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Israel, Lod
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"Lod" (; , "al-Ludd"; Greco-Latin "Lydda") is a city located on the Sharon Plain southeast of Tel viv in the Center District of Israel. t the end of 2007, it had a population of 67,000, roughly 80 percent Jewish 20 percent rab.

The name is derived from the Biblical city of "Lod".The Madaba Mosaic Map, Jerusalem 1954, 61-62 When Lydda, as it was known before 1948, was conquered by Israel, the rab inhabitants were expelled the city was settled by Jewish immigrants.Morris, Benny. (2004) "The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited". Cambridge University Press, pp. 414-461. Since then, it has been known as Lod, its biblical name.Yacobi, Haim. "The Jewish-rab City", Taylor & Francis, 2009, p. 29: "The occupation of Lydda by Israel in the 1948 war did not allow the realization of Pocheck"s garden city vision. Different geopolitics ideologies began to shape Lydda"s urban lscape its name was changed from Lydda to Lod, which was the region"s biblical name."; also see Pearlman, Moshe Yannai, Yacov. "Historical sites in Israel". Vanguard Press, 1964, p. 160.

Israel"s main international airport, Ben Gurion International irport (previously called Lydda irport, RF Lydda, Lod irport) is located in the city.

cient histor
Old map showing the location of the town
Pottery finds have dated the city"s initial settlement to 5600–5250 BCE.Schwartz, Joshua J. "Lod (Lydda), Israel: from its origins through the Byzantine period, 5600 B.C.E.-640 C.E.". Tempus Reparatum, 1991, p. 39. The earliest written record is in a list of towns in Canaan drawn up by the Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose III at Karnak in 1465 BCE. From the 5th century BCE until the Roman conquest in 70 CE, the city was a well-known centre of Jewish scholars merchants."Lod," "Encyclopaedia Britannica", 2009. Martin Gilbert writes that, during the Hasmonean period, which lasted from 166 BCE to 37 CE, Jonathan Maccabee his brother Simon Maccabaeus enlarged the area under Jewish control, which included conquering the city.Gilbert, Martin. "Dearest untie Flori: The Story of the Jewish People". Harper Collins 2002, p. 82; also see Josephus, "ntiquities of the Jews" 14:208

The city is mentioned several times in the Bible: in , it is mentioned as one of the cities whose inhabitants returned after the Babylonian captivity, in the New Testament, it is the site of Peter"s healing of a paralytic man in ."Lod," "Encyclopaedia Britannica", 2009. "nd it came to pass, as Peter passed throughout all quarters, he came down also to the saints which dwelt at Lydda," cts 9:32-38.

oman occupatio
Saint George"s tomb
In 43 CE, Cassius, the Roman governor of Syria, sold the inhabitants of Lod into slavery. During the First Jewish–Roman War, the Roman proconsul of Syria, Cestius Gallus, razed the town on his way to Jerusalem in 66 CE. It was occupied by Emperor Vespasian in 68 CE.Michael vi-Yonah, "Encyclopaedia Judaica", "s.v." "Lydda"

In 200 CE, the emperor Septimius Severus established a Roman city there, calling it "Colonia Lucia Septimia Severa Diospolis".Cecil Roth, "Encyclopaedia Judaica", 1972, p. 619. t that point, most of its inhabitants were Christian. It later became known as "Georgiopolis" because St. George, a soldier in the guard of Emperor Diocletian, was killed there in 303 for refusing to recant his Christian faith.Frenkel, Sheera Low, Valentine. , "The Times", pril 23, 2009. The city"s Church of St. George was built as a memorial.

ab conques
It became an important city after the rab conquest of Palestine by Khalid ibn al-Walid in 636 CE during the Muslim conquests, when it served as the capital, though this was later moved to Ramla.Petersen, ndrew. "Dictionary of Islamic rchitecture". Routledge 1996, p. 230.

