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Lausanne

Switzerland, Lausanne
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"Lausanne" (, Ital. "Losanna") is a city in Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland, situated on the shores of Lake Geneva (French: "Lac Léman"), and facing Évian-les-Bains (France) and with the Jura mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located northeast of Geneva. It is the capital of the canton of Vaud and of the district of Lausanne. The headquarters of the International Olympic Committee are located in Lausanne and the IOC officially recognises the city as the "Capitale Olympique", and the headquarters of the Court of Arbitration for Sport. It lies in the middle of a wine region.

istor
The Romans built a military camp, which they called "Lousanna", at the site of a Celtic settlement, near the lake where currently are Vidy and Ouchy; on the hill above was a fort called "Lausodunon" or "Lousodunon" (The "y" suffix is common to many place names of Roman origin in the region (e.g.) Prilly, Pully, Lutry, etc).

After the fall of the Roman Empire, insecurity forced the transfer of Lausanne to its current center, a hilly, easier to defend site. The city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the Dukes of Savoy and the Bishop of Lausanne. Then it came under Berne from 1536 to 1798 and a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the Cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made a number of requests to recover them.

After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Lausanne became (along with Geneva) a place of refuge for French Huguenots. In 1729 a seminary was opened by Antoine Court and Benjamin Duplan. By 1750 ninety pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely; this number would rise to four hundred. Official persecution ended in 1787; a faculty of Protestant theology was established at Montauban in 1808, and the Lausanne seminary was finally closed on 18 April 1812. Also During the Napoleonic Wars, the city"s status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton, Vaud under which it joined the Swiss Federation.

odern histor
In 1964 the city hosted the "Swiss National Exhibition", displaying its newly found confidence to host major international events.
From the 1950s to 1970s a large number of Italians, Spaniards and Portuguese immigrated, settling mostly in the industrial district of Renens and transforming the local diet.

The city has been traditionally quiet but in the late 1960s and early 1970s there were a series of mainly youth demonstrations confronted by the police. The next vigorous demonstrations took place to protest against the high cinema prices and since then the city has returned to its very sleepy self, until the protest against the G8 meetings in 2003.

eograph

"View of Laussane (Lausanna)" - An 1837 woodcut print

The most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva ("Lac Léman" in French). Lausanne is built on the southern slope of the Swiss plateau, with a difference in elevation of about between the lakeshore at Ouchy and its northern edge bordering Le Mont-sur-Lausanne and Epalinges. Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the lake and the Alps.

In addition to its generally southward-sloping layout, the center of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon, which has been covered since the 19th century. The former river forms a gorge running through the middle of the city south of the old city centre, generally following the course of the present "Rue Centrale", with several bridges crossing the depression to connect the adjacent neighborhoods. Due to the large differences in elevation, visitors should make a note as to which plane of elevation they are on and where they want to go, lest they find themselves tens of meters below or above the street which they are trying to travel on. The name "Flon" is also used for the Metro station located in the gorge.

Lausanne is located at the limit between the extensive wine-growing regions of Lavaux (to the east) and la Côte (to the west).

The population of the greater Lausanne area ("grand Lausanne") is about 316,000 (2007 estimate).

ranspor

metro in Lausanne, of the same type as the Paris line 14. A front view of the m2 is also available.

Lausanne includes buses and metros (operated by ), nationwide and regional train lines (CFF, ), and boats (). The majority of urban public transport in Lausanne is by trolleybus.

Lausanne became the first city in Switzerland to have a rubber-tyred metro system, with the m2 Line which opened in October 2008. The rolling stock is a shorter version of the one used on Paris Métro Line 14.

Lausanne is connected to the A1 motorway on its west side (Geneva - Zurich axis) and to the A9 on its north and east side (for transit with Italy and France); the interchange between these two motorways is on the north-west side of the city.

conom
Philip Morris International, a tobacco company, has its operations center in Lausanne."." Philip Morris International. Retrieved on 19 October 2009.

ducatio
Palais de Rumine, place de la Riponne
Lausanne enjoys some world class education and research establishements, including private schools attended by students from around the world.

