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"Marcus Annaeus Lucanus" (November 3, 39 AD–April 30, 65 AD, age 25), better known in English as "Lucan", was a Roman poet, born in Corduba (modern-day Córdoba), in the Hispania Baetica. Despite his short life, he is regarded as one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. His youth and speed of composition set him apart from other poets.

Two brief ancient biographies by Vacca and Suetonius, along with references in Tacitus"s "Annals" and one of Statius"s "Silvae", allow for the reconstruction of a modest biography. Lucan was the grandson of Seneca the Elder and grew up under the tutelage of his uncle Seneca the Younger. Born into a wealthy family, he studied rhetoric at Athens and was probably provided with a philosophical and Stoicist education by his uncle.

He found success under Nero, became one of the emperor"s close friends and was rewarded with a quaestorship in advance of the legal age. In 60 AD, he won a prize for extemporizing "Orpheus" and "Laudes Neronis" at the quinquennial Neronia, and was again rewarded when the emperor appointed him to the augurate. During this time he circulated the first three books of his epic poem, "Pharsalia" (labelled "De Bello civili" in the manuscripts), which told the story of the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey.

At some point, a feud began between Nero and Lucan. Two very different accounts of the events have survived that both trivialize the feud. According to Tacitus, Nero became jealous of Lucan and forbade him to publish his poems.Tacitus, "Annals" XV.49 According to Suetonius, Nero lost interest in Lucan and Lucan responded by writing insulting poems about Nero that Nero continued to ignore.Suetonius, "Lives of the Poets" Life of Lucanus

Other works, though, point to a more serious basis to the feud. Works by the grammarian Vacca and the poet Statius may support the claim that Lucan wrote insulting poems about Nero. Vacca mentions that one of Lucan"s works was entitled "De Incendio Urbis" (On the Burning of the City).Vacca, "Life of Lucanus" Statius" ode to Lucan mentions that Lucan described the "unspeakable flames of the criminal tyrant roamed the heights of Remus."Statius, "Silvae" II.vii Additionally, the later books of "Pharsalia", namely Book IX, are anti-Imperial and pro-Republic. This criticism of Nero and office of the Emperor may have been the true cause of the ban.

Lucan later joined the 65 AD conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso against Nero. His treason discovered, he was obliged to commit suicide by opening a vein at the age of 25, but not before incriminating his mother, among others, in hopes of a pardon. According to Tacitus, as Lucan bled to death, "(he) recalled some poetry he had composed in which he had told the story of a wounded soldier dying a similar kind of death, and he recited the very lines.Possibly "De Bello Civili" IV.516-7 These were his last words."Tacitus, "Annals" XV.70

His father was involved in the proscription but his mother escaped. Statius" poem about Lucan was addressed to his widow Polla Argentaria upon the occasion of his birthday during the reign of Domitian ("Silvae", ii.7, the "Genethliacon Lucani").

According to Vacca and Statius, Lucan"s works included:

Surviving work:
* "Pharsalia" (Civil War), on the war between Julius Caesar and Pompey

Often attributed to him (but to others as well):
* "Laus Pisonis" (Praise of Piso), a panegyric of a member of the Piso family

Lost works:
* "Catachthonion"
* "Iliacon" from the Trojan cycle
* "Epigrammata"
* "Adlocutio ad Pollam"
* "Silvae"
* "Saturnalia"
* "Medea"
* "Salticae Fabulae"
* "Laudes Neronis", a praise of Nero
* "Orpheus"
* "Prosa oratio in Octavium Sagittam"
* "Epistulae ex Campania"
* "De Incendio Urbis", on the Roman fire of 64, perhaps accusing Nero of arson

elected modern studie

* Ahl, Frederick M. "Lucan: An Introduction". Cornell Studies in Classical Philology 39. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Pr., 1976.
* Bartsch, Shadi. "Ideology in Cold Blood: A Reading of Lucan"s Civil War". Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1997.
* Dewar, Michael. "Laying It On with a Trowel: The Proem to Lucan and Related Texts." "Classical Quarterly" 44 (1994), 199–211.
* Fantham, Elaine. "Caesar and the Mutiny: Lucan"s Reshaping of the Historical Tradition in "De Bello Civili" 5.237–373." "Classical Philology" 80 (1985), 119–31.
* ———. "Lucan"s Medusa Excursus: Its Design and Purpose." "Materiali e discussioni" 29 (1992), 95–119.
* Henderson, John G. W. "Lucan: The Word at War." "Ramus" 16 (1987), 122–64.
* Johnson, Walter R. "Momentary Monsters: Lucan and His Heroes". Cornell Studies in Classical Philology 47. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Univ. Pr., 1987.
* Lapidge, M. "Lucan"s Imagery of Cosmic Dissolution." "Hermes" 107 (1979), 344–70.
* Leigh, Matthew. "Lucan: Spectacle and Engagement". New York: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1997.
* Marti, Berthe. "The Meaning of the Pharsalia." "American Journal of Philology" 66 (1945), 352–76.
* Martindale, Charles A. "The Politician Lucan." "Greece and Rome" 31 (1984), 64–79.
* Masters, Jamie. "Poetry and Civil War in Lucan"s "Bellum Civile". Cambridge Classical Studies. New York: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1992.
* ———. "Deceiving the Reader: The Political Mission of Lucan"s Bellum Civile." "Reflections of Nero: Culture, History, and Representation", ed. Jás Elsner and Jamie Masters. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Pr., 1994. 151–77.
* Morford, M. P. O. "The Poet Lucan". New York: Oxford Univ. Pr., 1967.
* O"Gorman, Ellen. "Shifting Ground: Lucan, Tacitus, and the Landscape of Civil War." "Hermathena" 159 (1995), 117–31.
* Rossi, Andreola. "Remapping the Past: Caesar"s Tale of Troy (Lucan "BC" 9.964–999)." "Phoenix" 55 (2001), 313–26.
* Sklenar, Robert John. "The Taste for Nothingness: A Study of "Virtus" and Related Themes in Lucan"s" Bellum Civile. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Mich. Pr., 2003.
* Thomas, Richard F. "The Stoic Landscape of Lucan 9." "Lands and Peoples in Roman Poetry: The Ethnographic Tradition". New York: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1982. 108–23.

xternal link

* : text, concordances and frequency list



Category:39 births
Category:65 deaths
Category:People from Córdoba, Spain
Category:1st-century Romans
Category:Silver Age Latin writers
Category:Latin writers
Category:Roman era poets
Category:Epic poets
Category:Suicides by sharp instrument
Category:Poets who committed suicide
Category:Romans from Hispania

bg:Марк Аней Лукан
ca:Marc Anneu Lucà
cs:Marcus Annaeus Lucanus
da:Marcus Annaeus Lucanus
de:Marcus Annaeus Lucanus
es:Marco Anneo Lucano
it:Marco Anneo Lucano
he:מרקוס אנאוס לוקאנוס
hu:Marcus Annaeus Lucanus
mr:मार्कस ऍनेयस लुकानस
nl:Marcus Annaeus Lucanus
no:Marcus Annæus Lucanus
ru:Марк Анней Лукан
sk:Marcus Annaeus Lucanus
sv:Marcus Annæus Lucanus
tr:Marcus Annaeus Lucanus
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