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Liverpool

Great Britain, Liverpool
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Demography
Population of , 1801-2001
The ornamental gate to Chinatown,
As wh other major Brish cies, has a large and diverse population. At the 2001 UK Census the recorded population of was 441,900, whilst a mid-2007 estimate by the NS had the cy"s population as 435,500, which would make the sixth largest district in the UK (N.B. This figure includes only those areas "officially" whin the cy boundaries). ’s population peaked in 1930s wh 846,101 recorded in the 1931 census. Since then the cy has experienced negative population growth every decade, wh at s peak over 100,000 people leaving the cy between 1971 and 1981. Between 2001 and 2006 experienced the ninth largest percentage population loss of any UK unary authory, although has been suggested that overall the cy"s population is now stabalising after rapid decline in the 1980s and 1990s.

In common wh many cies, "s population is younger than that of England as a whole, wh 42.3 per cent of s population under the age of 30, compared to an English average of 37.4 per cent. 65.1 per cent of the population is of working age.

is home to Brain"s oldest Black communy, dating to at least the 1730s, and some Black Liverpudlians are able to trace their ancestors in the cy back ten generations. Early Black settlers in the cy included seamen, the children of traders sent to be educated, and freed slaves, since slaves entering the country after 1722 were deemed free men.

The cy is also home to the oldest Chinese communy in Europe; the first residents of the cy"s Chinatown arrived as seamen in the nineteenth century. The gateway in Chinatown, is also the largest gateway outside of China. The cy is also known for s large Irish and Welsh populations. In 1813, 10 per cent of "s population was Welsh, leading to the cy becoming known as "the capal of North Wales". Following the start of the Irish Potato Famine, two million Irish people migrated to in the space of one decade, many of them subsequently departing for the Uned States. By 1851, more than 20 per cent of the population of was Irish. At the 2001 Census, 1.17 per cent of the population were Welsh-born and 0.75 per cent were born in the Republic of Ireland, while 0.54 per cent were born in Northern Ireland, but many more Liverpudlians are of Welsh or Irish ancestry.

As of 2005, an estimated 92.3 per cent of "s population was Whe, 1.9 per cent Asian or Asian Brish, 1.8 per cent Black or Black Brish, 1.9 per cent mixed-race and 2.1 per cent Chinese and other.

Economy
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added (GVA) of at current basic prices (pp. 240–253) by the ffice for National Statistics wh figures in millions of pounds sterling.


ne Shopping Complex

The economy of is beginning to recover from s long, post-World War II decline. Between 1995 and 2001 GVA per head grew at 6.3% annum. This compared wh 5.8% for inner London and 5.7% for Bristol. The rate of job growth was 9.2% compared wh a national average of 4.9% for the same period, 1998-2002. However, is still comparatively deprived; a 2001 report by CACI showed that still had four of the ten poorest postcode districts in the country, and almost 30% of people aged 65 or over are whout central heating.

Like the rest of the Uned Kingdom the cy has seen a large growth in the service sector, both public and private. Government offices include parts of the National Health Service, Revenue and Customs and Home ffice agencies such as the Criminal Records Bureau and the Identy and Passport Service, formerly the UK Passport Agency. Major private sector service industry concerns have also invested in especially the financial services sector wh Barclays, JPMorgan, Abbey National, Alliance & Leicester, Royal Bank of Scotland Group, HBS and the Bank of Ireland eher opening or expanding their ses, a number of major call centres have opened in recent years too and the professional advice sector. The activies of the port had, due to containerisation and reduced levels of commerce, left the region wh a communications infrastructure that exceeded s requirements, however the port"s cargo volumes have picked up significantly.

Growth in the areas of New Media has been helped by the existence of a relatively large computer game development communy. Sony based one of only a handful of European PlayStation research and development centres in Wavertree, after buying out noted software publisher Psygnosis. According to a 2006 issue of industry magazine "Edge" (issue 162), the first professional qualy PlayStation software developer"s ks were largely programmed by Sony"s "studio".

Tourism is a major factor in the economy and this has led to a great increase in the provision of high qualy services such as hotels, restaurants and clubs. The buildings of also attract film makers, who regularly use to double for cies around the world and making the second most filmed cy in the UK. is also one of the few cies in the world where cruise liners can berth in the cy centre, and from 2008 a significant number of ships will eher set sail or call at "s cruise liner terminal, including the Grand Princess, and the QE2. Large naval ships coming in to dock also draw large crowds on sunny days. and s boroughs have a large number of sandy beaches accessible by Merseyrail, which prove popular in the summer months.
Chavasse Park, located on the waterfront by ne
Car-manufacturing also takes place in the cy at the Halewood plant where the Jaguar X-Type and Land Rover Freelander models are assembled.

The owner of "s port and airport, Peel Holdings, announced on 6 March 2007 that is had plans to redevelop the cy"s northern dock area wh a scheme entled Waters, which may see the creation of 17,000 jobs and £5.5bn invested in the viciny over a 50 year period. This is coupled wh a sister scheme on the other side of the River Mersey, called Wirral Waters.

"s main shopping area is "Church Street", lying between Bold Street to the East and Lord Street to the West. ne opened fully in ctober 2008 being the redevelopment of a large part of the postcode area L1—hence the name. It is also partly built on the old Chavasse Park, but much of the park still remains.

