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Leiria

Portugal, Leiria
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"Leiria" () is a city in Leiria Municipality in the Centro Region, Portugal. It is the capital of Leiria District. The city proper has 50,200 inhabitants and the entire municipality has nearly 120,000. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Leiria-Fátima.

eography and Locatio
Leiria is located in the Centro Region and sub region of Pinhal Litoral, about halfway between Lisbon and Porto. The distance to Lisbon is 135 km, to Coimbra 72 km and to Porto 179 km. The historic city centre spreads between the castle hill and the river Lis.
Leiria is also included in the Urban Community of Leiria. As the main city in this community, the area of influence of Leiria spreads over the cities of Marinha Grande, Ourém, Alcobaça, Fátima, Pombal as well the municipalities/town seats of Batalha, Porto de Mós and Nazaré located nearby.

Transportation
Leiria is serviced by several motorways, including the A1 - Auto-estrada do Norte linking Porto to Lisbon, passing by Coimbra and Leiria. A railway "Linha do Oeste" (West railway line linking Cacém (Sintra/Lisbon area) to Figueira da Foz). Leiria train station is a few km from the city center (about 2 km). The main bus depot service is in the city downtown. There is a small airfield ("Aérodromo de Leiria"), used for sports and recreation. Two bus loops, called Mobilis, serve the town.

limat
Leiria is close to the Atlantic Ocean. Spring and Summer months are usually sunny and the temperatures very high during July and August, with highs usually above 30°C only rarely reaching 40°C. Autumn and Winter are typically rainy and windy, yet sunny days are not rare either, the temperatures rarely fall below 5°C, usually staying at an average of 10°C. Leiria"s climate is classified as Atlantic-Mediterranean.


istor
The region around Leiria has been inhabited for a long time, although its early history is very obscure. The Turduli, an indigenous people from Iberia, established a settlement near (around 7 km) present-day Leiria. This settlement was later occupied by the Romans, who expanded it under the name "Collippo". The stones of the ancient Roman town were used in the Middle Ages to build much of Leiria.

Little is known about the area in Visigothic times, but during the period of Arab domination Leiria was already a village with a garrison. Moorish Leiria was captured by the first King of Portugal, Afonso Henriques in 1135, during the so-called Reconquista. The settlement was shortly retaken by the Moors in 1137 and then in 1140. In 1142 Afonso Henriques reconquered Leiria, dating from this year its first "foral" (compilation of feudal rights) to stimulate the colonisation of the area.

Main square and Leiria Castle uphill.
Both Afonso Henriques and Sancho I rebuilt the walls and the Leiria Castle to avoid new Moorish incursions. Most of the population lived inside the protective city walls, but already in the 12th century part of the population lived outside the walls. The oldest church of Leiria, the Church of Saint Peter ("Igreja de São Pedro"), built in romanesque style in the last quarter of the 12th century, served the parish located outside the walls.

During the Middle Ages the importance of the village increased, and it was the setting of several "cortes" (feudal parliaments). The first of the "cortes" held in Leiria took place in 1245, under King Afonso II. In the early 14th century, King Dinis I restored the keep tower of the citadel of the castle, as can be seen in an inscription in the tower. He also built a royal residence in Leiria (now lost), and lived for long periods in the town, which he donated as feud to his wife, Isabel. The King also ordered the plantation of the famous Pine Forest of Leiria ("Pinhal de Leiria") near the coast. Later, the wood from this forest would be used to build the ships used in the Portuguese Navigations of the 15th and 16th centuries.

In the late 15th century, King John I built a royal palace within the walls of the castle of Leiria. This palace, with elegant gothic galleries that offered wonderful views of the town and surrounding landscape, was totally in ruins but was partially rebuilt in the 20th century. John I also sponsored the rebuilding in late gothic style of the old Church of Our Lady of the Rock ("Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Pena"), located inside the castle.

Leiria Castle.
Towards the end of the 15th century the town continued to grow, occupying the area from the castle hill down to the river Lis. King Manuel I gave it a new foral in 1510, and in 1545 it was elevated to the category of city and became see of a Diocese. The Cathedral of Leiria was built in the second half of the 16th century in a mix of late manueline and mannerist styles.

Compared to the Middle Ages, the subsequent history of Leiria is of relative decadence. In the 20th century, however, its strategic position in the Portuguese territory favoured the development of a diversified industry.

conom
Leiria has an economy concentrated on services and light industries. It has several industries related with plastics and moulds, as well as animal food, milling, cement, and civil construction, among other light industries. Agriculture, tourism, and state-run public services, such as education (including the Polytechnical Institute of Leiria), health (the district hospital "Hospital de Santo André") and general public administration, are an important part of Leiria"s economy.

Gothic gallery in the Castle of Leiria.

ransportatio
Leiria is connected to its suburbs and the rest of Portugal by a motorway network. There are three motorways passing the city; the A1 (Lisbon-Porto), the A8 (Lisbon-Leiria) and the A17 (Marinha Grande-Aveiro).

The city is also served by the Linha do Oeste railway line, which serves the central western coast of Portugal.

eiria-based newspaper

* Região de Leiria - Weekly
* Jornal de Leiria - Weekly
* Diário de Leiria - Daily
* Quinze - Monthly
* O Mensageiro - Monthly

ducatio
Leiria hosts a national public polytechnic institution of higher education, the Instituto Politécnico de Leiria. Secondar education schools include, Escola e,b 2,3 D.Dinis, and Escola dos Capuchos.

por
Stadium Dr. Magalhães Pessoa.
The city of Leiria has its own football (soccer) team, the União Desportiva de Leiria, commonly called just "União de Leiria". It currently plays at the top of Portuguese football, the Liga Sagres.

An important facility is the "Estádio Dr. Magalhães Pessoa", situated close to Leiria castle. The modern stadium has a capacity for 25,000 people and was built for the 2004 European Football Championship.

Efforts are being made to sell it, as it only brings a loss to the city.

References


See also
* Centro Region, Portugal

External link

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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 17.06.2019 19:25 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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