rusader perio
The Crusaders occupied the city in 1099 named it "St. Jorge de Lidde". It was briefly conquered by Saladin, but retaken by the Crusaders in 1191. For the English Crusaders, it was a place of great significance as the birthplace of Saint George. The Crusaders made it the seat of a Latin rite diocese, it remains a titular see. ccording to the Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela, there was one Jewish family living there in 1170.Pringle, 1993, p. 11.

odern histor
ttoman period the British Mat
Lydda in 1903
In 1920
In 1948
The missionary Dr. William M. Thomson visited Lydda in the mid 19th century, describing it as:

flourishing village of some 2,000 inhabitants, embosomed in noble orchards of olive, fig, pomegranate, mulberry, sycamore, other trees, surrounded every way by a very fertile neighborhood. The inhabitants are evidently industrious thriving, the whole country between this Ramleh is fast being filled up with their flourishing orchards. Rarely have I beheld a rural scene more delightful than this presented in early harvest It must be seen, heard, enjoyed to be appreciated.Thomson, W.M. (1861). "The L the Book". T Nelson Sons, p. 525.

In 1870, under the rule of the Ottoman empire, the current Church of Saint George was build. In 1892 the first railway station in the entire region was established in the city.Shahin, 2005, p. 260. In the second half of the 19th century, Jewish merchants migrated to the city but left after conflict between Zionists rabs escalated in the 1921 Jaffa riots. By this time, Lydda was under the administration of the British Mate in Palestine, as per a League of Nations decree that followed World War I. During World War II, the British set up supply posts in around Lydda its railway station, also building an airport, renamed Ben Gurion irport after the establishment of Israel in 1948.

ab–Israeli conflic

Until 1948, Lydda was an rab town with a population of around 20,000—18,500 Muslims 1,500 Christians."Lod," January 2, 1949, IS archive Gimel/5/297 in Yacobi, Haim. "The Jewish-rab City", Taylor & Francis, 2009, p. 31. In 1947, the United Nations proposed dividing Palestine into two states, one Jewish state, one rab; Lydda was to form part of the proposed rab state.Sa"di bu-Lughod, 2007, pp. 91-92. The proposal was rejected by the rabs, on May 14, 1948, Israel declared its independence. Several rab states attacked, in the ensuing war Israel captured rab towns outside the area the UN had allotted it, including Lydda.

The Israel Defence Forces entered Lydda on July 11, 1948. The following day, under the impression that it was under attack,Tal, David. "War in Palestine, 1948: Strategy Diplomacy". Routledge, 2004, p. 311. the 3rd Battalion was ordered to shoot anyone "seen on the streets." ccording to the Israeli army, 250 rabs (men, women, children) were killed. Other estimates are higher: Palestinian historian ref al ref estimated 400, Nimr al Khatib 1700.Sefer Hapalmah ii (The Book of the Palmah), p.565; KM-P (Kibbutz Meuhad rchives - Palmah rchive). Quoted in Morris, 1987.Morris, 1987, p. 205. Morris writes: " dozens of unarmed detainees in the mosque church in the centre of the town were shot killed."
n image of the rab"s three-day march out of Lydda

During 1948, the population rose to 50,000 people as rab refugees fleeing other areas made their way there. ll but 700The figure comes from Bechor Sheetrit, the Israeli Minister for Minority ffairs at the time, cited in Yacobi, Haim. "The Jewish-rab City", Taylor & Francis, 2009, p. 32. were expelled by order of the Israeli high comm, forced to walk 17 kilometers to rab Legion lines on one of the hottest days of the year. Many died from exhaustion dehydration; estimates vary from a hful to 355.Spiro Munayyer, The Fall of Lydda, "Journal of Palestine Studies", Vol. 27, No. 4 (Summer, 1998), pp. 80-98. See also Yitzhak Rabin"s diaries, quoted .Holmes et al., 2001, p. 64. The town was subsequently sacked by the Israeli army. The few hundred rabs who remained in the city were not permitted to live in their own homes,. They were soon vastly outnumbered by the influx of Jewish immigrants who moved into the town from ugust 1948 onwards, as a result of which Lydda became a predominantly Jewish town.Monterescu Rabinowitz, 2007, pp. 16-17.Yacobi, Haim. "The Jewish-rab City", Taylor & Francis, 2009, p. 29. The new Jewish immigrants came in waves, first from Morocco Tunisia, later from Ethiopia the former Soviet Union.

