlement in 1735 at the confluence of the Ural River with the Or River. The town"s name meant "fortress near the Or," as "Burg" is German for fortress. This settlement changed its name in 1739 to Orsk. An attempt was made to found another Orenburg at a location called Krasnogor, or "Red Hill," in 1741, but this settlement failed. A third Orenburg was successfully established by Ivan Neplyuyev at its present location approximately 250 km down the Ural from Orsk in 1743.

This third Orenburg functioned as an important military outpost on the frontier with the nomadic Kazakhs. It became the center for the Orenburg Cossacks.

Orenburg played a major role in the rebellion of Pugachev (1773–1774). At the time, it was the capital of a vast district and the seat of the governor. Pugachev besieged the city and its fortress from nearby Berda from October 1773 - March 26, 1774. The defense was organized by lieutenant-general Reinsdorp. General Golytsin defeated Pugachev at Berda, and later again at Kargala (north of Orenburg). Most of the city was left in ruins, and thousands of inhabitants had died in the siege.

The famous Russian writer Alexander Pushkin visited Orenburg in 1833 during a research trip for his books "The History of Pugachev" and his famous novel "The Captain"s Daughter". He met his friend Vladimir Dahl here, who would later write the first serious dictionary of the Russian language.

Orenburg was the base for General Perovsky"s expeditions against the Khanate of Khiva in the 1830s through 1850s. After the incorporation of Central Asia into the Russian Empire, Orenburg became a trading station and, since the completion of the Trans-Aral Railway, a prominent railway junction on route to the new Central Asian possessions and to Siberia.

Orenburg functioned as the capital of the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (in present-day Kazakhstan) within Russia from 1920–1925. When that republic was renamed Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1925, Orenburg joined Russia and Qyzylorda became the new capital. Alma-Ata became the capital in 1929 after the construction of the Turksib railway. Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was promoted to the union republic status as the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic Kazakh SSR in 1936. Orenburg remained in Russia.

From 1938 to 1957, the city bore the name "Chkalov" () (after the test pilot Valery Chkalov). The city"s distance from the German invasion during World War II led many Soviet enterprises to flee there, helping in the city"s economic growth.
Map of Orenburg

Orenburg is a home for several large companies or their subsidiaries: "Orenburggazprom", the subsidiary of Gazprom; "Orenburgneft", the subsidiary of TNK-BP oil company; "Orenburgenergy", one of the biggest energy generating companies in Russia.

Orenburg has been a major railroad center ever since the Samara-Zlatoust (:ru:Самаро-Златоустовская железная дорога) and Orenburg-Tashkent railroads were completed, respectively in 1876 and 1905.

Orenburg"s main airport is Orenburg Tsentralny Airport, located about 25 km east of the city, and is the headquarters of Orenair.

niversities and College
*Orenburg State University (
Established in 1955 as a Branch of Kuibyshev Polytechnical Institute (currently Samara State Technical University). It was transformed to the Orenburg Polytechnical Institute in 1971. In 1994 it was named as Orenburg State Technical University. Gained status of university in 1996. Currently, there are 18 Faculties, 3 Research & Development institutes, 4 Regional Branches, technology incubator “OSU Technopark”, botanic garden, meteorological station, sport complex.
*Orenburg State Medical Academy
Established in 1944 as Chkalov State Medical Institute. It was renamed to Orenburg State Medical Institute in 1957 (at that time Orenburg city regained its original name after been named Chkalov from 1937 till 1957). Gained status of academy in 1994. Currently there are 8 Faculties: Medicine, Pediatric, Stomatology (Dentistry), Pharmacy, Clinical Psychology, Nursing, Public Health (Медико-профилактический), Continuing Education.
*Orenburg State Pedagogical University (
Established in 1919 as Institute of Public Education. Renamed to Pedagogical Institute in 1930. Transformed to Pedagogical University in 1996. There are 10 Faculties and 4 Research Institutes.
*Orenburg State Agrarian University (
Established in 1930 as Orenburg Agricultural Institute. It was transformed to Orenburg State Agricultural Academy in 1992. Since 1995 named as Orenburg State Agrarian University. There are 8 Faculties and 4 Institutes.
*Orenburg Branch of Moscow State Law Academy (
*Orenburg Branch of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas
*Orenburg Campus of Russian State University of Trade and Economics
*Orenburg State Institute of Management (

*Orenburg Regional Museum of History and Natural Science
*Orenburg Regional Museum of Art
*Museum of Orenburg History
*Memorial Apartment of Yuri and Valentina Gagarin
*Memorial Apartment of Leopold and Mstislav Rostropovich
*Memorial Apartment of T.G. Shevchenko
*Orenburg City Memorial House

*Orenburg State Dramatic Theater named after Maxim Gorky
*Orenburg State Regional Musical Theater
*Orenburg State Tatar Dramatic Theater
*Orenburg State Regional Puppet Theater
*Orenburg Municipal Puppet Theater "Pierrot"

Orenburg is a home to Municipal Chamber Choir and Orenburg State Academic Russian Folk Choir.

Lokomotiv plays in the highest division of the Russian Bandy League.

Mountain and river tourism is developed in the region. There are a number of fast mountain rivers and rocks in pleated spurs of the southern edge of the Urals range, popular with tourists.

The city is famous for its down Orenburg shawls. The thinnest lacy design, knitted by hand shawls and cobweb-like kerchiefs (pautinkas), is not only warm, but also is used for decorative purposes.
Orenburg Railway Station

A famous boulevard on the embankment of the Ural River is one of the most notable places in Orenburg.

Orenburg TV Tower is a guyed mast of unusual design. It is a 200 metres tall mast equipped with 6 crossbars running from the mast structure to the guys .
Eternal Fire

otable Past Resident
*Ivan Andreyevich Krylov (1769-1844) Russia"s best known fabulist.
*Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky (1794—1857) Prominent Russian statesman, Count, Governor of Orenburg Province from 1833-1842 and 1851-1857.
*Vladimir Dahl (1801-1872) One of the greatest Russian lexicographers. Member of Russian Academy of Science.
*Yevgraf Fyodorov (1853-1919) Mathematician, crystallographer, and mineralogist. Known for his contribution to the Group theory. Member of Russian Academy of Science.
*Joseph Kessel (1898–1979) French journalist and novelist.
*Musa Cälil (1906-1944) Famous Tatar poet and member of anti-Nazi group. Author of The Moabit Notebooks.
*Alexander Schmorell (1917-1943) One of five Munich University students who formed anti-Nazi group known as White Rose, Weiße Rose.
*Mstislav Rostropovich (1927–2007) One of the greatest cellists of the 20th century.
*Yuri Gagarin (1934–1968) Soviet Cosmonaut. The first human to orbit Earth.

The asteroid 27709 Orenburg was named in the city"s honour on 1 June 2007.

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Orenburg has the following sister cities:

* Khujand, Tajikistan.
* Legnica, Poland.
* Orlando, USA.
* Ufa, Russia.
* Oral, Kazakhstan.

xternal link


Category:Settlements established in 1735

be:Горад Арэнбург
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 25.06.2022 16:13 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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