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France, Metz
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)
| longitude=6.1778
| latitude=49.1203
|time zone = CET (GMT +1)
|region = Lorraine
|department = Moselle
|arrondissement = Metz-Ville
|intercommunality = Metz Métropole
|mayor = Dominique Gros
|party = PS
|term = 2008–2014
|area km2 = 41.9
|population date = 2005
|population = 124500
|population rking = 28th in Frce
|urb area km2 = 363
|urb area date = 1999
|urb pop = 322,526
|urb pop date = 1999
|metro area km2 = 1837
|metro area date = 1999
|metro area pop = 429,588
|metro area pop date = 1999
|postal code = 57000
|INSEE = 57463
|website = http://www.mairie-metz.fr/
}}


"Metz" () is a city in the northeast of Frce, capital of the Lorraine region d prefecture of the Moselle department. It is located at the confluence of the Moselle d the Seille rivers.

Although historically Ncy was the capital of the duchy of Lorraine, it was Metz which was chosen as the capital of the newly created "région" of Lorraine in the middle of the 20th century, because of its past history as the capital of the region of Lotharingia - origin found much more republic-friendly th the duchy-related theory, pointing to Ncy as the region capital.

istor
om Divoduru
In cient times Metz, then known as "Divodurum" (the town at the holy mountain), was the capital of the Celtic Mediomatrici, d the name of this tribe, abbreviated to Mettis, formed the origin of the present name. At the beginning of the Christi Era, the site was already occupied by the Roms. Metz became one of the principal towns of Gallia, more populous th Lutetia, rich thks to its wine exports d having one of the largest amphitheatres of the country. As a well-fortified town at the junction of several military roads, it soon grew to great importce. One of the last Rom strongholds to surrender to the Germic tribes, it was captured by Attila in 451, d finally passed, about the end of the fifth century, through peaceful negotiations into the hds of the Frks.

arly Frkish Met
Though the first Christi churches were to be found outside the city, the existence in the fifth century of the oratory of St. Stephen within the city walls has been fully proved. In the beginning of the seventh century the oldest monastic establishments were those of St. Glossinde d St. Peter.

Since King Sigibert I, Metz frequently was the residence of the Merovingi kings of Austrasia d especially the reign of Queen Brunhilda reflected great splendour on the town.

The town preserved the good-will of the rulers, when the Carolingis acceeded to the Frkish throne, as it had long been a base of their family d one of their primal cestors, Saint Arnulf of Metz, as well as his son Chlodulf, had been bishops of Metz. Charlemagne considered making Metz his chief residence before he finally decided in favour of Aachen.

There is evidence that the earliest Western musical notation, in the form of neumes "in camp aperto" (without staff-lines), was created at Metz around 800, as a result of Charlemagne"s desire for Frkish church musicis to retain the performce nuces used by the Rom singers., Journal of the Americ Musicological Society, Vol. 56, No. 1 (Spring, 2003), pp. 43-98, retrieved July 2007

In the basilica, Louis the Pious d his half-brother the Bishop Drogo were buried d Charles the Bald was crowned there.

otharingi Met
In 843 Metz became the capital of the Kingdom of Lotharingia, d several diets d councils were held there. Numerous Christi muscripts, the product of the Metz schools of writing d painting, such as the famous "Trier Ada" muscript d the Drogo Sacramentary for the personal use of a bishop of the royal house (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris), are evidence of the active intellectual lives d sumptuous patronage of Carolingi Metz.

After the death of king Lothar II the kingdom of Lotharingia, d with it Metz, was contested d chged back d forth between the Eastern d the Western Frkish kingdom until in 925 it finally became part of the East kingdom d subsequently the Holy Rom Empire.

The increasing influence of the bishops in the city became greater when Adalbert I (928-62) obtained a share of the privileges of the counts; until the twelfth century, therefore, the history of the town is practically identical with that of the bishops (see ). Under Dietrich I of Metz (d.984) the monastery of St. Symphorien was restored. In 1039, the former Ottoni cathedral was built by Dietrich II of Luxemburg to take the place of the Carolingi Church of St. StephenKRAUS, Frz Xaver :"Kunst und Altertum in Lothringen", Strasburg, 1889.