Landmarks


cy centre in late-2008 viewed from Cathedral, the new financial district and historic waterfront can be seen to the left, whilst the most prominent structure to the right is St. John"s Beacon

"s history means that there are a considerable variety of archectural styles found whin the cy, ranging from 16th century Tudor style, right through to modern day contemporary archecture.Hughes (1999), p10 The majory of buildings in the cy date from the late-eighteenth century onwards, the period during which the cy grew into one of the foremost powers in the Brish Empire.Hughes (1999), p11 There are over 2,500 listed buildings in , of which 27 are Grade I listed and 85 are Grade II* listed, and only the UK capal London, has more. The cy also has a greater number of public sculptures than any other location in the Uned Kingdom aside from Westminster and more Georgian houses than the cy of Bath. This richness of archecture has subsequently seen described by English Herage, as England"s finest Victorian cy. The value of "s archecture and design was recognised in 2004, when several areas throughout the cy were declared a UNESC World Herage Se. Known as the Marime Mercantile Cy, the ses were added in recognion of the cy"s role in the development of International trade and docking technology.

Waterfront and docks
The Albert Dock is one of the biggest tourist attractions in
As a major Brish port, the docks in have historically been central to the cy"s development. Several major docking firsts have occurred in the cy including the construction of the world"s first enclosed wet dock (the ld Dock) in 1715 and the first ever hydraulic lifting cranes. The most well known dock in is the Albert Dock, which was constructed in 1846 and today comprises the largest single collection of Grade I listed buildings anywhere in Brain. Built under the guidance of Jesse Hartley, was considered to be one of the most advanced docks anywhere in the world upon completion and is often attributed wh helping the cy to become one of the most important ports in the world. North of the cy centre is Stanley Dock, home to the Stanley Dock Tobacco Warehouse, which was at the time of s construction in 1901, the world"s largest building in terms of areaNicholls, p38 and today stands as the world"s largest brick-work building.

The "Three Graces" of "s waterfront at night, viewed from the River Mersey
ne of the most famous locations in is the Pier Head, renowned for the trio of buildings - the Royal Liver Building, the Cunard Building and the Port of Building - which s upon . Collectively referred to as the "Three Graces", these buildings stand as a testament to the great wealth in the cy during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Built in a variety of archectural styles, they are recognised as being the symbol of Marime , and are regarded by many as contributing to one of the most impressive waterfronts in the world. Cy Counci (2005), p49Moscardini (2008), p10Nicholls (2005), p11Pevsner (ced in Sharples, 2004), p 67

In recent years, several areas along "s waterfront have undergone significant redevelopment. Amongst the notable recent developments are the construction of the Echo Arena and BT Convention Centre on Kings Dock, Alexandra Tower on Princes Dock and Marina around Coburg and Brunswick Docks.

Commercial District and Cultural Quarter
"s Town Hall, as seen looking up Castle Street. The Building in the foreground on the right is the former Bank of England Building
"s historic posion as one of the most important trading ports in the world has meant that over time many grand buildings have been constructed in the cy as headquarters for shipping firms, insurance companies, banks and other large firms. The great wealth this brought, then allowed for the development of grand civic buildings, which were designed to allow the local administrators to "run the cy wh pride".

The commercial district is centred around the Castle Street, Dale Street and ld Hall Street areas of the cy, wh many of the area"s roads still following their medieval layout. Having developed over a period of three centuries the area is regarded as one of the most important archectural locations in the cy, as recognised by s inclusion in "s World Herage se. Cy Council (2005), p73 The oldest building in the area is the Grade I listed Town Hall, which is located at the top of Castle Street and dates from 1754. ften regarded as the cy"s finest piece of Georgian archecture, the building is noted as one of the most extravagantly decorated civic buildings anywhere in Brain. Cy Council (2005), p74Sharples, p48 Also on Castle Street is the Grade I listed Bank of England Building, constructed between 1845–1848, as one of only three provincial branches of the national bank. Amongst the other noted buildings in the area are the Tower Buildings, Albion House (the former Whe Star Line headquarters), the Municipal Buildings and riel Chambers, YouTube which is considered to be one of the earliest Modernist style buildings ever built.

neo-classical St George"s Hall
The area around William Brown Street is referred to as the cy"s "Cultural Quarter", owing to the presence of numerous civic buildings, including the William Brown Library, Walker Art Gallery, Picton Reading Rooms and World Museum . The area is dominated by neo-classical archecture, of which the most prominent, St George"s Hall, YouTube is widely regarded as the best example of a neo-classical building anywhere in Europe. Cy Council (2005), p87 A Grade I listed building, was constructed between 1840 and 1855 to serve a variety of civic functions in the cy and s doors are inscribed wh "S.P.Q.L." (Latin "senatus populusque Liverpudliensis"), meaning the "the senate and people of ". William Brown Street is also home to numerous public monuments and sculptures, including Wellington"s Column and the Steble Fountain. Many others are located around the area, particularly in St John"s Gardens, which was specifically developed for this purpose. Cy Council (2005), p93

ther notable landmarks
Speke Hall Tudor manor house is one of "s oldest buildings
Whilst the majory of "s archecture dates from the mid-eighteenth century onwards, there are several buildings that pre-date this time. ne of the oldest surviving buildings is Speke Hall, a Tudor manor house located in the south of the cy, which was completed in 1598.Hughes (1999), p20 The building is one of the few remaining timber framed Tudor houses left in the north of England and is particularly noted for s Victorian interior, which was added in the mid-19th century. In addion to Speke Hall, many of the cy"s other oldest surviving buildings are also former manor houses including Croxteth Hall and Woolton Hall, which were completed in 1702 and 1704 respectively.Hughes (1999), p22
The oldest building whin the cy centre is the Grade I listed Bluecoat Chambers, YouTube which was built between 1717 and 1718. Constructed in Brish Queen Anne style, Cy Council (2005), p97Hughes (1999), p23 the building was influenced in part by the work of Christopher WrenSharples (2004), p7 and was originally the home of the Bluecoat School (who later moved to larger se in the south of the cy). Since 1908 has acted as a centre for arts in .

