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Mostar

Bosnia-Herzegovina, Mostar
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"Mostar" is a city and municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the biggest and the most important city in the Herzegovina region and the center of the of the Federation. Mostar is situated on the Neretva river and is the fifth-largest city in the country. Mostar was named after "the bridge keepers" (natively: "mostari") who kept the Stari Most (Old Bridge) over Neretva river. During the Ottoman era, the Old Bridge was built and became one of the symbols of Mostar.
istor
arly histor
A miniature depicting the city, Nusret Çolpan


The names of two towns appear in medieval historical sources, along with their later medieval territories and properties – the towns of "Nebojša" and "Cimski grad". In the early 15th century the late medieval župa (county) of "Večenike" covered the site of present-day "Mostar" along the right bank of the Neretva: Zahum, Cim, Ilići, Hraštani and Vojno. It was at the centre of this area, which belonged to the Radivojević"s in 1408, that Cim fort was built prior to 1443; it is referred to in a charter of King Alphonse V dating from 1454 as "Pons" (Bridge), for a bridge had already been built there. Prior to 1444, the Nebojša fort was built on the left bank of the Neretva, which belonged to the late mediaeval župa still known as Večenike or Večerić.Anđelić, 1974, 276-278
The earliest documentary reference to Mostar as a settlement dates from April 3, 1452, when natives of Dubrovnik wrote to their fellow countrymen in the service of Đorđe Branković to say that Vladislav Hercegović had turned against his father and occupied "Blagaj" and other places, including "“Duo Castelli al ponte de Neretua.”".Mujezinović, 1998, p. 144
In 1468 Mostar came under Ottoman rule. The urbanization of the settlement began, following the unwritten oriental rule, with a čaršija – the crafts and commercial centre of the settlement – and mahalas or residential quarters. In 1468 Mostar acquired the name Köprühisar, meaning fortress at the bridge, at the centre of which was a cluster of 15 houses.Institute for Regional Planning, Mostar, 1982, p. 21
In the late 16th century, Mostar was the chief administrative city for the Ottoman Empire in the Herzegovina region. The Austro-Hungarian Empire absorbed Mostar in 1878 and then it became part of Yugoslavia in the aftermath of World War I. The first church in the city of Mostar, a Serb Christian Orthodox Church, was built in Mostar during Austro-Hungarian occupation. Since 1881 Mostar has been the seat of the Bishopric of Mostar-Duvno.
The city"s symbol, the "Old Bridge" (Stari Most) is one of the most important structures of the Ottoman era and was built by Mimar Hayrudin, a student of the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. In 1939, Mostar became part of the Banovina of Croatia and during World War II, was an important city in the Independent State of Croatia.

ugoslav Perio
After World War II, Mostar developed a production of tobacco, bauxite, wine, aircraft and aluminium products. Several dams ("Grabovica", "Salakovac", "Mostar") were built in the region to harness the hydroelectric power of the Neretva. The city was a major industrial and tourist center and prospered during the time of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

osnian wa
992 JNA Sieg
Between 1992 and 1993, after Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia, the town was subject to an 18 month siege. The Yugoslav People"s Army (JNA) first bombed Mostar on April 3, 1992 and over the following week gradually established control over a large part of the town. The Croatian Defence Council and Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (in a joined action) amassed enough strength by June 12, 1992 to force the JNA out of Mostar. The JNA responded with shelling. Amongst the monuments destroyed were a Franciscan monastery, the Catholic cathedral and the bishop"s palace, with a library of 50,000 books, as well as the Karadžoz-bey mosque, Roznamed-ij-Ibrahim-efendija mosque and twelve other mosques, as well as secular institutions.

In mid June 1992, after front line moved eastward, the HVO demolished the Serbian Orthodox Žitomislić Monastery as well as the Saborna Crkva (Orthodox Cathedral Church) in Mostar, that was built in 1863-1873.During the Bosnian War of 1992-95, the Serb Orthodox Cathedral of the Holy Trinity () and the Church of the Birth of the Most Holy Virgin (Црква Рођења Пресвете Богородице), both dating to the mid 19th century, were demolished by the HVO., Statement of the Case, Article 27, 2003. The cathedral was also known as the New Orthodox Church (Нова православна црква), while the latter was known as the Old Orthodox Church (Стара православна црква). According to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Nikola Špirić, the reconstruction of the cathedral is due to begin in Spring 2008, and will be funded by Prince Charles.

roat-Bosniak Conflic


During the Yugoslav wars, the objectives of nationalists from Croatia were shared by Croat nationalists in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The ruling party in the Republic of Croatia, the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), organized and controlled the branch of the party in Bosnia and Herzegovina. By the latter part of 1991, the more extreme elements of the party, under the leadership of Mate Boban, Dario Kordić, Jadranko Prlić, Ignac Koštroman and local leaders such as Anto Valenta, and with the support of Franjo Tuđman and Gojko Šušak, had taken effective control of the party. On November 18, 1991, the party branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina, proclaimed the existence of the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, as a separate "political, cultural, economic and territorial whole," on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

After the Serb forces were driven out from Mostar, the heavily armed, Croatia funded Croatian Defence Council (HVO) attacked Bosniaks, in hope of capturing the whole city for themselves.

