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"" () is the capital of Slovenia and its largest city. It is located in the centre of the country in the Basin, and is a mid-sized city of some 280,000 inhabitants. Throughout its history, it has been influenced by its geographic position at the crossroads of Germanic, Latin and Slavic cultures.

For centuries, was the capital of the historical region of Carniola, and in the 20th century it became the cultural, scientific, economic, political and administrative centre of Slovenia, independent since 1991. Its transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific and research institutions and cultural tradition are contributing factors to its leading position.

Etymology and symbol
Linguists disagree about the origins of the city"s name. Some believe it derives from the name of the old Slavic water deity Laburus. Others think the word could have evolved from the Latin "Aluviana", itself derived from the word "eluvio", meaning an inundation. It could also come from the Old German "Laubach" ("a lukewarm creek"). There are other explanations as well. However, none of them is really convincing.

The most believable and scientifically acceptable hypothesis is that the city has been named after the river Ljubljanica that flows through it. In the Middle Ages, both the river and the city were named solely "Laibach". This name from the Old German almost for certain means a standing water causing floods. It was in official use till 1918.

The city"s symbol is the Dragon. It symbolises power, courage and greatness. It is depicted on the top of the tower of the Castle in the coat-of-arms and on the Ljubljanica-crossing Dragon Bridge (), often regarded as the most beautiful bridge produced by the Vienna Secession.

There are several explanations on the origin of the Dragon. According to the celebrated Greek legend, the Argonauts on their return home after having taken the Golden Fleece found a large lake surrounded by a marsh between the present-day cities of Vrhnika and . It is there that Jason struck down a monster. This monster has become the dragon that today is present on the city"s coat of arms and flag.

It is historically more believable that the dragon was adopted from Saint George, the patron of the Castle chapel. In the legend of Saint George, the dragon represents the old ancestral paganism overcome by Christianity. In the Bronze Age, the Castle Hill was a holy place where the bearers of the Urnfield culture built their fortress and worshipped their gods. In the Middle Ages, when the foundations of the castle were raised, the builders also wished to symbolically overcome old paganistic faith so they dedicated the castle chapel to Saint George.

According to another explanation, related to the first, the dragon was at first only a decoration above the city coat of arms. In Baroque, it became part of the coat of arms and in the 19th and especially the 20th century, it outstriped the tower and other elements.

skyline, including Castle
Town Square
The northern tip of "s centre (foreground) and Bežigrad (background), beneath the Kamnik–Savinja Alps
Around 2,000 BC, the Marshes were settled by people living in pile dwellings. These lake-dwelling people lived through hunting, fishing and primitive agriculture. To get around the marshes, they used dugout canoes made by cutting out the inside of tree trunks. Later, the area remained a transit point for numerous tribes and peoples. The land was first settled by the Veneti, followed by a mixed nation of Celts and Illyrians called the Iapydes and then in the 3rd century BC a Celtic tribe, the Taurisci.

Around 50 BC, the Romans built a military encampment that later became a permanent settlement called Iulia Aemona (Emona). This entrenched fort was occupied by the "Legio XV Apollinaris". Hildegard Temporini and Wolfgang Haase, "Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt". de Gruyter, 1988. ISBN 3-11-011893-9. In 452, it was destroyed by the Huns under Attila"s orders, and later by the Ostrogoths and the Lombards.Daniel Mallinus, "La Yougoslavie", Éd. Artis-Historia, Brussels, 1988, D/1988/0832/27, p. 37-39. Emona housed 5,000–6,000 inhabitants and played an important role during numerous battles. Its plastered brick houses, painted in different colours, were already connected to a drainage system. In the 6th century, the ancestors of the Slovenes moved in. In the 9th century, the Slovenes fell under Frankish domination, while experiencing frequent Magyar raids.

The name of the city, "Luwigana", appears for the first time in a document from 1144. In the 13th century, the town was composed of three zones: the Old Square ("Stari trg"), the Town Square ("Mestni trg") and the New Square ("Novi trg"). In 1220, was granted city rights, including the right to coin its own money.