Cathedral is regarded as one of the greatest buildings of the twentieth century
is noted for having two Cathedrals, each of which imposes over the landscape around . The Anglican Cathedral, which was constructed between 1904 and 1978, is the largest Cathedral in Brain and the fifth largest in the world. Designed and built in Gothic style, is regarded as one of the greatest buildings to have been constructed during the 20th centurySharples (2004), p83 and was described by former Brish Poet Laureate, John Betjeman, as "one of the great buildings of the world’. The Roman Catholic Metropolan Cathedral was constructed between 1962 and 1967 and is noted as one of the first Cathedrals to break the tradional longudinal design.Sharples (2004), p73

In recent years, many parts of "s cy centre have undergone significant redevelopment and regeneration after years of decline. The largest of these developments has been ne, which has seen almost £1 billion invested in the redevelopment of 42 acres of land, providing new retail, commercial, residential and leisure space. Around the north of the cy centre several new skyscrapers have also been constructed including the RIBA award winning Uny Building and West Tower, which at 140m is "s tallest building. Many future redevelopment schemes are also planned including Central Village (planning permission granted), the Lime Street gateway (work started) and the highly ambious Waters (early planning stage).

There are many other notable buildings in , including the art deco former terminal building of Speke Airport, the Universy of "s Victoria Building, (which provided the inspiration for the term "Red Brick Universy"), and the Adelphi Hotel, which was in that past considered to be one of the finest hotels anywhere in the world.

The English Herage National Register of Historic Parks describes ’s Victorian Parks as collectively the "most important in the country" The cy of has nine listed parks and cemeteries, including three Grade II*, more than any other English cy apart from London. "News", 23/2/2009

Religion


View of Metropolan Cathedral of Christ the King
The thousands of migrants and sailors passing through resulted in a religious diversy that is still apparent today. This is reflected in the equally , and two Christian cathedrals.

Christ Church, in Buckingham Road, Tuebrook, is a conservative evangelical congregation and is affiliated wh the Evangelical Connexion. They worship using the 1785 Prayer Book, and regard the Bible as the sole rule of fah and practice.

The parish church of is the Anglican ur Lady and St Nicholas, colloquially known as "the sailors church", which has existed near the waterfront since 1257. It regularly plays host to Catholic masses. ther notable churches include the Greek rthodox Church of St Nicholas (built in the Neo-Byzantine archecture style), and the Gustav Adolfus Kyrka (the Swedish Seamen"s Church, reminiscent of Nordic styles).

"s wealth as a port cy enabled the construction of two enormous cathedrals, both dating from the 20th century. The Anglican Cathedral, which was designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott and plays host to the annual Shakespeare Festival, has one of the longest naves, largest organs and heaviest and highest peals of bells in the world. The Roman Catholic Metropolan Cathedral, on Mount Pleasant next to Science Park was inially planned to be even larger. f Sir Edwin Lutyens" original design, only the crypt was completed. The cathedral was eventually built to a simpler design by Sir Frederick Gibberd; while this is on a smaller scale than Lutyens" original design, still manages to incorporate the largest panel of stained glass in the world. The road running between the two cathedrals is called Hope Street, a coincidence which pleases believers. The cathedral is colloquially referred to as "Paddy"s Wigwam" due to s shape.The term may have s origins in religious and racial sectarianism, which, while now largely disappeared, was once notoriously virulent in .

contains several synagogues, of which the Grade I listed Moorish Revival Princes Road Synagogue is archecturally the most notable. Princes Road is widely considered to be the most magnificent of Brain"s Moorish Revival synagogues and one of the finest buildings in .Sharples, Joseph, Pevsner Archectual guide to , Yale Universy Press, 2004, p. 249 has a thriving Jewish communy wh a further two orthodox Synagogues, one in the Allerton district of the cy and a second in the Childwall district of the cy where a significant Jewish communy reside. A third orthodox Synagogue in the Greenbank Park area of L17 has recently closed, and is a listed 1930s structure. There is also a Lubavch Chabad House and a reform Synagogue. has had a Jewish communy since the mid-18th century. The current Jewish population of is around 3000.

also has an increasing Hindu communy, wh a Mandir on 253 Edge Lane; the Radha Krishna Hindu Temple from the Hindu Cultural rganisation based there. The current Hindu population in is about 1147. also has the Guru Nanak Sikh Gurdwara in L15.

The cy had one of the earliest mosques in Brain, founded in 1887 by William Abdullah Quilliam, a lawyer who had converted to Islam. This mosque, which was also the first in England, however no longer exists. Plans have been ongoing to re-convert the building where the mosque once stood into a museum. Currently there are three mosques in : the largest and main one, Al-Rahma mosque, in the Toxteth area of the cy and a mosque recently opened in the Mossley Hill district of the cy. The third mosque was also recently opened in Toxteth and is on Granby Street.