In the spring of 1096, Metz became one of the scenes of the Rhineld massacres of non-Christis as Count Emicho of Fionheim gathered followers for the First Crusade. A group of these crusaders entered Metz, forcibly converting Jewish families, d killing those who resisted baptism. 22 Jewish citizens of Metz were slaughtered.

he commune of Met
In the twelfth century, the burgesses beg efforts to free themselves from the domination of the bishops. In 1180, the burgesses formed a close corporation, the "Tredecem jurati", which were appointed as municipal representatives in 1207. The burgesses were still nominated directly by the bishop, who had also a controlling influence in the selection of the presiding officer of the board of aldermen (which originated in the eleventh century). The twenty-five representatives sent by the various parishes held independent position; in judicial matters they helped the "Tredecem jurati" d formed the democratic element of the system of government. The other municipal authorities were chosen by the town aristocracy, the so-called Paraiges, i. e. the five associations whose members were selected from distinguished families to protect the interests of their relatives. The other body of burgesses, called a Commune, also appears as a Paraige from the year 1297; in the individual offices it was represented by double the number of members that each of the older five Paraiges had. Making common cause, the older family unions d the Commune found it advtageous to gradually increase the powers of the city as opposed to the bishops, d also to keep the control of the municipal government fully in their hds d out of that of the powerful growing guilds, so that until the sixteenth century Metz remained a purely aristocratic orgization. In 1300 the Paraiges gained the right to fill the office of head-alderm, during the fourteenth century the right to elect the "Tredecem jurati", d in 1383 the right of coining. The guilds, which during the fourteenth century had attained great independence, were completely suppressed (1383), d the last revolutionary attempt of the artiss to seize control of the city government (1405) was put down with much bloodshed.

Porte des Allemds
The city had often to fight for its freedom; from 1324-27 against the Dukes of Luxembourg d Lorraine, as well as against the Archbishop of Trier; in 1363 d 1365 against the bd of English mercenaries under Arnold of Cervola, in the fifteenth century against Frce d the Dukes of Burgundy, who sought to nex Metz to their lds or at least wted to exercise a protectorate. Nevertheless it maintained its independence, even though at great cost, d remained, outwardly at least, part of the Germ Empire, whose ruler, however, concerned himself very little with this importt frontier stronghold.

rench Met
Charles IV in 1354 d 1356 held brillit diets here, at the latter of which was promulgated the famous statute known as the "Golden Bull". The town therefore felt that it occupied almost independent position between Frce d Germy, d wted most of all to evade the obligation of imperial taxes d attendce at the diet. The estrgement between it d the Germ States daily became wider, d finally affairs came to such a pass that in the religious d political troubles of 1552 Metz found itself in the middle of the war between Charles V d the rebellious princes. By agreement of the Germ princes, Moritz of Saxony, William of Hesse, John Albrecht of Mecklenburg, d George Frederick of Brdenburg, with Henry II of Frce, ratified by the French king at Chambord (15 Juary), Metz was formally trsferred to Frce, the gates of the city were opened (10 April), d Henry took possession as "vicarius sacri imperii et urbis protector" (18 April). Frcis, Duke of Guise, commder of the garrison, restored the old fortifications d added new ones, d successfully resisted the attacks of the emperor from October to December, 1552; Metz remained French.

The recognition by the empire of the surrender of Metz to Frce came at the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia. By the construction of the citadel (1555-62) the new government secured itself against the citizens, who were discontented with the turn of events. Importt internal chges soon took place. In place of the Paraiges stood the authority of the French king, whose representative was the governor. The head-alderm, now appointed by the governor, was replaced (1640) by a Royalist Mayor. The aldermen were also appointed by the governor d henceforth drawn from the whole body of burgesses; in 1633 the judgeship passed to the Parliament. The powers of the "Tredecem jurati" were also restricted, in 1634 totally abolished, d replaced by the Bailliage royal.

Metz: This water tower is aspect of the extensive infrastructure development that took place during nearly five decades of Germ rule, when northern Lorraine became Lothringen, following the Frco-Prussi war
Among the cities of Lorraine, Metz held a prominent position during the French possession for two reasons: In the first place it became one of the most importt fortresses through the work of Vaub (1674) d Cormontaigne (1730); secondly, it became the capital of the temporal province of the three bishoprics of Metz, Toul, d Verdun, which Frce had seized (1552) d, by the Peace of Westphalia, retained. In 1633 there was created for this "Province des trois évêchés" (also called "Généralité des trois évêchés" or "Intendce de Metz") a supreme court of justice d court of administration, the Metz Parliament. In 1681 the Chambre Royale, the notorious Assembly chamber, whose business it was to decide what fiefs belonged to the three bishoprics which Louis XIV claimed for Frce, was made a part of this Parliament, which lasted, after a temporary dissolution (1771-75), until the final settlement by the National Assembly in 1789, whereupon the division of the ld into departments d districts followed. Metz became the capital of the Department of Moselle, created in 1790. The revolution brought great calamities upon the city. In the campaigns of 1814 d 1815 the allied armies twice besieged the city, but were unable to take it.