Mostar was divided into a Western part, which was dominated by the Croat forces and an Eastern part where the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was largely concentrated. However, the Bosnian Army had its headquarters in West Mostar in a building complex referred to as Vranica. In the early hours of May 9, 1993, the Croatian Defence Council attacked Mostar using artillery, mortars, heavy weapons and small arms. The HVO controlled all roads leading into Mostar from Croatia and international organisations were denied access. Radio Mostar in their propaganda campaign announced that all Bosniaks should hang out a white flag from their windows. The HVO attack had been well prepared and planned.

The Croats took over the west side of the city (the west side of the city was considered the west side of Aleksa Santic street) and expelled thousands Bosniaks from the west side into the east side of the city. The HVO shelling reduced much of the east side of Mostar to rubble. The JNA (Yugoslav Army) demolished Carinski Bridge, Titov Bridge and Lucki Bridge over the river excluding the Stari Most. HVO forces (and its smaller divisions) engaged in a mass execution, ethnic cleansing and rape on the Bosniak people of the West Mostar and its surrounds and a fierce siege and shelling campaign on the Bosnian Government run East Mostar. HVO campaign resulted in thousands of injured and killed.

After the war, the ICTY accused the Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia leadership (Jadranko Prlić, Bruno Stojić, Slobodan Praljak, Milivoj Petković, Valentin Ćorić and Berislav Pušić), even though the president of Croatia signed the Dayton peace accords without signatures from Croats in Bosnia, on crimes against humanity charges and other war crimes charges in Mostar during the war, including the destruction of the Stari most bridge. Even though the Republic of Croatia signed the Dayton Peace Accords which ended the war in Bosnia, the Republic of Croatia was never charged with any crimes nor were any of its leaders. The Dayton Peace Accords were signed by Alija Izetbegovic (President of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina), Franjo Tudjman (President of Croatia), and Slobodan Milosevic (President of Yugoslavia (Yugoslavia later split to become Serbia & Montenegro which split into two states Serbia and Montenegro).

econstructio
The Old Bridge undergoing reconstruction in June 2003.
The Old Bridge in September 2008 after reconstruction.
Since the end of the wider war in 1995, great progress is being made in the reconstruction of the city of Mostar. The city was under direct monitoring from a European Union envoy, several elections were held and each nation was accommodated with regard to political control over the city. Over 15 million dollars has been spent on restoration.

A monumental project to rebuild the Old Bridge to the original design, and restore surrounding structures and historic neighbourhoods was initiated in 1999 and mostly completed by Spring 2004. The money for this reconstruction was donated by Spain (who had a sizeble contingent of peacekeeping troops stationed in the surrounding area during the conflict), the United States, Turkey, Italy, the Netherlands, and Croatia. A grand opening was held on July 23, 2004 under heavy security.

In parallel with the restoration of the Old Bridge, the Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the World Monuments Fund undertook a five-year long restoration and rehabilitation effort in historic Mostar. Realizing early on that the reconstruction of the bridge without an in-depth rehabilitation of the surrounding historic neighbourhoods would be devoid of context and meaning, they shaped the programme in such a way as to establish a framework of urban conservation schemes and individual restoration projects that would help regenerate the most significant areas of historic Mostar, and particularly the urban tissue around the Old Bridge. The project also resulted in the establishment of the Stari Grad Agency which has an important role in overseeing the ongoing implementation of the conservation plan, as well as operating and maintaining a series of restored historic buildings (including the Old Bridge complex) and promoting Mostar as a cultural and tourist destination. The official inauguration of the Stari grad Agency coincided with the opening ceremony of the Bridge.

In July 2005, UNESCO finally inscribed the Old Bridge and its closest vicinity onto the World Heritage List.

emographic
The political control of the ethnically divided city is equally shared between Croats and Bosniaks. Most of the Mostar"s Serbs have left the town during the war, while very few remained. Since the end of the war, the city has been governed under a carefully elaborated policy of national equality. The Croat and Bosniak ethnic communities each claim one side of the main street, and even support for the local football clubs, Velež and Zrinjski, is divided along ethnic lines.