Transport

Transport in is primarily centred around the cy"s road and rail networks, both of which are extensive and provide links across the Uned Kingdom. has an extensive local public transport network, which is managed by the Passenger Transport Executive, and includes buses, trains and ferries. Addionally, the cy also has an international airport and a major port, both of which provides links to locations outside the country.

ational and International Trave
;Road links
As a major cy, has direct road links wh many other areas whin England. To the east, the M62 motorway connects wh Hull and along the route provides links to several large cies, including Manchester, Leeds and Bradford. The M62 also provides a connection to both the M6 motorway and M1 Motorway, providing indirect links to more distant areas including Birmingham, Sheffield, Preston, London and Nottingham. To the west of the cy, the Kingsway and Queensway Tunnels connect wh the Wirral Peninsula, providing links to both Birkenhead, and Wallasey. The A41 road, which begins in Birkenhead, also provides links to Cheshire and Shropshire and via the A55 road, North Wales. To the south, is connected to Widnes and Warrington via the A562 road and subsequently across the River Mersey to Runcorn, via the Silver Jubilee Bridge. Plans have been developed in recent years to construct a second bridge, known as the Mersey Gateway, across the river in order to alleviate congestion on the route today.
Lime Street Station

;Rail links
is served by two separate rail networks. The local rail network is managed and run by Merseyrail and provides links throughout and beyond (see Local Travel below), whilst the national network, which is managed by Network Rail, provides wh connections to major towns and cies across the England. The cy"s primary mainline station is Lime Street station, which acts as a terminus for several lines into the cy. Train services from Lime Street provide connections to numerous destinations, including London (in 2 hours 8 minutes wh Pendolino trains), Birmingham, Newcastle upon Tyne, Manchester, Preston, Leeds, Scarborough, Sheffield, Nottingham and Norwich. In the south of the cy, South Parkway provides a connection to the cy"s airport.
John Lennon Airport entrance

;Port
The Port of is one of Brain"s largest ports, providing passenger ferry services across the Irish Sea to Belfast, Dublin and the Isle of Man. Services are provided by several companies, including the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, P& and Norfolkline. In 2007, a new cruise liner terminal was opened in , located alongside the Pier Head in the cy centre. The terminal will allow cruise ships to dock in the cy (40 ships are due in during 2009) and also provide a base for trans-Atlantic services.

;Airport
John Lennon Airport, which is located in the south of the cy, provides wh direct air connections across the Uned Kingdom and Europe. In 2008, the airport handled over 5.3 million passengers and today offers services to 68 destinations, including Berlin, Rome, Milan, Paris, Barcelona and Zurich. The airport is primarily served by low-cost airlines, notably Ryanair and Easyjet, although does provide addional charter services in the summer. In 2008, Dutch airline KLM started a three-times daily service to Amsterdam from JLA, providing passengers wh the option to fly to over 650 destinations across the world wh the airline, via the Dutch airport.

ocal Trave
;Buses
Local bus services whin and around are managed by the Passenger Transport Executive (more commonly known as Merseytravel) and are run by several different companies, including Arriva and Stagecoach. The two principal termini for local buses are Queen Square Bus Station (located near Lime Street railway station) for services north and east of the cy, and ne Bus Station formerly known as Paradise Street Bus Interchange (located near the Albert Dock) for services to the south and east. Cross-river services to the Wirral use roadside terminus points in Castle Street and Sir Thomas Street. A night bus service also operates on Saturdays providing services from the cy centre across and .
The Merseyrail Network has extensive underground sections whin the cy centre

;Trains
"s local rail network is one of the busiest and most extensive in the country, covering 75 miles of track, wh an average of 100,000 passenger journeys per weekday. Services are operated by the Merseyrail franchise and managed by the Passenger Transport Executive. The network consists of three lines: the Northern Line, which runs to Southport, rmskirk, Kirkby and Hunts Cross; the Wirral Line, which runs through the Mersey Railway Tunnel and has branches to New Brighton, West Kirby, Chester and Ellesmere Port; and the Cy Line, which begins at Lime Street, providing links to St Helens, Wigan, Preston, Warrington and Manchester. It should be noted that local services on the cy line are operated by Northern Rail rather than Merseyrail, although the line self remains part of the Merseyrail network. Whin the cy centre the majory of the network is underground, wh 5 cy centre stations and over 6.5 miles of tunnels.
MV Royal Iris of the Mersey is one of three ferries that provide cross river services between and the Wirral

;Mersey Ferry
The cross river ferry service in , known as the Mersey Ferry, is managed and operated by Merseytravel, wh services operating between the Pier Head in and both Woodside in Birkenhead and Seacombe in Wallasey. Services operate at intervals ranging from 20 minutes at peak times, to every hour during the middle of the day and during weekends. Despe remaining an important transport link between the cy and the Wirral Peninsula, the Mersey Ferry has become an increasingly popular tourist attraction whin the cy, wh daytime River Explorer Cruises providing passengers wh an historical overview of the River Mersey and surrounding areas.

;Proposed new tram
In 2001, a plan to build new a light rail system, Merseytram was developed. After central government insisted on addional guarantees prior to the release of previously commted funds, was cancelled in November 2005. However, is to be included in the transport plan from 2006–2011, as is deemed to be an important part of "s development.

;Leeds and Canal
Built between 1770 and 1816 the Leeds and Canal links and the Mersey to Leeds and the River Aire. Its terminus had been at ld Hall Street, Pall Mall, Chisenhale Street, but that section now ends at Eldonian Village. A flight of locks just north of there takes the canal down to Stanley Dock, famous for the Tobacco Warehouse, and on to the main dock system.

