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Kristiansund

Norway, Kristiansund
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"Kristiansund" is a city and municipality on the western coast of Norway, in the "Nordmøre" district of county. It was officially awarded township status in 1742.

Kristiansund was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). The island and municipality of Grip was merged with Kristiansund on 1 January 1964. The island and municipality of Frei was merged with Kristiansund on 1 January 2008.

eograph
The city borders Smøla to the northeast, Tustna to the east, and Averøy to the southwest. In the south, the island of "Nordlandet" borders the island of Frei which, since 2008, is a part of Kristiansund municipality. In the northwest the small island of Grip is located.Grip was Norway"s smallest-area municipality before being merged into Kristiansund in 1964..

istor
000 BC - 106
Many scientists believe that the very first Norwegian lived near the city of Kristiansund. At the end of the last Ice age some areas at the western coast of Norway were ice-free. There was also a lot of food in the sea around Kristiansund at that time, and it is believed that the first settlement arrived in Kristiansund around year 8000 BC.

During the Viking ages there were many important battles around Kristiansund. The most famous one was the battle at Rastakalv on the island of Frei, where the Norwegian King "Håkon the Good" fought against the Eirikssønnene-group. There is now a memorial monument located near Rastakalv, where the battle was fought.

he middle age
A picture of Christianssund from the early 1840s.
The island of Grip was an important fishing community during the Middle Ages, and were considered to be the most important municipality in the region at the time. The natural harbour in Lille-fosen, close to where Kristiansund is located today were also frequently used for fishing purposes.

7th to 18th centur
During the 17th century a small settlement developed around the area we know today as Kristiansund harbour. As more and more settlers arrived, the area became an important trading port for fishing and the lumber transportation along the coast. The Dano-Norwegian government established a customs station here, which was controlled by the main trading port in Trondheim.

Dutch sailors brought the knowledge of clipfish production to Kristiansund at the end of the 17th century, and for a number of years the city was the largest exporter of clipfish in Norway, exporting goods mainly to the Mediterranean countries. The citys clipfish production was also part of the reason why it was awarded town status in 1742.

oponym
The city centre and harbour of Kristiansund seen from sea.
The city, formerly named "Christiansund", is named after the Danish-Norwegian king Christian VI in 1742. The last element of the name, "sund", means "strait" or "sound". The old name of the town/village (originally the island Kirkelandet) was "Fosna" or "Fosen" (Old Norse: "fólgsn") which means "hiding place" (here "hidden port"). It was also often named "Lille Fosen" ("the small Fosen") to distinguish it from the island "Storfosen" ("the big Fosen") in Ørland.

Before 1877, the name was written "Christianssund", from 1877-1888 it was spelled "Kristianssund", and since 1889 it has had its present spelling, "Kristiansund".

Before the introduction of postal codes in Norway in 1968, it was easy to confuse the name "Kristiansund" with Kristiansand in the south. It was therefore obligatory to always add an "N" (for north) to Kristiansund "(Kristiansund N)" and an "S" (for south) to Kristiansand "(Kristiansand S)".

oat-of-arm
The Coat-of-arms is from 1742. It shows a waterfall because the old name of the town ("Fosen") was misinterpreted as "Fossund" (as a compound of "foss" which means waterfall and "sund" which means strait). There are, however, no waterfalls in the municipality.

Another myth concerning the coat-of-arms is that there was a mix up, between Kristiansund"s and Molde"s intended shield. The Dano-Norwegian government officials in charge of the giving of the coats, had a party to remember the momentous occasion and became too drunk and hungover to remember which was which, and so Molde got the coat with a whale (which are scarce in between the Romsdal fjords) and Kristiansund got the waterfall (since Molde is on the mainland and Kristiansund lies in the open sea, it would be more likely that the waterfall was intended for Molde"s mountains and the whales for Kristiansund.)

edi
There are two local TV stations in Kristiansund. The largest one is TVNordvest, (TV North-West) which broadcasts local news from the area around Kristiansund on a daily basis, as well as some other TV shows. The second one is TV Kristiansund, which is more of a culture channel, broadcasting cultural news from Kristiansund, like shows from the city Opera.

The local newspaper of Kristiansund is Tidens Krav, which also functions as a local newspaper for the other municipalities located nearby the city.

ity parts and structur
The island of "Innlandet" in Kristiansund.
Kristiansund is built on five islands, where "Nordlandet" ("North Land"), humorously called "Marokko" ("Morocco"), is the second largest, and the site of the local airport, Kvernberget (IATA code: KSU). "Gomalandet" and "Kirk(e)landet"In the local dialect, "Kirk"e"landet" (the "Church Land") is pronounced "Kirklandet", without the middle "e". ("Church Land"), third and fourth in size, are considered separate "lands" (islands) even though they are connected. The smallest island is "Innlandet". ("Innermost Land"; humorously, "Tahiti") The city also consists of the larger island of Frei which was, until January 1, 2008, not a part of Kristiansund. Frei has now merged into Kristiansund municipality, and is now the largest of the five islands of Kristiansund. Even though there are many more smaller islands within city limits, these five "larger" islands are considered to be the "main islands". The highest point of the municipality is located in Frei, Freikollen at a height of 629 metres.

