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Macedonia, Ohrid
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The earliest inhabitants of the widest Lake region were the Bryges and Encheleans. During the Roman conquests, towards the end of III and the beginning of II century BC,the Greek Dassaretae and the region Dassaretia were mentioned, as well as the town of Lychnidos. The existence of the ancient town of Lychnidos is linked to the Greek myth of the Phoenician prince Cadmus who, banished from Thebes, in Boetia, fled to the EncheleiWilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 98,"the Illyrian Enchelei, the "eel-men", whose name points to a location near Lake " and founded the town of Lychnidos on the shores of Lake Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0-631-19807-5,Page 99:"... 99 victory would be theirs if they received Cadmus as king. After this had come about as foretold, Cadmus and Harmonia ruled over them and founded the towns of Bouthoe (Budva) and Lychnidus (). ...".
Distribution of cities in antiquity in the border of southern Illyria with Greeks and Thracians
The Lake of , the ancient "Lacus Lychnitis", whose blue and exceedingly transparent waters in remote antiquity gave to the lake its Greek name; it was still called so occasionally in the Middle Ages. It was located along the "Via Egnatia", which connected the Adriatic port Dyrrachion (present-day Durrës) with Byzantium.According to recent excavations by Macedonian archaeologists it was a town way back at the time of king Phillip II of Macedon.

They allege that Samuil"s Fortress was built on the place of an earlier fortification, dated to 4th century B.C. Archaeological excavations (e.g., the Polyconch Basilica from 5th century) prove early adaptation of Christianity in the area. Bishops from Lychnidos participated in multiple ecumenical councils.

The Bulgarians conquered the city in 867. The name " first appeared in 879. Between 990 and 1015, was the capital and stronghold of the Bulgarian EmpireOld Hermit"s Almanac by Edward Hays,1997,ISBN 0939516373,page 82: "... He sent word to Samuel, the ruler in the Bulgarian capital of , that he was returning 15,000 of his prisoners of war. ...". From 990 to 1018 was also the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. After the Byzantine conquest of the city in 1018, the Bulgarian Patriarchate was downgraded to an Archbishopric and placed under the authority of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.

conch Basilica

The higher clergy after 1018 was almost invariably Greek, including during the period of Ottoman domination, until the abolition of the archbishopric in 1767. At the beginning of the 16th century the archbishopric reached its peak subordinating the Sofia, Vidin, Vlach and Moldavian eparchies, part of the former Peć Patriarchate (including Peć itself), and even the Orthodox districts of Italy (Apulia, Calabria and Sicily), Venice and Dalmatia.

As an episcopal city, was an important cultural center. Almost all surviving churches were built by the Byzantines and by the Bulgarians, the rest of them date back to the short time of Serbian rule during the late Middle Ages.

is credited as being the likely birthplace of the Cyrillic alphabet, which was most probably created by St. Clement of that further reformed the Glagolic alphabet created in turn by the brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius.

"s Old Bazaar

Bohemond and his Norman army took the city in 1083. In the 13th and 14th century the city changed hands between the Despotate of Epirus, the Bulgarian, the Byzantine and the Serbian Empires. At the end of the 14th century it was conquered by the Ottomans and remained under them until 1912. The Christian population declined during the first centuries of Ottoman rule. In 1664 there were only 142 Christian houses. The situation improved in the 18th century when emerged as an important trade center on a major trade route. At the end of this century it had around five thousand inhabitants. Towards the end of the 18th century and in the early part of the 19th century, region, like other parts of European Turkey, was a hotbed of unrest. Semi-independent feudal lords such as Mahmud Pasha Bushatlija and Djeladin Beg controlled and openly defied the central government by not submitting taxes and by using tax money to bolster their own private armies. By the end of 19th century had 2409 houses with 11900 inhabitants out of which 45% were Muslim while the rest was mainly Orthodox Christian. Before 1912, (Ohri) was a township center bounded to Monastir sanjak in Monastir province (present-day Bitola).