97
* Muslims - 33,645
* Croats - 32,782
* Serbs - 15,076
* Yugoslavs - 1,329
* others - 1,748
* Total - 89,580

99
* Muslims by nationality - 43,930 (34.85%) http://www.fzs.ba/Dem/Popis/Nacionalnost%20opcine%20Popis%201991.pdf
* Croats - 42,648 (33.83%)
* Serbs - 23,909 (18.97%)
* Yugoslavs - 12,654 (10.04%)
* others - 2,925 (2.32%)
* Total - 126,066

Although there has been no census taking since 1991, if we judge by the results of the 2008 election process in Bosnia, we can gather that there are 48% Bosniaks in the Bosniak parties and 44% Croats in Croat parties. There is also an SDP party that wasn"t counted as Bosnian in the election. The SDP party is a remnant of the former socialist party of BiH and has mainly a mixture of people in it.

conom
Aluminum manufacturer Aluminij. Before the war there were also other important companies which had been closed, damaged or downsized: SOKO - military aircraft factory, Fabrika duhana Mostar - tobacco industry, Hepok - food industry.

In 1981 Mostar"s GDP per capita was 103% of the Yugoslav average

ity governmen

Old part of Mostar

Currently, the city government is equally divided Croats and Bosniaks. This means that no ethnicity controls the city, though each controls one half - Croats, the west, and Bosniaks, the east.

The City of Mostar has the status of a municipality. The city government is led by the Mayor. The current Mayor of Mostar is Ljubo Bešlić (HDZ).

The City Council is composed of 35 representatives, coming from the following political parties:

* Croatian Coalition 13
**Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ)
**United Croatian Party of Rights (UHSP)
**Croatian Party of Rights (HSP)
**Croatian Christian Democratic Union (HKDU)
**Croatian People"s Union (HNZ)
* Party of Democratic Action (SDA) 10
* Social Democratic Party (SDP) 4
* Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina 4
* People"s Party Work for Betterment 1
* Croatian Coalition 1
**Croatian Party of Rights (HSP)
**Croatian Pure Party of Rights (HČSP)
* Independent 2

008 constitutional crisi
According to the constitution, imposed by High Representative Paddy Ashdown on January 28, 2004 after local politicians failed to reach an agreement, the mayor of Mostar has to be elected by the city council with 2/3 majority.http://www.index.hr/vijesti/clanak/ashdown-nametnuo-novi-ustroj-mostara/183132.aspxhttp://www.ohr.int/decisions/mo-hncantdec/default.asp?content_id=31708 Ashdown abolished the six municipalities that were divided equally among Bosniaks and Croats and replaced them with six electoral units.http://www.isn.ethz.ch/isn/Current-Affairs/Security-Watch/Detail/?ots591=4888CAA0-B3DB-1461-98B9-E20E7B9C13D4&lng=en&id=107315 Ridding Mostar of duplicate institutions and costs.http://www.ohr.int/ohr-dept/presso/pic/mostar-one-city/default.asp?content_id=31689 In the process Ashdown also reduced the number of elected officials from 194 to 35. According to the constitution the constitutive nations of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs) are guaranteed a minimum of four seats and a maximum of 15 seats. 18 deputies are elected by the election units (3 deputies from each district and 15 deputies are elected at the level of entire city. This move was opposed by the Party for Democratic Action (SDA) and the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ).

There hasn"t been a census in Bosnia-Herzegovina since 1991 so all population estimates and ethnic compositions of Bosnia-Herzegovina or any city or municipality of Bosnia-Herzegovina is pure speculation. The elections in 2008 had estimates of 48% Bosniaks and 44% Croats in Mostar.

In October 2008, there were elections for the city council. Relative winners were HDZ BiH with the greatest number of votes. However, neither party had enough votes to ensure election of the mayor from their party. The city council met 16 times without success. OHR is also involved, but without success. Ljubo Bešlić, running as a candidate of HDZ BiH, has a technical mandate and unsuccessful candidate for new mandate.