The island of Grip, located northwest of Kristiansund is also a part of the municipality. It was Norway"s smallest municipality, and also one of the most remote until it merged with Kristiansund in 1964. Today the island of Grip holds status as a deserted fishing village, but in the summer season it is a popular tourist attraction due to the very special location and architecture. The second smallest Stave church of Norway (Undredal stave church is smaller) is also located at Grip.

Kristiansund is one of the most densely populated cities of Norway, having what is arguably the country"s most urban small city centre, due to the relatively small size of the islands on which it is built and the very constricted central harbour/town area of Kirkelandet.

hurche
*Kirkelandet kirke is the newest church, built on the main island Kirkelandet after the World War II, as the last piece in the reconstruction of the city.
*Nordlandet kirke is located on the island Nordlandet. A stone church built in 1914.
*Frei kirke is located on the island Frei.
*Grip Stave Church is located on the island of Grip. The church is the smallest of its kind in Norway.
*St. Eystein Catholic Church is the only catholic church in Kristiansund.

limat
Kristiansund has a maritime, temperate climate with cool-to-warm summers and relatively short and mild winters. The city structure with the unique natural harbour of the city combined with warm wind from the southwest of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream gives Kristiansund a much warmer climate than its latitude would indicate.


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dministratio
The city council of Kristiansund have 45 representatives. (as of 2008) Per Kristian Øyen from the Labor Party (Arbeiderpartiet) was elected in 2007 as the mayor of Kristiansund, succeeding Dagfinn Ripnes.

he 2007 electio
As of 2007 the following parties have representatives in the city council of Kristiansund:

win town
* Kokkola, Finland
* Härnösand, Sweden
* Fredericia, Denmark

Together they have a tournament called Nordiske Dager. (Nordic Days)

arks and garden
A small section of the Langveien-park.
Though fairly small in size, the city of Kristiansund contain many green parks and gardens, frequently used by the city"s inhabitants. There are two larger parks near the city centre. The first one is located near Langveien, and was constructed in the aftermath of World War II . The second one is located in Vanndamman. This area used to be part of the city water supply, due to the large amount of small lakes in the area. (hence the name "Vanndamman" (The Water pounds)) The two parks are partly linked together, but the Langveien-park serve more as an urban recreation area due to the short walking distance from the city centre, while the Vanndamman-park is more suitable for outings and jogging.

ranspor
Festiviteten in Kristiansund
Started in 1876 and still going strong is the "Sundbåt" ("Sound Boat"/"Strait Crossing Boat") shuttle service with a capacity of a few tens of passengers, travelling between the islands. The small motor ferry crosses the harbour from Kirk(e)landet to Innlandet, then goes on to Nordlandet, to Gomalandet, and back to Kirkelandet, repeating the round trip in half-hour intervals morning to evening on weekdays. The Sundbåt bears the distinction of being "the world"s oldest motorized regular public transport system in continuous service".

The road to Kristiansund from mainland Norway, National Road No. 70 "(RV 70)" is connected to European route E39 at the bridge/tunnel system called Krifast. After passing through the underwater tunnel from the central part of Krifast, RV 70 crosses Frei, and enters Kristiansund over the Omsund Bridge onto Nordlandet. The Nordsund Bridge brings the RV 70 to Gomalandet and its terminus in downtown at Kirkelandet. Another high bridge, the Sørsund Bridge, leads from Kirkelandet to Innlandet. The above mentioned E39 leads southwest to Molde and northeast via the E6 to Mid-Norway"s principal city, Trondheim.

There is a car ferry going from Kirkelandet to Averøy, whose people have been commuting to town for many years for work as well as selling agriculture products. The ferry to Averøy connects Kristiansund to "RV 64", which goes on via the scenic Atlanterhavsvegen to Molde. The ferry is scheduled to be replaced by the 5.7 km long underwater tunnel Atlanterhavstunnelen in December 2009. A second car ferry goes from "Seivika" on Nordlandet to Tustna in the northeast (road: "RV 680"), with further road and ferry connections to the islands Smøla and Hitra, and to Aure on the mainland.

Besides roads and car ferries and Kvernberget airport, communications to/from Kristiansund consist of the traditional coastal express Hurtigruten connecting coastal towns from Bergen in the south to Kirkenes in the north, and the high speed catamaran passenger service Kystekspressen to Trondheim. Another option to get to Kristiansund is to fly with Scandinavian Airlines from several other Norwegian cities.

ommerce and industr
The front fasade of Kirkelandet kirke. It was one of the first truly modern church buildings in Norway, constructed in the mid 1960s.

