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Russia, Murmansk
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|Legislature=Council of Deputies
|Charter=Charter of Murmansk
|FoundationDate=October 4, 1916
|Event1=Town status
|Event2=Renamed "Murmansk"
|Event2Date=April 1917
|date= October 2009
Central Murmansk

"Murmansk" (; ; ) is a city and seaport in the extreme northwest part of Russia, on the Kola Bay, from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russia"s borders with Norway and Finland.

Murmansk is the administrative centre of Murmansk Oblast. The port remains icefree year round due to the warm North Atlantic drift ocean current and is an important fishing and shipping port. Its satellite, Severomorsk, is an important navy base for the Russian Navy. It is home port to Atomflot, the world"s only fleet of nuclear powered icebreakers.

Murmansk was the last town founded in the Russian Empire. Murman is a traditional Pomor name for the Barents Sea and derives from the Old Russian word for Norwegians, "Murmane", cognate to the English "Normans".Max Vasmer"s Etymological Dictionary, trans. by Oleg Trubachev, vol. 3, p. 13.

The city, first known as "RomanovontheMurman" (), was founded on October 4, 1916 and named after the royal Russian dynasty of Romanovs. The city, the only icefree port in the Russian Arctic, was built as a terminus for the railway line to Kola designed to open the North Atlantic supply route to Russia in support of the Eastern Front during the First World War. The city was renamed Murmansk after the February Revolution in 1917.

From 1918 to 1920, the city was occupied by the Western powers who had been allied in the First World War and "White" forces during the Civil War in Russia.

During World War II, Murmansk was a link with the Western world for Russia, with large quantites of goods important to the respective military efforts traded with the Allies: primarily manufactured goods and raw materials into the Soviet Union. The supplies were brought to the city in the Arctic Convoys.

German forces in Finnish territory launched an offensive against the city in 1941 as part of Operation Silver Fox, and Murmansk suffered extensive destruction, second only to Leningrad and Stalingrad of all Soviet cities. However, fierce Soviet resistance and harsh geography prevented the Germans from capturing the city and cutting off the vital Karelian railway line and trhe icefree harbour. For the rest of the war, it served as transit point for weapons and other supplies entering the Soviet Union from other Allied nations. This unyielding resistance was commemorated at the 40year anniversary of the victory over the Germans in the formal designation of Murmansk as a Hero City on May 6, 1985. During the Cold War Murmansk was a centre of Soviet submarine and icebreaker activity and, past the breakup of the Soviet Union, the nearby city and naval base of Severomorsk remains the headquarters of the Russian Northern Fleet.

In 1974, a massive 35.5metretall statue Alyosha, depicting a Russian World War II soldier, on a 7metrehigh foundation, was erected overlooking the city harbour.

To commemorate the 85th anniversary of the city"s foundation, the snowwhite church of the SaviourontheWaters was modeled after the White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal and built on the shore for the sailors of Murmansk ().

Murmansk"s evening newspaper is Vecherny Murmansk, published since 1991.

The city is home to the world"s northernmost Jewish synagogue at 68°58" N latitude.

The port of Murmansk is the headquarters of Sevmorput the administration of Russian Arctic maritime transport and is also home port to most Russian Nuclear icebreakers.

Murmansk is linked by the Murmansk Railway to St Petersburg and is also linked to the rest of Russia by the M18 Kola Motorway. Murmansk Airport provides air links to Moscow and St Petersburg.

Local public transport consists of buses and trolleybuses.

rctic Bridg

Murmansk is set to be the Russian terminus of the Arctic Bridge (or Arctic Sea Bridge), a sea route linking it to the Canadian port of Churchill, Manitoba. The passage has not been fully tested for commercial shipping yet but Russia has shown interest in it. It is believed that, once developed (along with the Northwest Passage), the bridge will serve as major trade route between Europe and Asia.

The international seminar devoted to “Cooperation between Russia and Canada on offshore gas and oil fields” took place in the framework of International Forum SEVTEK 2008 (Northern energy complex). More detaled information you can read here

Murmansk is home to the Murmansk State Technical University, the Murmansk State Pedagogical University and the Murmansk Institute of Humanities

Murmansk also has 86 primary schools and 56 secondary schools, 2 boarding schools and 3 reform schools.

The city football team, FC Sever Murmansk plays in the Russian Second Division.

The Murman Hockey club is the most northerly field hockey club in the world.

Murman plays in the highest division of the Russian Bandy League. And the city is one of only three places with representation in the female league, through the team Arktika

Murmansk has two museums: The Murmansk Oblast Museum and the Murmansk Oblast Art Museum. There are also three professional theatres in Murmansk.

eople from Murmans
*Nikita Alexeev – NHL ice hockey player
*Aleksey Goman – Russian Pop singer
*Irina Kovalenko – Supermodel and Miss Russia winner
*Vladimir Konstantinov – NHL ice hockey player
*Larisa Kruglova – sprinter
*Sergey Kuryokhin – actor and musician
*Irina Malgina – Biathlete
*Sergey Rozhkov – Biathlete
*Alexei Semenov – NHL ice hockey player
*Avraham Shmulevich – Israeli Politician

win Towns/Sister Citie
Murmansk is twinned or has sister city relationships with:


|accessdate = 8.09.2007

|accessdate2 = >


xternal link


Category:Arctic settlements of Russia
Category:Barents Sea
Category:Coastal settlements in Russia
Category: of the Soviet Union
Category:Port cities and towns in Russia
Category:Russian and Soviet Navy bases
Category:Settlements established in 1916

be:Горад Мурманск
myv:Мурманск ош
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 17.10.2019 05:45 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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