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Leeuwarden

Netherlands, Leeuwarden
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"Leeuwarden" (, Stadsfries: "Liwwadden", Frisian: "Ljouwert") is the capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland. It is situated in the north of the country.

istor
The area has been occupied since the 10th century (although recently, remains of houses dating back to the 2nd century AD were discovered during a dig near the Oldehove), and was granted a town charter in 1435. Situated along the "Middelzee", it was an active trade centre, until the waterway silted up in the 15th century. In 1901 the city had a population of 32,203.

Famous natives of Leeuwarden include stadtholder William IV of Orange, graphic artist M. C. Escher, and dancer-spy Mata Hari, as well as the theologian Dr. N.H. Gootjes.
Citizens of Leeuwarden welcoming units of the Canadian Army, 16 April 1945
During World War II, after extensive occupation by the German forces, on 15 April 1945, the Royal Canadian Dragoons, disobeying direct orders, charged into the heavily defended city and defeated the Germans, who were driven out by the next day.

tymolog
The name "Leeuwarden" (or old spelling variants) first came into use for Nijehove, the most important one of the three villages that later merged into one, in the early 9th century (Villa Lintarwrde" c. 825).Groot p. 10

There is much uncertainty about the origin of the city"s name. Historian and archivist Wopke Eekhoff summed up a total of over 200 different spelling variants, of which "Leeuwarden" (Dutch), "Liwwadden" (Stadsfries) and "Ljouwert" (West Frisian) are still in use.Groot p. 12

The second syllable is easily explained. "Warden", Dutch/Frisian for an artificial dwelling hill, is a designation of a few terps, in accordance with the historical situation.
The problem is the prefix, which could be interpreted as "leeu-" or "leeuw-" "(Dutch for lion)". Some scholars believe the latter to be true, for a lion is also found in the city"s coat of arms. For this to be so, however, an extra "w" would be required. It should also be noted there have never been lions in Friesland. Other scholars argue the name came from the prefix leeu-, a corruption of luw- (Dutch for sheltered) or lee- (a Dutch denotion of a water circulation). The last one suits the watery province of Fryslân.

eraldr
The "coat of arms" of "Leeuwarden" is the official symbol of the municipality of Leeuwarden. It consists of a blue escutcheon, a golden lion and a crown. The fact Leeuwarden carries a lion in its seal seems logical, considering that "Leeuw" is Dutch for "Lion". However, it is very plausible the oldest name of the city conceals an indication of water rather than an animal. Some sources tell the lion had been called into life after the name became official. It"s also possible the coat of arms was a gift to the city from the powerful "Minnema" family.Jansma p. 45

opulation centre


rchitectur
Well-known buildings in the city centre include the "Kanselarij" (the former chancellery), the "Waag" (old trade centre of the city), the church of St. Bonifatius and the leaning tower "Oldehove". One of the eye catchers in the city centre is the ‘Achmea building’ (it belongs to Achmea insurance) which is near the train station. The Achmea building is the tallest building in the city.

Leeuwarden is also the site of the country"s largest cattle market, and on Ascension Day, the largest flower market in the Netherlands is held here.

ducatio
Leeuwarden has a number of respected universities of applied science (HBO in Dutch), such as the Van Hall Instituut (agricultural and life sciences), the (economical and catering) and the (economical, technical and arts).

Although the city has no scientific university, several dependencies are located here, including the Wageningen University, Universiteit Twente and the Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. About 16,000 students, among them an increasing number of foreign students, study at technical schools. Besides higher education, the city is also home to two regional vocational schools ("MBO"): the " and ".

por
Leeuwarden is the starting and finishing point for the celebrated Elfstedentocht, a 200 km-long speed skating race over the Frisian waterways that is held when winter conditions in the province allow. It last took place in January 1997, preceded by the races of 1986 and 1985. The city"s local soccer team, Cambuur Leeuwarden plays in the 1st Division of the professional Dutch soccer league. In the season 2005/06, the club narrowly escaped bankruptcy. Its "Cambuurstadion" opened in 1995.

olitic
Leeuwarden, as capital of the province of Friesland, is seat of the provincial authorities.

otable people from Leeuwarde
* Havank
* Cisca Dresselhuys
* Maurits Cornelis Escher
* Femme Gaastra
* Richard Hageman
* Wijerd Jelckama
* Willem van Haren
* Mata Hari
* Johannes Henricus Gerardus Jansen
* Querelle Jansen
* Piet Paaltjens
* Joachim van Plettenberg
* Tjitske Reidinga
* J. Slauerhoff
* Pieter Jelles Troelstra
* Cornelis Adriaan Lobry van Troostenburg de Bruyn
* Saskia van Uylenburg
* Lodewijk Caspar Valckenaer
* Dirk van Erp
* Hans Vredeman de Vries
* Harm Wiersma
* M. C. Escher

ranspor
Train routes with starting number of the train number series:
* 500 IC Den Haag Centraal / Rotterdam Centraal - Groningen / Leeuwarden
* 700 IC Schiphol / Amsterdam Centraal - Groningen / Leeuwarden
* 30000 R Leeuwarden - Stavoren
* 30100 R Leeuwarden - Harlingen Haven
* 30200 R/D Groningen - Leeuwarden

There are also bus lines
* 10 Leeuwarden -> Drachten (Burgum,Suameer)
* 13 Leeuwarden -> Drachten (Surhuisterveen,Harkema)
* 14 Leeuwarden -> Drachten
* 22 Leeuwarden -> Warten
* 28 Leeuwarden -> Heerenveen (Grou)
* 50 Leeuwarden -> Dokkum
* 51 Leeuwarden -> Dokkum (Damwoude)
* 54 Leeuwarden -> Dokkum (Stiens,Holwerd)
* 60 Leeuwarden -> Dokkum (Stiens,Holwerd)
* 62 Leeuwarden -> Buitenpost (Kollum)
* 66 Leeuwarden -> Ameland (Holwerd)
* 70 Leeuwarden -> Sint Annaparochie (Minnertsga)
* 71 Leeuwarden -> Harlingen (Minnertsga)
* 72 Leeuwarden -> Sint Annaparochie (Minnertsga)
* 73 Leeuwarden -> Oude Biltzijl (Minnertsga)
* 93 Leeuwarden -> Sneek
* 94 Leeuwarden -> Sneek
* 95 Leeuwarden -> Joure (Grou)
* 97 Leeuwarden -> Harlingen (Franeker)
* 320 Leeuwarden -> Drachten
* 350 Leeuwarden -> Alkmaar

And there are citybuses the most buslines are done by Connexxion a few (line 10,13,14 and 320) are done by Arriva

ee als
* Frisian Solar Challenge
* Slauerhoffbrug ‘Flying’ Drawbridge

eference


urther readin
* Groot, P.J. de, Karstkarel, G.P. & Kuipers, W.H., 1984. "Leeuwarden, beeld van een stad. Zeven eeuwen stadsleven in woord en beeld". ISBN 90 3301341X.
* Jansma, K., 1981. "Friesland en zijn 44 gemeenten" ISBN 90 6480 015 4.

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Category:Cities in Friesland
Category:Provincial capitals of the Netherlands
Leeuwarden (city)

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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 10.08.2022 09:13 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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