In 1270, Carniola and in particular was conquered by King Ottokar II of Bohemia. When he was in turn defeated by Rudolph of Habsburg, the latter took the town in 1278. Renamed "Laibach", it would belong to the House of Habsburg until 1797. The Diocese of was established in 1461 and the Church of St. Nicholas became a cathedral.

In the 15th century, became recognised for its art. After an earthquake in 1511, it was rebuilt in Renaissance style and a new wall was built around it. In the 16th century, the population numbered 5,000, 70% of whom spoke Slovene as their mother tongue, with most of the rest using German. Soon after the first book written in Slovene was published in Germany (Primož Trubar"s Catechism, Tübingen 1550) the pedagogue Adam Bohorič had his three Slovene-language books, "Elementale Labacense oder Abecedarium der lateinischen, deutschen und slowenischen Sprache", his "Nomenclatura trium liguarum" and his "Otroshia tabla", printed in the Carniolan capital by Hans Mannel (Slovene: Janž Mandelc). By that time, the Protestant Reformation had gained ground in the town. Several important Lutheran preachers lived and worked in , including Primož Trubar, Adam Bohorič and Jurij Dalmatin, whose Slovene bible, however, was printed in German Wittenberg. Around the same time, the first secondary school, public library and printing house opened in . thus became the undisputed centre of Slovene culture, a position maintained thereafter. In 1597, the Jesuits arrived in the city and established a new secondary school that later became a college. Baroque architecture appeared at the end of the 17th century as foreign architects and sculptors came in.

The Napoleonic interlude saw as "Laybach" become, from 1809 to 1813, the capital of the Illyrian Provinces. In 1815, the city became Austrian again and from 1816 to 1849 was the administrative centre of the Kingdom of Illyria in the Austrian Empire. In 1821 it hosted the Congress of Laibach, which fixed European political borders for years to come. The first train arrived in 1849 from Vienna and in 1857 the line was extended to Trieste. Public electric lighting appeared in 1898. In 1895, , then a city of 31,000, suffered a serious earthquake measuring 6.1 on the Richter scale. Some 10% of its 1,400 buildings were destroyed, although casualties were light. During the reconstruction that followed, a number of quarters were rebuilt in Art Nouveau style.

In 1918, following the end of World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, the region joined the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1929, became the capital of Drava Banovina, a Yugoslav province. In 1941, during World War II, Fascist Italy occupied the city, and on 3 May 1941 made "Lubiana" the capital of the now Italian "Provincia di Lubiana" with the former Yugoslav general Leon Rupnik as mayor. After the Italian capitulation, Nazi Germany with SS-general Erwin Rösener and Friedrich Rainer took control in 1943 but formally the city remained the capital of an Italian province until 9 May 1945. In , the occupying forces established strongholds and command centres of Quisling organisations, the Anti-Communist Volunteer Militia under Italy and the Home Guard under German occupation. The city was surrounded by over of barbed wire to prevent co-operation between the underground resistance movement (Liberation Front of the Slovenian People) within the city and the Yugoslav Partisans ("Partizani") who operated outside the fence. Since 1985, a commemorative path has ringed the city where this iron fence once stood.

After World War II, became the capital of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia, part of Communist Yugoslavia, a status it retained until 1991, when Slovenia became independent. remained the capital of Slovenia, which entered the European Union in 2004.

Geography and climate
Map of
Map of centre
The city, with an area of , is situated in central Slovenia in the Basin. Its location between Austria, Hungary, the Venice region in Italy and Croatia has strongly influenced its history. is located some west of Zagreb, east of Venice, southwest of Vienna and southwest of Budapest.Approximate road distances calculated through Google Earth.

Topography and hydrography
The city is located at an altitude of along the river Ljubljanica. The castle, which sits atop the Castle Hill ("Grajski grič") south of the city centre, is at altitude while the city"s highest point, called Janče Hill ("Janški hrib"), reaches .

is near the confluence of the rivers Ljubljanica and Sava, at the foot of Castle Hill. The Sava, in turn, flows into the Danube at Belgrade before reaching the Black Sea.

The city stretches out on an alluvial plain dating to the Quaternary era. The nearby, older mountainous regions date back to the Mesozoic (Triassic) or Paleozoic.