cclesiastical histor

Its first known bishop was Zosimus (c. 344). In the sixth century it was destroyed by an earthquake (Procopius, Historia Arcana, xv), but was rebuilt by Emperor Justinian (527-565). The new city was made the capital of the prefecture, or department, of Illyricum, and for the sake of political convenience it was made also the ecclesiastical capital of the Illyrian or southern Danubian parts of the empire (southern Hungary, Bosnia, Serbia, Transylvania, Moldavia, Wallachia). Justinian was unable to obtain immediately for this step a satisfactory approbation from Pope Agapetus or Pope Silverius. The Emperor"s act, besides being a usurpation of ecclesiastical authority, was a detriment to the ancient rights of Thessalonica as representative of the Apostolic See in the Illyrian regions. Nevertheless, the new diocese claimed, and obtained in fact, the privilege of autocephalia, or ecclesiastical independence, and through its long and chequered history retained, or struggled to retain, this character. Pope Vigilius, under pressure from Emperor Justinian, recognized the exercise of patriarchal rights by the Metropolitan of Justiniana Prima within the broad limits of its civil territory, but Gregory the Great treated him as no less subject than other Illyrian bishops to the Apostolic See (Duchesne, op. cit., 233-237).

"The Annunciation" from , one of the most admired icons of the Paleologan Mannerism from the Church of St. Climent.

The inroads of the Avars and Slavs in the seventh century brought about the ruin of this ancient centre of religion and civilization, and for two centuries its metropolitan character was in abeyance.

But after the conversion of the new Bulgarian masters of Illyria (864) the see rose again to great prominence, this time under the name of Achrida (Achris). Though Byzantine missionaries were the first to preach the Christian faith in this region, the first archbishop was sent by Rome. It was thence also that the Bulgarians drew their first official instruction and counsel in matters of Christian faith and discipline, a monument of which may be seen in the "Responsa ad Consulta Bulgarorum" of Nicholas I (858-867), one of the most influential of medieval canonical documentsMansi, xv, 401; Hefele, Concilieng., iv, 346 sq.. However, the Bulgarian King ("Knyaz") Boris was soon won over by Byzantine influence. In the Eighth General Council held at Constantinople (869), Bulgaria was incorporated with the Byzantine patriarchate of Constantinople, and in 870 the Latin missionaries were expelled. Henceforth Byzantine metropolitans presided in ; it was made the capital of Bulgaria Bulgarian Folk Customs by Mercia MacDermott,1998,ISBN 1853024856,page 26: "... one of these brothers, Samuil, proclaimed himself Tsar, with his capital at . during the rule of Samuil and profited by the tenth-century conquests of its warlike rulers so that it became the Metropolitan of several Byzantine dioceses in the newly conquered territories in the wider region of Macedonia , Thessaly, and Thrace. Bulgaria fell unavoidably within the range of the Photian schism, and so, from the end of the ninth century, the diocese of was lost to Western and papal influences.

house of the wealthy Robevi familyThe overthrow of the Bulgarian empire in 1018 by Byzantine Emperor Basil II recovered Dialogos: Hellenic Studies Review by David Ricks,2001,ISBN 071468189X,page 30,(By 1020 Basil had finally defeated Samuel and his son, and recovered ...". It became a seat of the Bulgarian Archbishopric of . At a later date some of the great Byzantine families (e.g. the Ducas and the Comneni) claimed descent from the Emperors, or Cars, of Bulgaria. In 1053 the Metropolitan Leo of signed with Michael Caerularius the latter"s circular letter to John of Trani (Apulia in Italy) against the Latin Church. Theophylactus of (1078) was one of the most famous of the medieval Byzantine exegetes; in his correspondence (Ep., 27) he maintains the traditional independence of the Diocese of . The Bishop of Constantinople, he says, has no right of ordination in Bulgaria, whose bishop is independent. In reality was during this period seldom in communion with either Constantinople or Rome. Towards the latter see, however, its sentiments were less than friendly, for in the fourteenth century we find the metropolitan Anthimus of writing against the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son. Yet Latin missionaries appear in in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, mostly Franciscan monks, to whom the preservation of the Roman obedience in these regions is largely owing. In the thirteenth century, the noted judge Demetrios was archbishop of .