A new link across the front of the Pier Head buildings will link the northern docks to the Albert Dock is presently under construction, wh the plan being to open during "s Capal of Culture Year of 2008.

Culture
2008 flag, flying in front of the Port of Building
In 2003, was named a for 2008, the other se being Stavanger, Norway. A series of cultural events during 2003-9 is planned, peaking in 2008.

Lerature
A number of notable authors have vised including Daniel Defoe, Washington Irving, Thomas De Quincey, Herman Melville, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Charles Dickens, Gerald Manley Hopkins and Hugh Walpole all of whom spent extended periods in the cy. Hawthorne was stationed in as Uned States consul between 1853 and 1856.
Although he is not known to have ever vised , Jung famously had a vivid dream of the cy which he analysed in one of his works.

Music

was the centre in the 1960s of Merseybeat and since then has been home to a music scene. The cy is also home to the UK"s oldest-established orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic rchestra, headquartered in the Philharmonic Hall, and a youth orchestra. Max Bruch was one of numerous notable conductors of the RLP, and dedicated his Kol Nidre to the Jewish communy in the cy. Sir Edward Elgar dedicated his famous Pomp and Circumstance No.1 to the rchestral Society, and the piece had s first performance in the cy in 1901. Among "s curiosies, the Austrian émigré Frz Spiegl is notable. He not only became a world expert on the etymology of Scouse, but composed the music to Z-cars and the Radio 4 UK Theme.

Poetry
During the late 1960s the cy became well-known for the poets, who include Roger McGough and the late Adrian Henri. An anthology of poems, "The Mersey Sound", wrten by Henri, McGough and Brian Patten, has sold over 500,000 copies since first being published in 1967.

Theatre
also has a history of performing arts, reflected in s annual theatrical highlight The Shakespeare Festival which takes place inside Cathedral and in the adjacent historic St James" Gardens every summer, and by the number of theatres in the cy. These include the Empire, Everyman, Playhouse, Neptune, Royal Court and the Uny Theatre. The Everyman Theatre, Uny Theatre and Playhouse Theatre all run their own theatre companies.

Visual arts
Superlambanana, now at Thebarn Street,
Albert Dock, home to the Tate
has more galleries and national museums than any other cy in the Uned Kingdom apart from London. National Museums is the only English national collection based wholly outside London. The Tate gallery houses the modern art collection of the Tate in the North of England and was, until the opening of Tate Modern, the largest exhibion space dedicated to modern art in the Uned Kingdom. The FACT centre hosts touring multimedia exhibions, whilst the Walker Art Gallery houses an extensive collection of Pre-Raphaeles. Sudley House contains another major collection of pre 20th century art, and the number of galleries continues to expand: Ceri Hand Gallery opened in 2008, exhibing primarily contemporary art, and Universy"s Victoria Building was re-opened as a public art gallery and museum to display the Universy"s artwork and historical collections which include the second-largest display of art by Audubon outside the US.

Artists have also come from the cy, including painter George Stubbs who was born in in 1724.

The Biennial festival of arts runs from mid-September to late November and comprises three main sections; the International, The Independents and New Contemporaries although fringe events are timed to coincide. It was during the 2004 festival that Yoko no"s work "My mother is beautiful" caused widespread public protest when photographs of a naked woman"s pubic area were exhibed on the main shopping street. Despe protests the work remained in place.

Education
Universy of "s Victoria Building tower
In primary and secondary education is available in various forms supported by the state including secular, Church of England, Jewish, and Roman Catholic. Islamic education is available at primary level, but there is currently no secondary provision.
ne of "s important early schools was The Blue Coat School; founded in 1708 as a charable school.

The Blue Coat School is the top-performing school in the cy wh 100% 5 or more A*-C grades at GCSE resulting in the 30th best GCSE results in the country and an average point score per student of 1087.4 in A/AS levels. ther notable schools include College founded in 1840 Merchant Taylors" School founded in 1620. Another of "s notable senior schools is St. Edward"s College suated in the West Derby area of the cy. Historic grammar schools, such as the Instute High School & Collegiate, closed in the 1980s are still remembered as centres of academic excellence. Bellerive Catholic College is the cy"s top performing non selective school, based upon GCSE results in 2007.

has three universies: the Universy of , John Moores Universy and Hope Universy. Edge Hill Universy, originally founded as a teacher-training college in the Edge Hill district of , is now located in rmskirk in South-West Lancashire.

The Universy of , was established in 1881 as Universy College . In 1884, became part of the federal Victoria Universy. Following a Royal Charter and Act of Parliament in 1903, became an independent universy, the Universy of , wh the right to confer s own degrees.

Hope Universy, founded in 1844, is suated on both sides of Taggart Avenue in Childwall and a second Campus in the Cy Centre (The Cornerstone). Hope is quickly making a name for self whin the Liberal Arts, the Universy has also enjoyed successes in terms of high graduate employabily, campus development, and a substantial increase in student applications from outside of the Cy.

The School of Tropical Medicine, founded to address some of the problems created by trade, continues today as a post-graduate school affiliated wh the Universy of and is one of only two instutions internationally that house the de facto standard anti-venom reposory.

John Moores Universy was previously a polytechnic, and gained status in 1992. It is named in honour of Sir John Moores, one of the founders of the Ltlewoods football pools and retail group, who was a major benefactor. The instution was previously owned and run by Cy Council.

