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Germany, Mannheim
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Wasserturm "(water tower)", Mannheim"s landmark.
Mannheim on the Rhine and Neckar rivers.
Aerial map of Mannheim in 1900, showing the grid layout.

"Mannheim" is a city in Germany. With 311,342 inhabitants it is the second-largest city in the state of Baden-Württemberg after the capital Stuttgart.

Mannheim is situated at the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Neckar, in the northwestern corner of the state of Baden-Württemberg. The Rhine separates Mannheim from the adjacent Rhineland-Palatinate city of Ludwigshafen. The Hessian border is north of the city. Mannheim is the largest city of the Rhine Neckar Area, a metropolitan area with 2.4 million inhabitants.

Mannheim is unusual among German cities in that its central area is laid out in a grid pattern (called "Quadrate", squares), much like many North American cities. Accordingly, its nickname is Quadratestadt (German: for "town of the squares"). The main route through the squares leads to an enormous 18th-century palace. This former seat of the Electors of the Palatinate now houses the University of Mannheim.

Mannheim"s city symbol is "der Wasserturm" (the water-tower), located in the east of the city centre. Mannheim is start and finish of Bertha Benz Memorial Route.

"Mannenheim" (Home of Manno) is first mentioned in connection with a legal transaction in 766, in the "Codex Laureshamensis" from Lorsch Abbey. It remained a village until Frederick IV, Elector Palatine initiated building the fortress Friedrichsburg and the adjacent grid-like city core in 1606. On 24 January 1607 he gave Mannheim city privileges.

The city was destroyed subsequently in the Thirty Years" War in 1622 by Tilly"s troops, and in the Nine Years War for the Palatinate succession in 1689 by the French.

After the rebuilding since 1698, the capital of the Electoral Palatinate was transferred from Heidelberg to Mannheim in 1720. It was then that Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine began construction of the Mannheim Palace and the Jesuit Church. They were completed in 1760.

In the 18th century, Mannheim was home to the so-called Mannheim School of classical composers. It was reputed to have one of the best court orchestras in Europe under the leadership of Carlo Grua. The court left Mannheim in 1778 and two decades later, Mannheim was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1802.

In 1819 Norwich Duff made the following observations:
Mannheim is in the Duchy of Baden and situated at the confluence of the Rhine and Neckar over both of which there is a bridge of boats. This is the third town of this name having been twice burnt. The houses are large, and the streets broad and at right angles to each other, and is one of the most airy clean towns I have seen in Germany. It was formerly fortified but the fortifications were rased in 1806 and gardens fill their places. There is a large Chateau here belonging to the Grand Duke and a very good garden; part of the Chateau was destroyed when the town was bombarded and has never since been repaired, the other part is occupied by the Grand Duchess widow of the late Grand Duke who was succeeded by his Uncle having left only three daughters. She is the sister of Eugene Beauharnais . There is a Cathedral, a Theatre which is considered good, an observatory, a gallery of pictures at the Chateau and some private collections. About 2 km (1 mile) below the town the Russian Army crossed the Rhine in 1813. Population 18 300.

Some important inventions were made in Mannheim.
*Karl Drais built the first two-wheeled "draisine" in 1817.
*Karl Benz" first car appeared on the streets of Mannheim in 1886. At his workshop in Mannheim he produced a lightweight three-wheeled vehicle powered by a single cylinder petrol/gasoline-fueled engine, first shown in public around 1886. This powered tricycle subsequently came to be widely regarded as the original automobile/motor car.
*The Lanz Bulldog, a popular tractor with a rugged, simple Diesel engine was introduced in 1921.
*Julius Hatry built the world"s first rocket plane in 1929.

World War II
During World War II, Mannheim (as a key industrial center) was heavily damaged by U.S. and British bombing. The inner city area was practically annihilated.

The first deliberate "terror bombing" of German civilians was the December 16, 1940 bombing of Mannheim.

The city was occupied by the U.S. Army on March 29, 1945. There has been a large American military presence in the Mannheim area ever since (see "United States military installations" below).

In 2007, Mannheim celebrated its 400th birthday with a series of cultural and other events spread over the whole year. The 400th birthday proper was in 2006, since Frederick IV, Elector Palatine laid the foundations of the Mannheim citadel, on March 17, 1606.