819: A view of Metz after the Bourbon restoratio
In July 1819, the Scots born naval officer Norwich Duff visited Metz d recorded a detailed description of the town:

Metz is a large d strongly fortified town, beautifuly situated on a plain at the confluence of the Moselle d Seille. It mufactures woollen goods, linen, china, paper, oil, starch d is famous for its hams, liquers, sweetmeats d artificial flowers: they also have a king"s mufactory of gun powder. The Government House d the promenades round it are very fine: there is also immence extent of barracks for troops, a large cathedral d a theatre. From the number of running ditches formed by the river there are a great my bridges: the streets like all French towns are narrow d dirty d the houses high: the ground is also very uneven on which they std. Some street performers gave us a little very tolerable music during our dinner

etz d the Frco-Prussi Wa
During the Frco-Prussi War of 1870-71 Metz was the headquarters d rendezvous of the Third French Army Corps under Bazaine. Through the operations of the Germ army, Bazaine, after the battles of Colombey, Mars-la-Tour, d Gravelotte (14-18 August) was besieged in Metz. The Germ army of investment was commded by Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia; as the few sorties of the garrison were unable to break the Germ lines, Metz was forced to surrender (27 October), with the result that 6000 French officers d 170,000 men were taken prisoners. Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche took part in the siege of Metz as a Germ soldier.

By the Treaty of Frkfurt of 1871, Metz became a Germ city, d was made a most importt garrison d a strong fortress. The Germ Army decided to build a second d a third fortified line around Metz. The former fortifications on the south d east were levelled in 1898, securing space for growth d development. Some large neo-Romesque buildings typical of the Germ Empire were constructed in the city.

0th century d modern day Met
Following the armistice with Germy ending the First World War, the French army entered Metz in November 1918 d the city was returned to Frce at the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.

After the Battle of Frce in 1940 during the Second World War, the city was immediately nexed to the Germ Third Reich. Most of the Nazi dignitaries assumed it was obvious that the City of Metz, where so my Germ army officers were born General Günther Rüdel (1883-1950), General Joachim Degener (1883-1953), General Wilhelm Baur (1883-1964), General Hs von Salmuth (1888-1962), General Karl Kriebel (1888-1961), General Arthur von Briessen (1891-1981), General Ludwig Bieringer (1892-1975), General Edgar Feuchtinger (1894-1960), General Rudolf Schmundt (1896-1944), General Wilhelm Falley (1897-1944), General Julius von Bernuth (1897-1942), General Heinz Harmel (1906-2000), d Helmuth Bode (1907-1985), Johnes Mühlenkamp (1910-1986), Peter-Erich Cremer (1911-1992), Joachim Pötter (1913-1992), Ludwig Weißmüller (1915-1943), Walter Bordellé (1918-1984) among others., was a Germ city. In 1944, the attack on the city by the United States Third Army faced heavy resistce from the defending Germ forces, d resulted in heavy casualties for both sides. The battle of Metz lasted for several weeks d the heavily fortified city of Metz was captured by US forces before the end of November 1944. Metz was reverted to Frce after the war.

Nowadays, the military importce of Metz has decreased, d the city has diversified its economic base. Expsion has continued in the recent decades despite the economic crisis that besets the rest of Lorraine. However, Metz is in the heart of a new economic region known as the SaarLorLux Which combines the culture d economic aspects of this unique region in Europe. The City has developed its University d overall infrastructure for the EU"s 2007 "Culture Region" (GER: Kultur Großregion). The Metz Technopôle is also example of the economic revival of Metz d its region. The Technopôle, a high-tech park spread over 180 hectares, was established in 1983 d has attracted over 200 compies, 4000 employees d 4500 students. World-class academic institutions such as Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Georgia Tech d Supélec along with established compies including ProConsultt, SFR d TDF are located at the Technopôle.