The cy has one further education college, Communy College.

There are two Jewish schools in , both belonging to the King David Foundation. King David School, is the High School and the King David Primary School. There is also a King David Kindergarten, featured in the communy centre of Harold House. These schools are all run by the King David Foundation based in Harold House in Childwall; conveniently next door to the Childwall Synagogue

Sport
Anfield, the home of F.C
is home to two Premier League football clubs– F.C. and Everton. is the only English cy to have staged top division football every single season since the formation of the Football League in 1888, and both of the cy"s clubs play in high-capacy stadiums.

F.C. are the most successful team in English football, having won 18 league tles, seven FA Cups, seven League Cups, five European Cups and three UEFA Cups. They formed in 1892 and have spent their entire history at the Anfield stadium which they occupied on their formation; had previously been home to Everton. have been in the top flight of English football continuously since 1962 and have been managed by Bill Shankly, Bob Paisley, Joe Fagan, Kenny Dalglish (who also played for the club and for a while was player-manager), Gerard Houllier and their current manager Rafael Benítez. Famous players include Billy Liddell, Ian St. John, Roger Hunt, Ron Yeats, Emlyn Hughes, Kevin Keegan, Ian Rush, Graeme Souness, Robbie Fowler and Steven Gerrard. However, the club also has an association wh tragedy; in 1985, rioting on the terraces during the European Cup final at Heysel Stadium in Brussels, Belgium, resulted in the death of 39 spectators (almost all of them Juventus supporters) and led to all English clubs being barred from European competions for the next five years (wh having to serve an extra year when all other English clubs were re-admted). Four years later, 94 fans (the toll eventually reached 96) were crushed to death at Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield at the FA Cup semi-final. This tragedy led to the Taylor Report which saw standing accommodation banned from all top division stadiums by the mid 1990s.

Everton are the older of "s two professional football clubs. They were founded in 1878 and have played at Goodison Park since 1892, when they relocated from the Anfield stadium that was taken over by the new club. Everton have been league champions nine times, FA Cup winners five times and European Cup Winners" Cup winners once. Their most successful managers were Harry Catterick and Howard Kendall. Many high profile players have worn the Everton shirt. These include Dixie Dean (who scored a record 60 goals in a single league season), Tommy Lawton, Brian Labone, Ray Wilson, Alan Ball (who both featured in England"s World Cup winning side of 1966), Neville Southall, Andy Gray, Gary Lineker, Andrei Kanchelskis, Dave Watson and Wayne Rooney.

Since the turn of the 21st century, both -based clubs have been considering relocation to new stadiums. have been planning a new stadium on nearby Stanley Park for some years, while Everton are currently investigating the possibily of a new stadium in Kirkby after an earlier project to relocate to King"s Dock fell through due to financial difficulties.

Professional basketball is played in the cy wh the addion of Everton Tigers into the ele Brish Basketball League in 2007. The club is associated wh Everton Football Club, and is part of the "Toxteth Tigers" youth development programme, which reaches over 1,500 young people every year. The Tigers will commence play in Brain"s top league for the 2007-08 season, though their home venue has yet to be confirmed. Their closest professional rivals are the Chester Jets, based 18 miles away in Chester.

County cricket is occasionally played in , wh Lancashire County Cricket Club typically playing one match every year at Cricket Club, Aigburth.

Aintree Racecourse to the north of in the adjacent borough of Sefton is home to the famous steeplechase, the Grand National, ne of the most famous events in the international horse racing calendar, is held in early April each year. In addion to horse-racing, Aintree has also hosted motor racing, including the Brish Grand Prix in the 1950s and 1960s.

Harriers, who meet at Wavertree Athletics Centre, are one of five athletic clubs. has a long history of boxing that has produced John Conteh, Alan Rudkin and Paul Hodkinson and hosts high level amateur boxing events. Park Road Gymnastics Centre provides training to a high level. The Cy of Swimming Club has been National Speedo League Champions 8 out of the last 11 years. Tennis Development Programme based at Wavertree Tennis Centre is one of the largest in the UK. is also home to the Red Triangle Karate Club, which provided many of the 1990 squad that won the World Shotokan Championships in Sunderland. Luminaries include Sensei Keinosuke Enoeda, Sensei Frank Brennan, Sensei mry Weiss, Sensei Dekel Kerer, Sensei Andy Sherry and Sensei Terry "Neill, who is also famous for various acting roles.

Rugby league is played at amateur and student level whin the cy; the last professional team bearing the cy"s name was Cy, which folded in the 1960s. Rugby Union has a long, if low key, history in the cy wh Football Club were formed in 1857 making them the oldest open rugby teams in the world. They merged wh St Helens RUFC in 1986 to form St Helens. In Sefton there is Waterloo Rugby Club located in Blundellsands. Established in 1882 they now play in National Division Two.

is one of three cies which still host the tradional sport of Brish Baseball and hosts the annual England-Wales international match every two years, alternating wh Cardiff and Newport. Trojans are the oldest existing baseball club in the UK.

The Royal Golf Club, suated in the nearby town of Hoylake on the Wirral Peninsula, has hosted The pen Championship on a number of occasions, most recently in 2008. It has also hosted the Walker Cup.