The "Nationaltheater Mannheim" was founded in 1779 and is the oldest "Stage" in Germany. In 1782 the premier of "Die Räuber" written by Friedrich Schiller was shown.


|accessdate = Feb 2007

Mannheim is located in Germany"s warmest region, the "Rhine shift". In summer, temperatures sometimes rise up to 35 C° and higher. The highest recorded temperature was 41 C° during the 2003 European heat wave. The daily lows during that time were also very high (around 25 C°). In comparison to other regions of Germany, Mannheim has a higher humidity in summer which causes a higher heat index. Snow is rare, even in the cold months. Precipitation occurs mostly during afternoon thunderstorms during the warmer period (average days of thunderstorms in a year is 40-50).

Main sight

Former City Hall and Market Square
Mannheim University in the palace.
Jesuit Church.
Telecommunication tower and Luisenpark
American bison at the Tierpark

* Fernmeldeturm Mannheim
* Luisenpark - named one of the most beautiful parks of Europe
* Pylon test facility Mannheim
* Mannheim Palace ("Mannheimer Schloss") - the city castle and main building of the University of Mannheim
* Wasserturm - the town"s landmark
* Jesuit Church
* SAP Arena - multifunctional Stadium, home of the Mannheim Ice-hockey Team "Die Adler", which means "The Eagles."
* Breite Strasse, Kunststrasse and Kapuzinerplanken - Mannheims main shopping destination
* International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg
* Wildpark and Waldvogelpark am Karlstern
* City centre, designed in squares (Quadratestadt)
* Reißinsel, a nice part of nature which a former honorary citizen of Mannheim, Carl Reiß, bequeathed to the Mannheim habitants
* Marktplatz (Market place), this is the square where fresh farmer"s market takes place every Monday and Wednesday. Fresh fruits, veggies, and flowers can be purchased.
* Café Samo, the most beloved cafe in town (especially by the university students) where you can drink quality coffee for a very affordable price. Located at Paradeplatz, on the way to Schloss Mannheim

The successor to the Karl Benz automobile manufacturing companies begun in Mannheim, Daimler AG has had a large presence in Mannheim. Today, diesel engines and buses are assembled there. The Swiss Roche Diagnostic group (formerly known as Boehringer Mannheim) has its division headquarters in Mannheim. Additionally, the city also hosts large factories and offices
of ABB, Alstom, BASF (Ludwigshafen), Bilfinger Berger, Bombardier, Fuchs Petrolub AG, John Deere, Siemens, SCA, Südzucker and other companies.

United States military installations
A number of United States military installations are present in Mannheim, including the headquarters of the 5th Signal Command, the Army"s telecommunications command in the European area. The following installations make up the U.S. Army Garrison Mannheim:

*Benjamin Franklin Village (Mannheim-Käfertal) Also home to the and Middle School .
*Coleman Barracks/Coleman Army Airfield (Mannheim-Schönau) (American Forces Network-Europe HQ, U.S. Army Confinement Facility Europe) Also home to the 28th Transportation Battalion
*Funari Barracks (Mannheim-Käfertal) (5th Signal Command headquarters)
*Spinelli Barracks (Mannheim-Feudenheim)
*Sullivan Barracks (Mannheim-Käfertal) (7th Signal Brigade headquarters) (Headquarters of )
*Taylor Barracks (Mannheim-Vogelstang) (2nd Signal Brigade headquarters)

The following installations are part of the U.S. Army Garrison Heidelberg but are within the area of the city of Mannheim:
*Friedrichsfeld Service Center (Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld)
*Hammonds Barracks (Mannheim-Seckenheim)
*Stem Kaserne (Mannheim-Seckenheim)

The long-term future of the Mannheim military community is in doubt since it was not included in U.S. Army Europe"s 2004 announcement of those military communities that would remain after a long-term restructuring and downsizing of U.S. forces in Europe. The U.S. Army has already closed installations in Mannheim such as the Rhine River Patrol compound in Sandhofen (1958), Gendarmerie Kaserne in Schönau, the NATO bunker in Feudenheim and Turley Barracks in Wohlgelegen.



The Mannheim/Ludwigshafen area is surrounded by a ring of motorways connecting it to Frankfurt in the north, Karlsruhe in the south, Saarbrücken in the west and Nürnberg in the east.