A number of earthquakes have devastated , including in 1511 and 1895. Slovenia is in a rather active seismic zone because of its position to the south of the Eurasian Plate. Thus the country is at the junction of three important tectonic zones: the Alps to the north, the Dinaric Alps to the south and the Pannonian Basin to the east. Scientists have been able to identify 60 destructive earthquakes in the past. Additionally, a network of seismic stations is active throughout the country.

"s climate is Oceanic (Köppen climate classification "Cfb"), bordering on a Humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification "Cfa"), with continental characteristics such as warm summers and moderately cold winters. July and August are the warmest months with daily highs generally between , and January is the coldest month with the temperatures mostly oscillating around . The city experiences 90 days of frost per year, and 11 days with temperatures above . The precipitations are relatively evenly distributed through the seasons, although winter and spring tend to be somewhat drier than summer and autumn. Yearly precipitation is about , making one of the wettest European capitals. Thunderstorms are very common from May to September and can occasionally be quite heavy. Snow is common from December to February; on average, there are 65 days with snow cover recorded each winter season. The city is known for its fog, which is recorded on average on 121 days per year, mostly in autumn and winter, and can be particularly persistent in conditions of temperature inversion.

Districts of
has 17 districts, listed below. It was formerly composed of five municipalities (Bežigrad, Center, Moste-Polje, Šiška and Vič-Rudnik) that still correspond to the main electoral constituencies of the city.

Main sights
Despite the appearance of large buildings, especially at the city"s edge, "s historic centre remains intact; there, Baroque and Art Nouveau styles mix. The city is strongly influenced by the Austrian fashion in the style of Graz and Salzburg.

The old city is made up of two districts: one includes town hall and the principal architectural works; the other, the neighbourhood of the Chevaliers de la Croix, features the Ursuline church, the philharmonic society building (1702) and the Cankar Hall.

After the 1511 earthquake, was rebuilt in a Baroque style following the model of a Renaissance town; after the 1895 quake, which severely damaged the city, it was once again rebuilt, this time in an Art Nouveau style. The city"s architecture is thus a mix of styles. The large sectors built after the Second World War often include a personal touch by the Slovene architect Jože Plečnik.

Castle dominates the hill over the river Ljubljanica. Built in the 12th century, the castle (like a castle at Kranj) was a residence of the Margraves, later the Dukes of Carniola. Aside from the castle, the city"s main architectural works are St. Nicholas Cathedral, St. Peter"s Church, the Franciscan Church of the Annunciation, the Triple Bridge and the Dragon Bridge.

Near the town hall, on Town Square, is a replica of the Robba fountain, in Baroque style. The original has been moved into the National Gallery in 2006. Resembling the fountain on Rome"s Piazza Navona, Robba"s fountain is decorated with an obelisk at the foot of which are three figures in white marble symbolising the three chief rivers of Carniola. It is the work of Francesco Robba, who designed numerous other Baroque statues in the city. "s churches are equally marked by this style that gained currency following the 1511 earthquake.

For its part, Art Nouveau features prominently on Prešeren Square and on the Dragon Bridge. Among the important influences on the city was the architect Jože Plečnik, who designed several bridges, including the Triple Bridge, as well as the National Library. Nebotičnik is a notable high-rise.

File:TownHall-.JPG| town hall
File:SLO-20.JPG|Town Square with a replica of the Robba fountain and St. Nicholas Cathedral in the background
File:Frančiškanska072008.JPG|The Franciscan Church of the Annunciation with the monument to France Prešeren at right and the Triple Bridge in the foreground
File:StPeter-.JPG|St. Peter"s Church
File:UrbancevaHisa-.JPG|The Art Nouveau Urbanc House on Prešeren Square

Castle ("Ljubljanski grad") is a mediaeval castle located at the summit of the hill that dominates the city centre. The area surrounding today"s castle has been continuously inhabited since 1200 BC. The hill summit probably became a Roman army stronghold after fortifications were built in Illyrian and Celtic times.