Sports stadia
Goodison Park, the home of Everton F.C
have played at Anfield since 1892, when the club was formed to occupy the stadium following Everton"s departure due to a dispute wh their landlord. are still playing there 116 years later, although the ground has been completely rebuilt since the 1970s and only the Main Stand survives from before 1992. The Spion Kop (rebuilt as an all-seater stand in 1994/1995) was the most famous part of the ground, gaining cult status across the world due to the songs and celebrations of the many fans who packed onto s terraces. Anfield is classified as a 4 Star UEFA Ele Stadium wh capacy for 45,000 spectators in comfort, and is a distinctive landmark in an area filled wh smaller and older buildings. club also has a multi-million dollar youth training facily called The Academy.

After leaving Anfield in 1892, Everton moved to Goodison Park on the oppose side of Stanley Park. Goodison Park was the first major football stadium built in England. Molineux (Wolves" ground) had been opened three years earlier but was still relatively undeveloped. St. James"s Park, Newcastle, opened in 1892, was ltle more than a field. nly Scotland had more advanced grounds. Rangers opened Ibrox in 1887, while Celtic Park was officially inaugurated at the same time as Goodison Park. Everton performed a miraculous transformation at Mere Green, spending up to £3000 on laying out the ground and erecting stands on three sides. For £552 Mr. Barton prepared the land at 4½d a square yard. Kelly Brothers of Walton built two uncovered stands each for 4,000 people, and a covered stand seating 3,000, at a total cost of £1,460. utside, hoardings cost a further £150, gates and sheds cost £132 10s and 12 turnstiles added another £7 15s to the bill.

The ground was immediately renamed Goodison Park and proudly opened on 24 August 1892, by Lord Kinnaird and Frederick Wall of the FA. But instead of a match the 12,000 crowd saw a short athletics meeting followed by a selection of music and a fireworks display. Everton"s first game there was on 2 September 1892 when they beat Bolton 4-2. It now has the capacy for more than 40,000 spectators all-seated, but the last expansion took place in 1994 when a new goal-end stand gave the stadium an all-seater capacy. The Main Stand dates back to the 1970s, while the other two stands are refurbished pre-Second World War structures.

There are currently plans for both stadiums to be pulled down and for the teams to relocate. have been considering a move to a new stadium in Stanley Park since 2000; seven years on work has started and the 60,000-seat stadium is expected to be ready by 2010.

Everton have been considering relocation since 1996, and in 2003 were forced to scrap plans for a 55,000-seat stadium at King"s Dock due to financial reasons. The latest plan has been to move beyond "s council boundary to Kirkby, but this has proved controversial wh some fans, as well as members of the local communy. At one point there was much talk for Everton to ground-share wh , at the proposed new stadium in Stanley Park, but this was not progressed by eher club.

Media
BBC Big Screen

The ITV region which covers is ITV Granada. In 2006, the Television company opened a new newsroom in the Royal Liver Building. Granada"s regional news broadcasts were produced at the Albert Dock News Centre during the 1980s and 1990s. The BBC also opened a new newsroom on Hanover Street in 2006.

ITV"s daily magazine programme "This Morning" was famously broadcast from studios at Albert Dock until 1996, when production was moved to London. Granada"s short-lived shopping channel "Shop!" was also produced in until was axed in 2002.

is the home of the TV production company Lime Pictures, formerly Mersey Television, which produced the now-defunct soap operas "Brookside" and "Grange Hill". It also produces the current soap opera Hollyoaks, which was formerly filmed in Chester and began on Channel 4 in 1995. All three series were/are largely filmed in the Childwall area of .

The cy has two daily newspapers: the morning Daily Post and the evening Echo, both published by the same company, the Triny Mirror group. The Daily Post, especially, serves a wider area, including north Wales. The UK"s first online only weekly newspaper called Southport Reporter (Southport & Mersey Reporter), is also one of the many other news outlets that covers the cy.
Radio stations include BBC Radio , Juice FM, KCR FM and Radio Cy 96.7, Cy Talk 105.9, as well as Magic 1548. The last three are based in St. John"s Beacon which, along wh the two cathedrals, dominates the cy"s skyline. The independent media organisation Indymedia also covers , while "Nerve" magazine publishes articles and reviews of cultural events.

has also featured in films; see List of films set in for some of them. In films the cy has "doubled" for London, Paris, New York, Moscow, Dublin, Venice and Berlin. Guardian, 8th November, 1999

was the host cy for the 2008 MTV Europe Music Awards.

Notable peopl


Quotes about

*"Lyrpole, alias Lyverpoole, a pavid towne, hath but a chapel... The king hath a castelet there, and the Earl of Darbe hath a stone howse there. Irisch merchants cum much thher, as to a good haven... At Lyrpole is smaul custom payed, that caush marchantes to resorte thher. Good marchandis at Lyrpole, and much Irish yarrn that Manchester men do buy there..." - John Leland (antiquary), "Itinery", c. 1536-39

*"e is one of the wonders of Brain... In a word, there is no town in England, London excepted, that can equal for the fineness of the streets, and the beauty of the buildings." Daniel Defoe - "A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Brain", 1721–26

*"ne of the neatest, best towns I have seen in England." - John Wesley. "Journal", 1755

*"I have not come here to be insulted by a set of wretches, every brick in whose infernal town is cemented wh an African"s blood." Actor George Frederick Cooke (1756–1812) responding to being hissed when he came on stage drunk during a vis to .http://www.channel4.com/history/microses/T/timeteam/2008/liverpool/liverpool-cameo.html