Mannheim Hauptbahnhof (central station) is at the end of the Mannheim-Stuttgart high-speed rail line and is the most important railway junction in the southwest of Germany, served by ICE high-speed train system with connections to Frankfurt am Main / Berlin, Karlsruhe / Basel and Stuttgart / Munich. A new high speed line to Frankfurt is also planned to relieve the existing Ried Railway ("Riedbahn").
Mannheim Harbour is the second largest river port in Germany.


Although Frankfurt International Airport is only 65 km north, since 2004 there have been daily passenger flights from Mannheim City Airport (IATA code MHG) to Berlin,
Hamburg and Saarbrücken.

Local Public Transport

Local public transport in Mannheim includes the RheinNeckar S-Bahn, eleven tram lines and numerous bus lines operated by Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr (Rhine-Neckar transport).

The RheinNeckar S-Bahn, established in 2003, connects most of the Rhine-Neckar area including lines into the Palatinate, Odenwald and southern Hesse. All S-Bahn lines run through Mannheim Hauptbahnhof. Further S-Bahn stations are at present Mannheim-Rangierbahnhof, Mannheim-Seckenheim and Mannheim-Friedrichsfeld-Süd.

Metre-gauge trams are operated in Mannheim, Ludwigshafen and Heidelberg by Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr GmbH (RNV), a company wholly owned by the three cities mentioned and a couple of municipalities in the Palatinate. RNV is the result of a merger on 1 October 2009 between the region"s five former municipal transportation companies. Interurban trams are operated by RNV on a triangular route between Mannheim, Heidelberg and Weinheim, and the company also operates interurban trams between Bad Dürkheim, Ludwigshafen and Mannheim. In the 1970s a proposal to build a U-Bahn out of the Mannheim and Ludwigshafen tramways was begun, but only small sections were in fact built due to lack of funds. The only underground station in Mannheim is the Haltestelle Dalbergstraße. U-Bahn planning has now stopped. All public transport is offered at uniform prices set by the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Neckar (Rhine-Neckar transport union, VRN).


Mannheim SAP Arena

The football Bundesliga club TSG 1899 Hoffenheim was based in Mannheim"s Carl-Benz-Stadion from July until December 2008 (until the completion of its new stadium, the Rhein-Neckar-Arena), as is the 4th-division club SV Waldhof Mannheim.

The Adler Mannheim is an ice hockey team playing (formerly MERC, Mannheimer Eis- und Rollhockey Club) in the professional Deutsche Eishockey Liga, having won the championship six times.

The Rhein-Neckar-Loewen (Rhine-Neckar-Lions) is a Handball team (formerly SG Kronau-Oestringen) playing in the professional German Handball League.

The WWE visited Mannheim in 2008 and grossed over half a million dollars with over 6500 fans attending the event.

Mannheim hosted the 2007 European Show Jumping Championships 14 - 19 August, in the MVV-riding stadium. This is second time the city has hosted it, it previously held the championships in 1997.

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Mannheim is twinned with:
* Bydgoszcz, Poland
* Chişinău, Moldova
* Haifa, Israel
* Klaipėda, Lithuania
* Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom
* Toulon, France
* Ulan Ude, Russia
* Windsor, Canada
* Zhenjiang, China

Famous people from Mannheim
*1762: Constanze Mozart, wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
*1821: Friedrich Engelhorn, founder of BASF
*1856: Henry Morgenthau, Sr., United States politician and manager
*1897: Sepp Herberger, coach of the German national soccer team from 1936-64 ("The Miracle of Bern", world champion with his team in 1954)
*1905: Albert Speer, Nazi architect, Minister for Armaments and Munitions during World War II
*1939: Christiane Schmidtmer, actress
*1946: Fred Breinersdorfer, writer
*1960: Norbert Schwefel, musician
*1969: Steffi Graf, tennis player
*1971: Xavier Naidoo, pop singer
*1972: Christian Wörns, football player for Borussia Dortmund and formerly Germany
*1977: Jochen Hecht, Buffalo Sabre National Hockey League
*See also: Famous people from Mannheim (German)


External links

* Photos and maps of Benjamin Franklin Village (Käfertal), Sullivan Barracks (Käfertal)and the Mannheim Military Community in the 1960s

Category:Karlsruhe region
Category:Cities in Baden-Württemberg
Category:Settlements on the Rhine
Category:Historic Jewish communities

Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 22.01.2019 22:52 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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