The castle was first mentioned in 1144 as the seat of the Duchy of Carniola. The fortress was destroyed when the duchy became part of the Habsburg domains in 1335. Between 1485 and 1495, the present castle was built and furnished with towers. Its purpose was to defend the empire against Ottoman invasion as well as peasant revolt. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the castle became an arsenal and a military hospital. It was damaged during the Napoleonic period and, once back in the Austrian Empire, became a prison, which it remained until 1905, resuming that function during World War II. The castle"s Outlook Tower dates to 1848; this was inhabited by a guard whose duty it was to fire cannons warning the city in case of fire or announcing important visitors or events.

In 1905, the city of purchased the castle, which underwent a renovation in the 1960s. Today, it is a tourist attraction; cultural events also take place there. Since 2006, a funicular has linked the city centre to the castle atop the hill ("see tram system").

Saint Nicholas Cathedral
Saint Nicholas Cathedral
Saint Nicholas Cathedral ("Stolnica svetega Nikolaja") is the city"s only cathedral. Easily identifiable due to its green dome and twin towers, it is located on Cyril Methodius Square by the nearby Central Market and the town hall.

Originally, the site was occupied by a three-nave Romanesque church first mentioned in 1262. After a fire in 1361 it was re-vaulted in Gothic style. The Diocese of was set up in 1461 and eight years later, a new fire presumably set by the Ottomans once again burnt down the building.

Between 1701 and 1706, the Jesuit architect Andrea Pozzo designed a new Baroque church with two side chapels shaped in the form of a Latin cross. The dome was built in the centre in 1841. The interior is decorated with Baroque frescos painted by Giulio Quaglio between 1703-1706 and 1721-1723.

Dragon Bridge
Dragon Bridge
The Dragon Bridge ("Zmajski most") was built between 1900 and 1901, when the city was part of Austria-Hungary. Designed by a Dalmatian architect who studied in Vienna and built by an Austrian engineer, the bridge is considered one of the finest works in the Vienna Secession Art Nouveau style. Some residents nicknamed the bridge "mother-in-law" in reference to the fearsome dragons on its four corners.

Tivoli Park
Tivoli Park is the largest park in . The park was designed in 1813 by a French engineer J. Blanchard and now covers approximately 5 km2. It has 3 main avenues, planted with chestnut-trees. Within the park, you can find different types of trees, flower gardens, several statues, and fountains.

At the edge of the Tivoli Park is a fish pond, dating back to 1880. On one side of the pond is a small botanic garden, on the other side is a children"s playground. Between 1921 and 1939, Jože Plečnik designed a broad central promenade, called Jakopič promenade after the leading Slovene impressionist painter Rihard Jakopič.

In 1869, had just under 27,000 inhabitants,"Krajevni leksikon Slovenije" (: DZS, 1995), p.297 a figure that grew to 80,000 by the mid-1930s. Demographic growth remained fairly stable between 1999 and 2007, with a population of about 270,000. Before 1996, the city"s population surpassed 320,000 but the drop that year was mainly caused by a territorial reorganisation that saw certain peripheral districts attached to neighbouring municipalities. At the 2002 census, 39.2% of residents were Roman Catholic; 30.4% were believers who did not belong to a religion, unknown or did not reply; 19.2% were atheist; 5.5% were Eastern Orthodox; 5.0% were Muslim; and the remaining 0.7% were Protestant or belonged to other religions.

"Demographic evolution"

Government and crime
Municipal elections take place every four years. Between 2002 and 2006, Danica Simšič was mayor. Since the municipal elections of 22 October 2006, Zoran Janković, an influential businessman in Slovenia, has been the mayor of , having won 62.99% of the votes. The majority on the city council (the mayor"s own party) holds 23 of 45 seats. Among other roles, the council drafts the municipal budget, and is assisted by various boards active in the fields of health, sports, finances, education, environmental protection and tourism. The electoral zone is also composed of 17 districts that have local authorities working with the city council to make known citizens" suggestions and prepare activities in their districts.

The jurisdiction of the police ("Policija") covers an area of , which represents 18.8% of the national territory. There are 17 police stations employing 1,380 individuals, of whom 1,191 are police officers and 189 are civilians. With around 45,000 criminal acts in 2007, the police district alone accounts for over 50% of the country"s crimes. Slovenia and in particular have a quiet and secure reputation.