Kristiansund is known as the major "bacalao" city of Norway. Bacalao is made of salted, dried codfish,Salted, dried cod, used in bacalao (see Baccalà and Bacalhau), is known locally as "klippfisk" ("Cliff Fish", eng. clipfish), the name coming from the rounded, barren cliffs on which the fish were traditionally left to dry in the open air after being opened, gutted, flattened, salted, and pressed. and has traditionally been exported in large amounts to Spain, Portugal and Latin America as food suitable during Lent. In recent years Kristiansund has become the major oil and gas city at the mid-northwestern coast. Oil companies like Shell and StatoilHydro have offices in Kristiansund from where they serve their offshore installations at Haltenbanken (one of the northernmost underwater oil fields in the world).

Due to the city"s heavy involvement in fish processing and international shipping, there used to be as many as seven consulates in Kristiansund, mainly to Latin countries. Currently, there are only five left: Britain, Finland, Latvia, the Netherlands, and Portugal.

ulture and sport
Kristiansund is an important cultural centre in the region of Nordmøre. The city is probably best known for housing Norway"s oldest opera, which was established in 1928 by Edvard Bræin. There is an annual opera festival held every February in Kristiansund named The Opera Weeks (Operafestukene). In addition to this, Kristiansund is also host city of Northern Europes largest photo festival, Nordic Light. Even though this is a rather "young" festival, (Est. 2006) it has grown to become one of the most important of its kind in Europe, attracting famous photographers from all around the world, like Don McCullin, Jock Sturges and William Klein.http://www.nle.no/?div_id=212&pag_id=214 Other smaller festivals held in Kristiansund include The Tahiti Festival and Kristiansund Church, Art and Culture Festival (shortened to the KKKK-festival in Norwegian).

Kristiansund"s main football team, KBK is a result of the merger between the two largest football teams in the city, KFK and Clausenengen which got together so they could make an elite football club in Kristiansund. KBK now plays in the second division in the Norwegian football league.

Other popular sports in Kristiansund include Volleyball, Wrestling, Swimming, Ice skating and Handball.

ourist attraction
The Norwegian clipfish museum. These building are typical for Kristiansund, and are easy to see along the harbour.
* The archipelago of "Grip", southwest of Kristiansund was until 1964 the smallest municipality of Norway. Today it is a deserted fishing village, but is a popular tourist attraction for the special architecture and unique location. Norway"s smallest stave church, which was constructed in the end of the 15th century is also located at Grip.
* "Sundbåtene" in Kristiansund claims to be the world"s oldest public transport system, founded in 1876. The small "Sundbåt" passenger ferries crosses between the four "lands" of the city.
* The old city structure in "Vågen" is a center for the historical fishing settlement in Kristiansund. "Mellemværftet" is also located here, which is an old shipbuilding facility for sailer ships. The Norwegian Clipfish Museum is also located here.
* "Innlandet" is an old city part of Kristiansund with very special and unique coastal architecture. Innlandet is the part of Kristiansund who was least destroyed during the bombings of Kristiansund during World War II .
* "Nordic Light" is an annual festival of photography arranged for the first time in 2006, and is currently the largest of its kind in Northern Europe. The festival is represented by Morten Krogvold.
* "Festiviteten" (Kristiansund Opera) is the oldest opera house in Norway. It is built in Art Nouveau-style, and was completed in 1914. It is one of the few older buildings in the city centre of Kristiansund that survived the bombing of the city during World War II .

otable people from Kristiansun
The following people are from, or have their roots in, Kristiansund.

* Frode Alnæs (b. 1959); pop singer, guitarist, entertainer (Dance with a Stranger pop band and solo career)
* Karsten Alnæs (b. 1938); fiction and popular history writer (his parents were from Kristiansund)
* Edvard Fliflet Bræin (1924–76); choir and orchestra composer and conductor, two operas and three symphonies
* Ingar Knudtsen (b. 1944); fantasy & science fiction author
* Jan Erik Mikalsen (b. 1979); composer
* John Neergaard (1901–64); baritone singer at the Kiel and Nuremberg opera houses
* Arnulf Øverland (1889–1968); author (born in Kr.sund, raised in Bergen)
* 120 Days (formerly "The Beautiful People", founded 2001); rock band
* Babe Didriksen (Zaharias) (1914–56); U.S. golfer, athlete, and Olympic gold medalist (her father Ole was from Kristiansund)
* Anders Giske (b. 1959); football player (German Bundesliga 1983–92: Nuremberg, Bayer Leverkusen, Köln)
* Gudrun Høie (b. 1970); female wrestler, four times world champion
* Øyvind Leonhardsen (b. 1970); football player (English Premier League 1995–2004: Wimbledon, Liverpool, Tottenham, Aston Villa)
* Ole Gunnar Solskjær (b. 1973); football player (Manchester United 1996–2007)
* Sigurd Frisvold (b. 1947); Army General, former Chief of Defence
* Steinar Wiik Sørvik (b. 1962); defence lawyer (several national level crime trials)
* Vera Zorina (1917–2003); dancer and choreographer
* Kristian Bergdal (1987); oppfant i 2007 "the wet elevator"
"Kristiansund Picture Links"
* http://travel.webshots.com/album/567001314UAUbCT
* http://travel.webshots.com/album/567024170TvrmIB
* http://travel.webshots.com/album/567032130ldGagZ

xternal link
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Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 13.10.2019 23:08 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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