* École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL ("Swiss Federal Institute of Technology - Lausanne")
* Université de Lausanne - UNIL ("University of Lausanne")
* HEC Lausanne - Hautes Études Commerciales, UNIL ("Advanced Business Studies, at University of Lausanne")
* AISTS ("International Academy of Sports Science and Technology")
* Business School Lausanne
* International Institute for Management Development (IMD)
* École hôtelière de Lausanne
* The Lausanne campus of the University of the Nations
* Pepperdine University maintains an international study campus in Lausanne
* CHUV, a hospital center with associated research ("Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois Lausanne")

ultur
Cathedral Notre-Dame of Lausanne
Waterfront view of Ouchy, just south of Lausanne
"Place de L"Europe", Flon, by night
The Orchestre de Chambre de Lausanne and the Ensemble Vocal de Lausanne provide a diverse and rich musical life. The latter has been under the direction of Michel Corboz for many years.

In January, the Prix de Lausanne, a famous dance competition, takes place at the Théâtre de Beaulieu over a one-week period. The event attracts dancers and some of the big names in dance from all over the world.

The town hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 1989.

Each July, the "Festival de la Cité" is held in the old part of town. There are also film and music festivals, such as the Lausanne Underground Film and Music Festival and the Bach Festival, "Le Festival et Concours Bach de Lausanne", which follows "La Nuit de Musées" (museums" night, occurring in May) in the fall season.

Lausanne is also the home of the Béjart Ballet.

onument
* (Cathedral, restored by Viollet-le-Duc).
*

useum
Lausanne is also the site of many museums:
*"Musée Olympique Lausanne" ("Olympic Museum")
* ("Elysée Museum")
* ("Hermitage Foundation")
* ("Art Brut" Collection)
* ("Musée de design et d"arts appliqués contemporains")
* ("Lausanne History Museum")
* (formerly "Cabinet des Médailles cantonal", "Cantonal Money Museum" - )
*
* ("Science Center for Kids")
* - "Musée de la main" ("Museum of the Hand")
*
* ("Cantonal Botanical Museum and Gardens" - )
* ("Cantonal Museum of Archeology and History" )
* ("Cantonal Fine Arts Museum")
* ("Cantonal Geological Museum")
* ("Lausanne-Vidy Roman Museum")

rt gallerie
Main contemporary art galleries:
* The work of Lucy Mackintosh.
*
*
Art centers or artist-run galleries:
*
*
*

usi
*Contemporary composer Leonardo Balada"s Symphony No. 4 is subtitled "Lausanne".
*Igor Stravinsky"s L"Histoire du Soldat was premiered in Lausanne in September 1918.

port
Sporting activities are very popular in Lausanne, with water sports available on the nearby lake and mountaineering in the nearby mountains. Cycling is also a popular pastime, with the vineyards in the surrounding hills providing spectacular views and challenging routes. There is an annual athletic contest ("Athletissima"), road running through the city (the ), the Tour de Romandie road cycling race, marathon () and triathlon competition, among other sports events. The two most important sports are ice hockey and football.

*Lausanne Hockey Club
*Lausanne-Sport Football Club
*Lausanne-Sports Aviron Rowing Club
*Lausanne Sharks American Football Club

*International Olympic Committee Headquarters
*Court of Arbitration for Sport Headquarters