In 1981, "s per capita GDP was 260% of the Yugoslav average. By the late 2000s, produced about 25% of Slovenia"s GDP. In 2003, the level of active working population was 62%; 64% worked in the private sector and 36% in the public sector. In January 2007, the unemployment rate was 6.5% (down from 7.7% a year earlier), compared with a national average of 8.7%.

Industry remains the city"s most important employer, notably in the pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals and food processing. Other fields include banking, finance, transport, construction, skilled trades and services and tourism. The public sector provides jobs in education, culture, health care and local administration.

The Stock Exchange (), purchased in 2008 by the Vienna Stock Exchange, deals with large Slovenian companies. Some of these have their headquarters in the capital region: for example, the retail chain Mercator, the oil company Petrol d.d. and the telecommunications concern Telekom Slovenije. Over 15,000 enterprises operate in the city, most of them in the tertiary sector.

The main building of the University of , formerly the seat of the Carniolan Parliament
The Academy of the Industrious ("Academia operosorum Labacensis") opened in 1693; it closed in 1801 but was a precursor to the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1938. Today, students make up one-seventh of "s population, giving the city a youthful character. The University of , Slovenia"s most important and "s only university, was founded in 1919. As of 2008, it has 22 faculties, three academies and a college. These offer Slovene-language courses in (among other subjects) medicine, applied sciences, arts, law and administration. The university has close to 64,000 students and some 4,000 teaching faculty.

In 2004, the national library and university library had 1,169,090 books in all. In 2006, the 55 primary schools had 20,802 pupils and the 32 secondary schools had 25,797.

Statue of France Prešeren, who lived in the city
has numerous art galleries and museums. In 2004, there were 15 museums, 41 art galleries, 11 theatres and four professional orchestras. There is for example an architecture museum, a railway museum, a sports museum, a museum of modern art, a brewery museum, the Slovenian Museum of Natural History and the Slovene Ethnographic Museum. The Zoo covers and has 152 animal species. An antique flea market takes place every Sunday in the old city. In 2006, the museums received 264,470 visitors, the galleries 403,890 and the theatres 396,440.

Each year over 10,000 cultural events take place in the city; among these are ten international festivals of theatre, music and art generally. Numerous music festivals are held there, chiefly in European classical music and jazz, for instance the Summer Festival ("Ljubljanski poletni festival"). In the centre of the various Slovenian wine regions, is known for being a "city of wine and vine". Grapevines were already being planted on the slopes leading up to the Castle Hill by the Roman inhabitants of Emona.

In 1701, present-day Slovenia"s first philharmonic academy opened in , which spurred the development of musical production in the region. Some of its honorary members would include Joseph Haydn, Ludwig van Beethoven and Johannes Brahms, as well as the violinist Niccolò Paganini. Early in his career, Gustav Mahler served as conductor at the opera house, giving eighty-four complete performances between September 1881 and April 1882.

The National Gallery ("Narodna galerija"), founded in 1918, and the Museum of Modern Art ("Moderna galerija"), both in , exhibit the most influential Slovenian artists. On Metelkova street there is a social centre dedicated to alternative culture, set up in a renovated former Austro-Hungarian barracks. This lively street has numerous clubs and concert halls that play various types of music, mainly alternative rock. Another alternative culture centre is located in the former Rog factory. In the 1980s, became the centre of the "Neue Slowenische Kunst", which among others included the music group Laibach and the painters of the IRWIN collective; the philosopher Slavoj Žižek was also associated with it.

"s ice hockey clubs are HD HS Olimpija, ŠD Alfa, HK Slavija and HDD Olimpija . They all compete in the Slovenian Hockey League; HDD Olimpija also takes part in the Austrian Hockey League. The basketball teams are KD Slovan, ŽKD Ježica and KK Union Olimpija. The latter, which has a green dragon as its mascot, hosts its matches in the 6,000-seat Hala Tivoli, also the home rink of HDD Olimpija .

The city"s football teams which play in the Slovenian PrvaLiga are Interblock and NK Olimpija .

