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Malatya

Turkey, Malatya
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"Malatya" (Hittite: "Melid"; ; , "Malat"ya") is a city and a province in middle eastern Turkey.

Overview
In ancient times, it was also known by its older name of "Melitene", dating back to the Roman period. An even older name (of the ancient Hittite city) was Melid. Ancient Malatya lies a few kilometres from the modern city in what is now the village of Arslantepe and near the dependant district center of Battalgazi (Byzantine to Ottoman). The town of Battalgazi was the location of the Malatya city until the 19th century, when a gradual move to the present third location was started. Battalgazi"s official name was Eskimalatya ("Old Malatya") until recently, a name that is still used locally.

Apricot products in Malatya
The Malatya region is best known for its apricot orchards. About 50% of the fresh apricot production and 95% of the dried apricot production in Turkey, the world"s leading apricot producer, is provided by Malatya and the name of the fruit is synonymous with the city. After having been brought from its homeland in Turkestan in Central Asia and Western China, it reached its most delicious and sophisticated form in the fertile soil of Malatya, nourished from the alluvial soil of tributaries of the Euphrates. Overall, about 10-15% of the worldwide crop of fresh apricots, and about 65-80% of the worldwide production of dried apricots comes out of Malatya. Malatya apricots are often sun-dried by family-run orchards using traditional methods, before they are collected and shipped throughout the world.

By its relative advance in industrial growth, Malatya is also a pole of attraction for its surrounding regions, in commercial as well as inward immigration terms. The city is at a key junction in Turkey’s road and rail network. By rail, it also serves as the junction for Aleppo through Syria-Samsun line. The bus terminal is located 5 kilometers west of the city center and there are regular intercity services to and from Ankara, Istanbul and Gaziantep. The railway station lies at a distance of 3 kilometers west of the city center and daily express trains run to Elazığ, Diyarbakır, Istanbul and Ankara. Both these stations are easily reached by taxis and dolmuş services.

Malatya"s airport, Erhaç Airport, is 26 kilometers west of the city center and there are daily domestic flights from Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir. Since 2007 there have also been international flights during the summer months. These international flights are especially from German cities to Malatya, and most of the passengers are Turkish citizens who are now living and working in German.

History
Arslantepe and Ancient Malatya

Arslantepe is a site inhabited since the development of agriculture in the fertile crescent. It was called Maladiya, Melid or Meliddu by the ancient people. From the Bronze Age the site became an administrative center of a larger region in the kingdom of Isuwa. The city was heavily fortified, probably due to the Hittite menace from the west. The Hittites conquered the city in the fourteenth century BC. After the end of the Hittite empire the city became the center of the Neo-Hittite state of Kammanu. It is the city carrying the old Hittite traditions and styles, and inside the city walls a palace has been found, with statues and reliefs, which are examples of the artistic works of that age. A palace was built and monumental stone sculptures of lions and the ruler erected. Arslantepe was first excavated by the French archaeologist Louis Delaporte in the 1930s.

The encounter with the Assyrian king of Tiglath-Pileser I (1115-1077 BC) resulted in the kingdom of Malatya being forced to pay tribute to Assyria. Malatya continued to prosper however until the Assyrian king Sargon II (722-705 BC) sacked the city in 712 BC. At the same time the Cimmerians and Scythians invaded Anatolia and the city declined. Since 1961 an Italian team of archaeologists, today led by Marcella Frangipane, are working at the site.

Under Roman rule, Melitene was the base camp of Legio XII "Fulminata". Melitene was a major center in Lesser Armenia ("P"ok"r Hayk"), remaining so until the end of the fourth century A.D., when Emperor Theodosius I divided the region into two provinces: First Armenia (Hayk"), with its capital at Sivas, and Second Armenia, with its capital at Melitene. Hakobyan, Tadevos. "«Մալաթիա»" (Malatya). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. vii. Yerevan: Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1981, p. 145.

Middle Ages
During the reign of the Emperor Justinian I (527-565), new administrative reforms were carried out in this region, and Melitene became the capital of the province of Third Armenia. The city was captured by the Rashidun Caliphate in 638 became a base for their raids further into Anatolia, which was pursued also by the Abbasids. The Byzantine Empire took the city back in 856 and it was violently disputed for a century between the Greeks and the Arabs until it was captured in 934 by the Byzantine general John Kourkouas.

In the tenth Century the Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas convinced the Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch to moved many of his followers into the region of Melitene. These Syrians set up bishoprics in Melitene as well as in many surrounding cities.Vryonis, Speros. "The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century". Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971, p. 53. In the period that followed the Turkish advance into Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert, Gabriel of Melitene, a Greek Orthodox Armenian (see Hayhurum) who had risen from the ranks of the Byzantine army, governed the city. From 1086 to 1100 he preserved his independence with the aid of the Beylik of the Danishmends and after 1100, he invested heavily on the commanders of the First Crusade, especially Bohemond I of Antioch and Baldwin of Boulogne. Gabriel gave his daughter Morphia of Melitene in marriage to Baldwin along with a dowry of 50,000 gold bezants. He also helped pay the ransom for Bohemond when he was made captive by Danishmend Gazi. Even Baldwin"s beard weighed heavily on Melitene. William of Tyre relates an anecdote in which Baldwin manipulates Gabriel"s Oriental sensitivities, especially the reverence for the beard, and manages to extract 30,000 bezants from the ruler by duping him, through a scene arranged with his knights, into believing that he had put his beard in pledge for his soldiery"s pay. Gabriel swiftly settled the account and Baldwin and his knights left rejoiced at the success of their stratagem, laughing heartily at the ridiculous veneration of the Orientals for the beard. There are no records of these Armenian assets thus siphoned having been later returned in one form or the other, either by Baldwin or relatives. In 1103, the Danishmend Turks captured Malatya and in 1113, Baldwin forced Morphia to enter in a convent to marry another woman.