The historic meeting of the crews (d associated hdshake) of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project on 17 July 1975 took place over Metz on account of a flight delay; had there been no delay, it would have taken place over Bognor Regis in Engld.

ight
Moyen Pont
L"Opéra-Theatre de Metz
Notre-Dame de Metz

The city is famous for its yellow limestone architecture: la Pierre de Jaumont d for its nickname "The Green City" (25m2 - 270sqft of park/garden/playground per inhabitt). Metz is the 39th place to go in 2009 according to The New York Times.

* St. Etienne, Gothic cathedral featuring stained glass windows designed by Marc Chagall)
*Notre Dame de Metz, church built in the Jesuit style d once part of a Jesuit complex on the rue de la Chevre
* St-Pierre-aux-Nonnains, the oldest church in Frce, built between 380 d 395AD as a Rom gymnasium; converted to a Christi church in the 7th century.
* Ste-Segolene church, (built 13th-14th century)
* St-Martin church
* St-Vincente church
* St-Pierre-de-la-Citadelle church
* St-Euchaire church
* St-Maximin church
* Templar chapel (12th century)
* Ruins of city walls
* City gates: Porte Serpenoise, Porte des Allemds ("Germ Gate")
*Opéra-Théâtre de Metz - Theatre d Opera House, built between 1732 d 1752 d the oldest in Frce
* Jewish Cemetery
* Railway Station, constructed in 1908 in neo-Romesque style, a principal building of the Imperial Quarter, built when the city was in Germy
* The city"s botical garden, the Jardin botique de Metz
* The Centre Pompidou

rspor
otorwa
Metz is ideally located at the intersection of two major road axes: The Paris to Strasbourg motorway , itself a part of the E50 motorway connecting Paris to Prague, d the A31 motorway, which goes north to Luxembourg d south towards Ncy, Dijon d Lyon.

igh speed train (TGV
Metz is connected to the French high speed train (TGV) network, which provides a direct rail service to Paris d the city of Luxemburg. The time from Paris (Gare de L"Est) to Metz train station is 82 minutes.
Additionally Metz is served by the "Lorraine TGV" train station, located at Louvigny, to the south of Metz, for high speed trains going to Ntes, Rennes, Lille or Bordeaux (without stopping in Paris). "Lorraine TGV" is 75 mins by train from Paris Airport (Roissy - Charles de Gaulle).

egional train
Metz is one of the main stations of the regional express trains systems named . One of the main lines is the Ncy-Metz-Luxembourg line, completed by my lines going to main cities of the area.

ocal trsportatio
Local trsportation in the agglomeration is carried out by buses.

ive
Metz port is the biggest cereals port in Frce with over 4.000.000 tons/year.
Additionally, there is some significt fluvial tourism cross borders on the Rhine-Mosellle system. (Metz Yacht Club is downtown at the "pl d"eau")

ports d event

* FC Metz, a football team in Ligue 2, the second league in French football
* The Open de Moselle, a tournament of the ATP World Tour 250 series, is played in Metz.
* Europe"s largest hot air balloon festival, hosted by Metz every other year - http://www.pilatre-de-rozier.com/

pollo-Soyuz Test Projec
The town of Metz has the distinction of being the location over which the first international hdshake in space occurred. On July 17, 1975 Americ Apollo Spacecraft docked with a Soviet Soyuz Spacecraft in the first joint international mission in history. When the two spacecraft docked, the hatch was opened d Commders Thomas P. Stafford d Aleksei Leonov shook hds which happened to occur over the town of Metz.

otable people from Met

Metz was the birthplace of:



nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Metz is twinned with:


ee als
* Open de Moselle
* Diocese of Metz

ote


xternal link

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Category:Communes of Moselle
Category:Imperial free cities

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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 17.09.2014 23:34 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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REISEPORTAL
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
|population = 2203817|population ranking = 1st in France|urban area km2 = 2,723|urban area date = 1999|urban pop = 10,142,983|urban pop date = 2006|metro area km2 = 14518.3|metro area date = 1999|metro area pop = 11,769,433|metro area pop date =
"Marseille" (in English also "Marseilles", ; ; locally ; in Occitan "Marselha" or "Marsiho", pronounced ), formerly known as "Massalia" (from ), is the 2nd most populous French city as well as the oldest city in France. It forms the third-largest
 
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