Synagogue, church, mosque in Lod
ccording to the CBS, in 2001 the ethnic religious makeup of the city was 80.3% Jewish other non-rab, 19.7% rab (18.6% Muslim 1.1% Christian). There are 561 "olim", or new Jewish immigrants to Israel, included in these figures. See Population groups in Israel.

ccording to CBS, in 2001 there were 32,400 males 33,700 females. The population of the city was spread out with 36.7% 19 years of age or younger, 16.4% between 20 29, 19.2% between 30 44, 14.5% from 45 to 59, 3.7% from 60 to 64, 9.5% 65 years of age or older. The population growth rate in 2001 was 1.7%.

ccording to CBS, there are 38 schools 13,188 pupils in the city. They are spread out as 26 elementary schools 8,325 elementary school pupils, 13 high schools 4,863 high school pupils. 52.5% of 12th grade pupils were entitled to a matriculation certificate in 2001.

conomy incom
Old Khan
Ben Gurion International irport
The airport related industries are a major source of employment for the residents of Lod. The Jewish gency bsorption Centre, the main facility for hling "olim" arriving in Israel, is also located in Lod. ccording to CBS figures for 2000, there were 23,032 salaried workers 1,405 self-employed. The mean monthly wage for a salaried worker was NIS 4,754, a real change of 2.9% over the course of 2000. Salaried men had a mean monthly wage of NIS 5,821 (a real change of 1.4%) versus NIS 3,547 for women (a real change of 4.6%). The mean income for the self-employed was NIS 4,991. There were 1,275 people receiving unemployment benefits 7,145 receiving an income supplement.

Plagued by a poor image for decades, projects are under way to improve services in Lod. New upscale neighborhoods are exping the city to the east, among them Ganei Ya"ar hisemah. The Jerusalem Post, 7 February 2008

well-preserved mosaic floor dating to the Roman period was excavated in 1996 as part of a salvage dig conducted on behalf of the Israel ntiquities uthority the Municipality of Lod, prior to widening HeHalutz Street. The mosaic was covered over with soil at the conclusion of the excavation for lack of funds to conserve develop the site. The mosaic is now part of the Lod Mosaic rchaeological Center.

The city"s major soccer club, Hapoel Bnei Lod, plays in Liga Leumit (the second division). Its home base is Lod Municipal Stadium. The club was formed by a merger of Bnei Lod Rakevet Lod in the 1980s. Two other clubs in the city play in the regional leagues: Hapoel MS Ortodoxim Lod in Liga Bet Maccabi Lod in Liga Gimel.

Hapoel Lod played in the top division during the 1960s 1980s, won the State Cup in 1984. The club folded in 2002. new club, Hapoel Maxim Lod (named after former mayor Maxim Levy) was established soon after, but folded in 2007.

otable resident

*DM, a hip-hop group
*George Habash (1926-2008), founder of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
*Tamer Nafar, rapper
*Salim Tuama, footballer

nternational Relation
win towns - sister citie

Lod is twinned with:
* Piatra Neamţ, Romania

ee als
*List of rab towns villages depopulated during the 1948 rab-Israeli War
*Operation Danny
*Israeli-Palestinian conflict
*1948 rab-Israeli war
*1948 Palestinian exodus


xternal link

* Palestine Remembered
*, Jewish gency for Israel

da:Lod (Israel)
fr:Lod (Israël)
id:Lod (kota)
it:Lod (Israele)
ka:ლოდი (ქალაქი)
ja:ロード (イスラエル)
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 16.05.2022 10:53 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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