The Danishmends took over Malatya three years later in 1103 (see Battle of Melitene). With the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate based in Konya taking over the Beylik of Danishmend in late 12th century, Malatya became part of their realm. The city became Ottoman in 1515. According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia, Malatya city was inhabited by 30,000 people at the time, with a clear Turkish majority, and an Armenian population of 3,000, of whom 800 were Catholics.

oder
During the Hamidian Massacres of 1895-1896, the Armenians of Malatya unsuccessfully attempted to defend themselves against Turkish forces. Over 7,500 Armenians were massacred, the great majority of them women, children and elderly. In the aftermath, a Red Cross team sent to Malatya and led by Julian B. Hubbell reported that a 1,500 Armenian houses had been pillaged and 375 burned to the ground.Balakian, Peter. "The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America"s Response". New York: HarperCollins, 2003, p. 86, ISBN 0-0605-5870-9. In 1915, Malatya had a population hovering around 40,000, around half of which was Armenian. Of the five churches in the city, three belonged to the Armenians. They were chiefly involved in commerce, silkworm cultivation and agriculture. In the spring of 1915, the Armenians of the town were rounded up by Ottoman authorities and sent on death marches to the deserts of Syria. Those who survived the Armenian Genocide settled in a number of different countries.

Cuisine
Meatballs (köfte) have a special place in the cuisine as do apricots, which are used in many meals from kebabs (meat broiled or roasted in small pieces) to desserts. There are over seventy kinds of köfte (meatballs) usually made with wheat and other ingredients mixed in. "Kagit Kebabi" is one of the most important local specialities. "Kagit Kebabi" is a dish made of lamb and vegetables broiled in a wrapper, which is usually oily paper.

Festivals
Malatya Fair and Apricot Festivities has been held since 1978, every year in July, to promote Malatya and apricots and to convene the producers to meet one another. During the festivities, various sports activities, concerts and apricot contests are organized.

Near Apricot Festivities, there are also some other annual activities on summer. Cherry Festivities at Yeşilyurt District of Malatya and Grape Festivities at Arapgir District are organized annually.

Sports
Malatya"s official team is Malatyaspor with colors red and yellow. Malatyaspor football team is currently competing in Bank Asya 1. Lig. Malatyaspor"s stadium is Malatya İnönü Stadium located in the city"s center.

Education
Inonu University being one of the largest universities in eastern Turkey, is located in Malatya. It was establisehd in 1975 and has 3 institutions, and 9 faculties in its campus with more than 2,500 faculty and 20,000 students. It has a large and green campus in the south part of Malatya. Malatya also has several high schools, including Malatya Science High School, Malatya Anatolian High School, Turgut Ozal Anatolian High School, and Yaman Turk High School.

Notable natives
Malatya prides itself for having raised two out of the ten Presidents of Turkey to date. These were;
* İsmet İnönü - 2nd President of Turkey, Prime Minister in ten governments and commander during the Turkish War of Independence, and,
* Turgut Özal - 8th President of Turkey, Prime Minister between 1983-1989
As such, more than half of the eight decades of Republican Turkey was led or strongly influenced by sons of Malatya, as Presidents, Prime Ministers, key ministers or opposition leaders. Other notable natives of Malatya, in chronological order, are;


* Gökhan Saki - K1 - Fighter
* Ahmet Kaya - singer
* Ahmet Kayhan Dede - Sufi master
* Bar-Hebraeus - 13th century Syriac polymath.
* Battal Gazi - 8th century Muslim warrior and a legendary figure in Turkish folk literature.
* Belkıs Akkale - singer
* Bülent Korkmaz - former football player, currently coach of Galatasaray S.K.
* Çetin Alp - singer and performer of Turkey"s entry in the European Song Contest 1983
* Emine Sevgi Özdamar - Turkish-German actress and author
* Hamit Altıntop - football player
* Halil Altıntop - football player
* Hrant Dink - assassinated journalist of Armenian origin
* İlyas Salman - actor

* Kemal Sunal - notable actor
* Kenan Işık - actor
* Mehmet Ali Ağca - assassin of the journalist Abdi İpekçi (murdered); also wounded Pope John Paul II in an assassination attempt
* Mehmet Güven - football player, currently playing for Galatasaray S.K.
* Michael the Syrian - patriarch of the Syrian Orthodox Church from 1166–1199, and best known as the author of the largest medieval "Chronicle".
* Oktay Kaynarca - actor
* Osman Hulusi Ateş Efendi - poet and Sufi master
* Recai Kutan - politician, leader of Felicity Party
* Yonca Evcimik - Turkish pop singer
* Zafer Şakar - football player, currently playing for Galatasaray S.K.
* Zerrin Özer - singer
* Kutsi - singer
* Sebahat Tuncel - DTP Member of Parliament for Istanbul.


External links
* University of Rome"s English and Italian webpages on the excavations

urther readin
* Alboyajian, Arshag. "Պատմութիւն Մալաթիոյ հայոց" ("The History of Armenian Malatya"). Beirut, 1961.

ote




Category:Malatya

ar:ملاطية
br:Malatya
bg:Малатия
cs:Malatya
da:Malatya
de:Malatya
es:Malatya
eo:Malatya
fa:ملطیه
fr:Malatya
ko:말라티야
hy:Մալաթիա
id:Malatya
it:Malatya
sw:Malatya
lv:Malatja
lt:Malatija
nl:Malatya (stad)
pl:Malatya
ro:Malatya
ru:Малатья
fi:Malatya
sv:Malatya
tr:Malatya (merkez)
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 28.06.2022 11:23 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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