Each year since 1957, on 8-10 May, the traditional recreational "March along the Path around " has taken place to mark the liberation of on 9 May 1945. The last Sunday in October, the Marathon is run on the city"s streets. It attracts several thousand runners each year.

The Tacen Whitewater Course, located on the Sava River, eight kilometers northwest of the city centre, hosts a major international canoe/kayak slalom competition almost every year, examples being the 2008 International Canoe Federation (ICF) Slalom World Cup and the 1991 and 2010 World Championships.

railway station, with buses.
Railway at central garage.
is at the centre of the Slovenian road network, which links the city to all parts of the country. Until July 2008, toll booths were used, but were replaced by a vignette system. The city, in central Slovenia, is linked to the southwest by A1-E70 to the Italian cities of Trieste and Venice and the Croatian port of Rijeka.Michelin, "Slovénie, Croatie, Bosnie-Herzégovine, Serbie, Monténégro, Macédoine", Cartes et guides n°736, Michelin, Zellik, Belgium, 2007, ISBN 978-2-06-712627-5 To the north, A1-E57 leads to Maribor, Graz and Vienna. To the east, A2-E70 links it with the Croatian capital Zagreb, from where one can go to Hungary or important cities of the former Yugoslavia, such as Belgrade. To the northwest, A2-E61 goes to the Austrian cities of Klagenfurt and Salzburg, making it an important entry point for northern European tourists.

The bus network, run by the city-owned Ljubljanski potniški promet, is "s only current means of public transportation. Usually, the buses are called "trole" ("trolleys"), harking back to the 1951–71 days when had trolleybus ("trolejbus") service ("trole" is used to refer only to "s buses, and not those in other Slovenian cities). One can also rent bicycles in the city, and there are numerous taxi companies.

railway station is part of a railway network that links Germany to Croatia through the Munich-Salzburg--Zagreb line. A second network is the Vienna-Graz-Maribor- one, which links Austria to Slovenia. A third is the Genoa-Venice- one, linking to Italy. Finally, a line goes to Budapest.

Airport (IATA code LJU), located north of the city, has flights to numerous European destinations. Among the companies that fly from there are Adria Airways, Air France, Brussels Airlines, EasyJet and Finnair. Among the destinations served are Amsterdam, Athens, Barcelona, Belgrade, Brussels, Budapest, Bucharest, Copenhagen, Dublin, Frankfurt, Helsinki, Istanbul, Kijev, London, Manchester, Moscow, Munich, Ohrid, Paris, Podgorica, Prague, Pristhina, Stockholm, Skopje, Vienna, Warsaw, Tirana, Tel Aviv and Zurich.

nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
is twinned with:

See also
* List of people from



External links


Category:Capitals in Europe
Category:Cities, towns and villages in Slovenia

be:Горад Любляна
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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 01.12.2021 17:36 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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"" () is the capital of Slovenia and its largest city. It is located in the centre of the country in the Basin, and is a mid-sized city of some 280,000 inhabitants. Throughout its history, it has been influenced by its geographic position at the
"" () is the capital of Slovenia and its largest city. It is located in the centre of the country in the Basin, and is a mid-sized city of some 280,000 inhabitants. Throughout its history, it has been influenced by its geographic position at the
"" () is the capital of Slovenia and its largest city. It is located in the centre of the country in the Basin, and is a mid-sized city of some 280,000 inhabitants. Throughout its history, it has been influenced by its geographic position at the
"" (German: ) is the second largest city in Slovenia, with 106,308 inhabitants as of 2008. lies on the river Drava at the meeting point of the Pohorje mountain, the Drava Valley, the Drava Plain, and the Kozjak and Slovenske gorice hill ranges. "s
"" (German: ) is the second largest city in Slovenia, with 106,308 inhabitants as of 2008. lies on the river Drava at the meeting point of the Pohorje mountain, the Drava Valley, the Drava Plain, and the Kozjak and Slovenske gorice hill ranges. "s
/person|blank2_name =Households|blank2_info =18,190|blank3_name =Families|blank3_info =14,554|website = |footnotes = Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia,
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