Pursuant to Archbishop Arsenius II"s petition, the Ecumenical Patriarch Samuel I had the see finally abolished as an autocephalous unit in January 1767 by an order of the Ottoman Sultan Mustapha III. At the height of its authority, could count as subject to its authority ten metropolitan and six episcopal dioceses.

uildings and museums (selection
There is a legend supported by observations by Ottoman traveler from 15th century, Evlia Celebia that there were 365 chapels within the town boundaries, one for every day of the year. Today this number is significantly smaller. However during the medieval times, was called Slavic Jerusalem.

* Church of St. Sophia
* Church of St. Panteleimon
* Church of St. John at Kaneo
* Church of St. George
* Church of St. Naum
* Church of St. Petka
* Church of St. Stephan
* Vestiges of basilicas from the early-Christian time, e.g. Basilica of St. Erazmo (4th century)
* Museum of Slavic writing culture (18th century)
* Robevi family house, museum of archeology
* Antique Theatre
*Church of St. Vrači, with frescos from the 14th century. A 14th-century icon from the church is depicted on the obverse of the Macedonian 1000 denars banknote, issued in 1996 and 2003.. Macedonian currency. Banknotes in circulation: (1996 issue) & (2003 issue). – Retrieved on 30 March 2009.

Note: Besides being a holy center of the region, it is also the source of knowledge and pan-Slavic literacy. The restored Monastery at Plaošnik was actually one of the oldest Universities in the western world, dating before the 10th century.

There is a nearby airport, Airport (now known as Apostle Paul Airport) that is open all year round.

ecurring event
* Summer Festival, annual theater and music festival from July to August
* "The Balkan Festival of Folk Songs and Dances", annual folklore music and dance festival in the beginning of July
* "Balkan music square festival", music festival in August in which ethno musicians from the whole Balkan peninsular participate
* Fest (Охридски Трубадури), music festival in August in which musicians from the whole Balkan peninsular are participating. This festival is held for four days which are divided into (Debutant Night, Folk Night, Pop Night and International Night).

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
is twinned with:

* Safranbolu, in Turkey
* Budva, in Montenegro
* Dalian, in China
* Katwijk, in Netherlands
* Kragujevac, in Serbia
* Piran, in Slovenia
* Plovdiv, in Bulgaria
* Podolsk, in Russia

* Pogradec, in Albania
* Veliko Tarnovo, in Bulgaria
* Vinkovci, in Croatia
* Windsor, in Canada
* Wollongong, in Australia
* Yalta, in Ukraine
* Zemun, in Serbia


Image:View from the Lake.jpg|View from the Lake
Image: StJohn Kaneo.jpg|The Church of St. John at Kaneo high above the lake
Image:Jovan_Kaneo.jpg|Church of St. John at Kaneo
Image:IMG 0957.jpg|Lake
Image: in Macedonia3.jpg|Samuil"s Fortress
Image:Saints Cyril and Methodius. .RepublicOfMacedonia.JPG|Monument of saints Cyril and Methodius
Image:Church_of_St._John_at_Kaneo_against_Ochrid"s_panorama.jpg|Church of St. John at Kaneo against "s panorama
File:1100 Jahre alte Platane in , Makedonien.JPG|1000-year-old tree in "s old bazaar
File:Samuel Krepost - , Macedonia.jpg|View of the fortress and city
File:Св Климент.JPG|St. Panteleimon at night

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Category:Cities in the Republic of Macedonia
Category:Archaeological sites in the Republic of Macedonia
Category:World Heritage Sites in the Republic of Macedonia

Category:Greek colonies in Illyria

el:Οχρίδα (πόλη)
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 04.12.2020 20:58 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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