In a January 26 poll organized by the international community, 75 percent of Mostar’s citizens said that they support the idea of a unified city. Some 83 percent said that they believed that no one ethnic group should rule the city, and 81 percent said that unification should have been accomplished long ago.

ultur
Kriva Ćuprija
Koski Mehmed pasa Mosque
Church of St Peter and Paul
The oldest single arch stone bridge in Mostar, the Kriva Ćuprija (Sloping Bridge), was built in 1558 by the Ottoman architect Cejvan Kethoda. It is said that this was to be a test before the major construction of the Stari Most began. The Old Bridge was completed in 1566 and was hailed as one of the greatest architectural achievement in the Ottoman controlled Balkans. No matter how many times one does it, crossing the Stari most (Old Bridge) always seems to be an exciting experience. This single-arch stone bridge is an exact replica of the original bridge that stood for over 400 years and that was designed by Hajrudin, a student of the great Ottoman architect Sinan. It spans 28.7 meters of the Neretva river, 21 meters above the summer water level. The Halebija and Tara towers have always housed the guardians of the bridge and during Ottoman times were storehouses for ammunition. The arch is a perfect semicircle 8.56 m in width and 4.15 m in height. The frontage and vault are made of regular stone cubes incorporated into the horizontal layers all along the vault. The space between vault, frontal walls and footpath is filled with cracked stone. The bridge footpath and the approaching roads are paved with cobblestones, as is the case with the main roads in the town. Stone steps enable people to ascend to the bridge either side.

Crossing from the west bank to the east you"ll also be crossing the ancient point where East and West symbolically met. Up the stairs to the right is the oldest mosque in Mostar: the Cejvan Cehaj Mosque built in 1552. Later a medresa (Islamic school) was built on the same compound. The Old Bazaar, Kujundziluk is named after the goldsmiths who traditionally created and sold their wares on this street, it is the best place in town to find authentic paintings and copper or bronze carvings of the Stari Most, pomegranates (the natural symbol of Herzegovina) or the famed stecaks (medieval tombstones).

The Koski Mehmed pasa Mosque, built in 1617 is open to visitors. Visitors may enter the mosque and take photos free of charge. The minaret is also open to the public and is accessible from inside the mosque. Just around the corner from the mosque is the Tepa Market. This has been a busy marketplace since Ottoman times. It now sells mostly fresh produce grown in Herzegovina and, when in season, the figs and pomegranates are extremely popular. Local honey is also a prominent specialty, being produced all around Herzegovina.

A synagogue was also recently built in the city.

The city is home to a monument to Antun Branko Šimić.

ducatio



*University of Mostar
*Džemal Bijedić University
*Pavarotti Music Center
*United World College in Mostar
*Gymnasium Mostar
*"Gradska" Library (Rondo)
*"Dječja i Narodna" Library (Carina)
*Cultural Center Mostar (ul. Rade Bitange)
*"Hrvatski dom Herceg Stjepan Kosače" cultural Center (Rondo)
* (ul. Aleksa Santica)
*Gallery "Aluminij" (near by hospital by building Uglovnica)
*City Park "Zrinjski"
*Narodno Pozorište (National theatre)
*Croatian National Theatre
port
Velež celebrating the victory of the Yugoslav Cup.
Zrinjski celebrating the victory of the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The most popular sport in Mostar is football. The two most successful teams are HŠK Zrinjski Mostar and FK Velež Mostar. both teams compete in the Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Since the Bosnian War each club has generally been supported by a particular ethnic group (Zrinjski for the Croats and Velež for the Bosniaks). The matches between the two clubs are some of the country"s most intense matches.

Bijeli Brijeg Stadium and Vrapčići Stadium are the city"s two main football grounds.

In basketball, HKK Zrinjski Mostar competes at the nation"s highest level while the Zrinjski banner also represents the city in the top handball league.

ouris
Mostar is an important tourist centre in the country. Mostar International Airport serves the city. Mostar"s old city is an important tourist destination with the Stari Most being its most recognizable feature. The "Rondo shopping centre", and the "Mercator shopping mall" are some of the city"s newer attractions. The Catholic pilgrimage site of Međugorje is also nearby.

aller


File:06Mostar 03a.jpg|Mostar
File:AroundStariMost.jpg|Area around old bridge
File:Mostar_Minaret_1.jpg|Tallest minaret in Herzegovina
File:Kriva Ćuprija.jpg|The old bridge "Kriva Ćuprija"
File:Mostar 01.jpg|Mostar
File:Mostar 03.jpg|Mostar
File:Mostar 05.jpg|Mostar
File:Mostar 09.jpg|Mostar
File:Mostar 3.jpg|Mostar
File:Mostar Pielo Polje 01.jpg|Mostar
File:Mostar-kathedrale2.jpg|Mostar
File:Stari most Kuca.jpg|Mostar

File:Muslibegovichouse2.jpg‎|National Monument Muslibegovic House
File:Muslibegovichouse3.jpg‎|National Monument Muslibegovic House



ee also=
* Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina
* Serbs in Mostar

eference


xternal link

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* http://www.sallybecker.co.uk/
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*, "The Guardian", July 23, 2004
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bs:Mostar
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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 23.01.2018 20:21 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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