*International Hockey Federation Headquarters
*International Table Tennis Federation Headquarters
*Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) The World Air Sports Federation
*Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) The international governing body for equestrian
*Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d"Aviron (FISA) The international governing body for rowing
*Fédération Internationale d"Escrime (FIE) The international governing body for fencing
*Fédération Internationale de Tir à l"Arc (FITA) The international governing body for archery
*Fédération Internationale du Sport Universitaire (FISU) The international governing body for university sports
*International Baseball Federation
*International Swimming Federation
*International Skating Union
*NSFL Non Professional Swiss Romand American Football Federation
*The Bandy Federation of Switzerlandhttp://www.internationalbandy.com/viewNavMenu.do?menuID=69

otable peopl
Jean-Pascal Delamuraz was Mayor of Lausanne before becoming member of the Federal Council
C.F. Ramuz was born in Lausanne
Auguste Piccard (on the right), physicist, inventor and explorer was a resident of Lausanne
The choreographer Maurice Béjart established the "Béjart Ballet Lausanne" in 1987

"Lausanne is the birthplace of:"
*David Bennent, Actor
*Metropolitan Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh, Russian Orthodox ecclesiastic located in Britain
*François-Louis David Bocion, Swiss artist and teacher
*Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, Swiss traveler and orientalist
*Alejo Carpentier, Cuban-French writer
*Stéphane Chapuisat, Footballer
*Benjamin Constant, Swiss thinker, writer and French politician
*Aloise Corbaz, Swiss outsider artist
*Charles Dutoit, conductor
*Egon von Furstenberg, fashion designer
*Eugène Grasset, Swiss decorative artist
*Henry Markram, Director of the Blue Brain Project
*Bertrand Piccard, Swiss psychiatrist and balloonist
*Charles Ferdinand Ramuz, Swiss writer
*Ubol Ratana, Thai princess
*Théophile Steinlen, Art Nouveau painter and printmaker
*Elizabeth Thompson (Lady Butler), British painter
*Bernard Tschumi, contemporary architect, writer, and educator
*Nanos Valaoritis (1921) Greek poet
*Félix Vallotton, post-impressionist painter
*Vincent Perez, film actor and director
*Stanislas Wawrinka, Swiss Tennis player
*Jocelyn Wildenstein, Manhattan socialite and ex-wife of the late Alec N. Wildenstein

Notable residents:
*Lorik Cana, Professional Footballer for Albania and Marseille
*Jean-Pascal Delamuraz, Swiss politician
*Jean Anouilh, French dramatist
*Ingvar Kamprad, Founder of IKEA
*Alice Bailly, Swiss painter and multimedia artist
*Maurice Béjart, choreographer
*Capucine, French actress and model
*Coco Chanel, fashion designer
*Pierre de Coubertin, French baron and IOC founder
*Helen of Greece and Denmark, Queen Mother of Romania
*Victoria Eugenia of Battenberg, queen of Spain
*Peter Carl Fabergé, Russian jeweller
*Edward Gibbon, British historian
*Gloria Guinness, socialite and writer.
*Ravi Gupta, American-born scientific researcher and scholar
*Oswald Heer, Swiss geologist and naturalist
*Stéphane Lambiel, men"s figure skater and 2-time World Champion
*Sébastien Loeb, French rally driver
*Carl Gustav Emil Mannerheim, Finnish president and field marshal
*James Mason, English actor
*Jô Soares, Brazilian humorist
*Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine, Ukrainian bacteriologist
*Paloma Picasso, Fashion designer
*Auguste Piccard, Swiss physicist, inventor and explorer
*Albin Schram, Renowned manuscript collector
*Georges Simenon, Belgian writer
*Han Suyin, China-born writer
*Karol Szymanowski, Polish composer
*Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, French architect
*Pierre Viret, Swiss reformed theologian
*Serge Voronoff, Surgeon buried in Lausanne

ee als
*Eurovision Song Contest 1989
*List of mayors of Lausanne
*Franco-Provençal language
*Scots Kirk, Lausanne (Church of Scotland)
*Lac de Sauvabelin
*Beau-Rivage Palace

eference


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Category:
Category:
Category:Municipalities of the canton of Vaud
Category:Vaud

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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 16.11.2018 11:22 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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