*"That immense Cy which stands like another Venice upon the water...where there are riches overflowing and every thing which can delight a man who wishes to see the prospery of a great communy and a great empire... This quondam village, now f to be the proud capal of any empire in the world, has started up like an enchanted palace even in the memory of living men." Thomas Erskine, 1st Baron Erskine, 1791

*"I have heard of the greatness of but the realy far surpasses my expectation" - Prince Albert, "speech", 1846

*"…has become a wonder of the world. It is the New York of Europe, a world cy rather than merely Brish provincial.” - "Illustrated London News", 15 May 1886

*" is the "pool of life" " - C.G. Jung, "Memories, Dreams, Reflections", 1928

*"The centre is imposing, dignified and darkish, like a cy in a rather gloomy Victorian novel...We had now arrived in the heart of the big cy, and as usual was almost a heart of darkness. But looked like a big cy, there was no denying that. Here, emphatically, was the English seaport second only to London. The very weight of stone emphasised that fact. And even if the sun never seems to properly rise over , I like a big cy to proclaim self a big cy at once..." - J.B. Priestley, "English Journey", 1934

*"...if can get into top gear again there is no lim to the cy"s potential. The scale and resilience of the buildings and people is amazing - is a world cy, far more so than London and Manchester. It doesn"t feel like anywhere else in Lancashire: comparisons always end up overseas - Dublin, or Boston, or Hamburg." - Ian Nairn, "Brain"s Changing Towns", 1967

International links
"Twin cies"
is twinned wh the following cies:


"ther links"
* "New York", USA - Freedom of the Cy of " - August 2003"
* "Riga", Latvia - Letter of Intent signed" - March 2003"
* "Stavanger", Norway - Letter of Intent signed" - June 2004"


"Consulates in "
* Cape Verdean Consulate
* Hungarian Consulate
* Italian Consulate
* Netherlands Consulate
* Norwegian Consulate
* Royal Swedish Consulate
* Royal Thai Consulate

See also
* 1911 general transport strike
* 2008 European Amateur Boxing Championships
* La Princesse, the giant mechanical spider roaming the streets in September 2008
* Big Dig ()
* Culture in
* List of films and television shows set in
* International Garden Festival
* Port of
* Williamson Tunnels
* Football Club
* Everton Football Club
* Magistrates Courts,

Further reading
* "Bygone ", David Clensy, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4357-0897-6
* " 800", John Belchem, 2006. ISBN 978-1-84631-035-5
* "Chinese Liverpudlians", Maria Lin Wong, 1989. ISBN 978-1-871201-03-1
* "Wring : Essays and Interviews", eded by Michael Murphy and Rees Jones, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84631-073-7

References
ote

ibliograph
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External links




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Category:Metropolan boroughs
Category:Port cies and towns in the Uned Kingdom
Category:World Herage Ses in England
Category:1207 establishments
Category:Settlements established in the 13th century
Category:Towns in
Category:Articles including recorded pronunciations (UK English)
Category:Coastal settlements in England
Category:Cies in North West England

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arc:ܠܝܒܪܦܘܠ
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cv:Ливерпуль
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Category:Settlements established in the 1st centuryCategory:British capitalsCategory:Capitals in EuropeCategory:Host cities of the Commonwealth GamesCategory:Host cities of the Summer Olympic GamesCategory:Port cities and towns in the United
|statistic2= 2.3 million|statistic_title2 = Metro|population_density= }} |os_grid_reference= NS590655|edinburgh_distance_mi=42|london_distance_mi=403|language= English, Scots (see Patter)|area_footnotes
|statistic2= 2.3 million|statistic_title2 = Metro|population_density= }} |os_grid_reference= NS590655|edinburgh_distance_mi=42|london_distance_mi=403|language= English, Scots (see Patter)|area_footnotes
|statistic2= 2.3 million|statistic_title2 = Metro|population_density= }} |os_grid_reference= NS590655|edinburgh_distance_mi=42|london_distance_mi=403|language= English, Scots (see Patter)|area_footnotes
DemographyPopulation of , 1801-2001The ornamental gate to Chinatown, As wh other major Brish cies, has a large and diverse population. At the 2001 UK Census the recorded population of was 441,900, whilst a mid-2007 estimate by the NS had the cy"s
DemographyPopulation of , 1801-2001The ornamental gate to Chinatown, As wh other major Brish cies, has a large and diverse population. At the 2001 UK Census the recorded population of was 441,900, whilst a mid-2007 estimate by the NS had the cy"s
 
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London's new Muslim mayor, Labour politician Sadiq Khan, attended his first public event as mayor on Sunday at a memorial for the 6 million Jews killed in the Holocaust. London (dpa) - Khan attended Sunday‘s Annual Jewish Remembrance Day for
For the first time in our 132-year history, Leicester City Football Club are the champions of England after securing the 2015/16 Barclays Premier League title on Monday night. It is one of the greatest sporting triumphs ever seen, you can read on
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For the first time in our 132-year history, Leicester City Football Club are the champions of England after securing the 2015/16 Barclays Premier League title on Monday night. It is one of the greatest sporting triumphs ever seen, you can read on
For the first time in our 132-year history, Leicester City Football Club are the champions of England after securing the 2015/16 Barclays Premier League title on Monday night. It is one of the greatest sporting triumphs ever seen, you can read on
Prime Minister David Cameron on Monday announced new measures to compel Muslim migrants to improve their English skills, saying the move was linked to "building a more integrated, cohesive, one-nation country." London (dpa) - A
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