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Kremnica

Slovakia, Kremnica
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"Kremnica" (; , ) is a town in central Slovakia. It has some 5,700 inhabitants. The well-preserved medieval town built above important gold mines is the site of the oldest still-working mint in the world.

istor
Kremnica was among the major mining towns of the world during the Middle Ages and in Modern Times due to the abundant gold ore deposits in the Kremnica Mountains. However, the first evidence of sub-surface mining activities comes from the 9th century.

In the 13th century the inhabitants of this area were affected by the invasion of the Mongols. Following that difficult period, Hungarian kings invited new colonists from Germany to settle in the region to help replenish the decimated population. They went on to restore the mining activities in the town. The first written reference to the town dates back to 1328, when it was granted royal town privileges by King Charles I of Hungary.

The town"s mint was already in existence at the time of the granting of royal privileges. Starting in 1335 the mint produced golden florins and later the famous "Kremnica ducats", which were used as an international means of payment as a result of their consistently high purity of gold. It was the most important mint, and later the only one, in the Kingdom of Hungary, in Czechoslovakia and nowadays in Slovakia; the prosperity brought to the town led to it being given the nickname "Golden Kremnica".

In 1331, Kremnica became the seat of the Chamber Count ("Kammergraf") who was the head of the most important mining and minting chamber of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Count administered all the mines and mints in twelve counties of the kingdom in the Middle Ages.

At the end of the 14th century, Kremnica became the capital of the mining towns in central Upper Hungary. The steady annual production of gold and silver guaranteed the prosperous development of the town. In the 15th century Kreminca was the second most important city in the Kingdom of Hungary. The town was continuously being granted new privileges and the deputies of the town occupied the second place in the Hungarian Diet (the first place was reserved for the representatives of Buda, the capital of the Kingdom).

Gold mining and coin production in Kremnica culminated in the 14th and 15th centuries. As one of the most important centers of Protestant Reformation in the country, the town belonged to the Protestant "League of Seven Mining Towns" together with Banská Belá, Banská Bystrica, Banská Štiavnica, Ľubietová, Nová Baňa, and Pukanec. In the 16th century, the town was a major centre of production of (mostly religious) medals, especially by Joachim Deschler. At the same time however, the miners had to dig deeper and deeper to reach new deposits and the mining conditions deteriorated because of underground water in the shafts. The cost of mining increased and the mining was becoming less profitable. The last gold was extracted in Kremnica in 1970, at which time all the mines were closed.

eograph
Kremnica lies at an altitude of above sea level and covers an area of . It is located in the Kremnica Mountains on the brook "Kremnický potok", which is a tributary of the Hron River. It is located around west of Banská Bystrica (by line), south of Martin and around from Bratislava.
remnica Castle and other landmark
Plague column on main square
The castle built in the 13th through 15th centuries towers over the town. In the first half of the 14th century, it became the residence of the Chamber Count. The town was immediately fortified with a double wall containing several bastions and towers. The castle represents a unique example of a very well-preserved fortification system in Central Europe. In the 14th century, it developed into a multifunctional complex of buildings and thus became the centre of local administration, religious life, and defense. At the end of the 15th century, the Chamber Count moved to a newly built house with a unique diamond vault. Thereafter the residence of the Count in the castle was converted into the St. Catherine"s Church.

Other sites of interest also include the Museum of Coins and Medals, the Museum of Skiing and a historical main square with a monumental Baroque plague column. The Gothic Church of St. Catherine hosts the popular European Organ Festival. A 20-km long aqueduct, built in the 15th century, is still working, supplying three hydroelectric power plants (one of them located 245 m below the ground). Forested mountains around the town offer plenty of opportunities for hiking and cross-country skiing.

The geographical centre of Europe is claimed to be in the nearby village of Krahule.

emographic
Kremnica has a population of 5,621 (as of December 31, 2005). According to the 2001 census, 95.8% of inhabitants were Slovaks and 1.2% Germans. Even among the Slovaks, there are many descendants of the Carpathian Germans, who played a very important role in the medieval history of the town. The religious makeup was 64.9% Roman s, 22.6% people with no religious affiliation, and 5.8% Lutherans.

amous peopl
*Peter Michalica, violinist
*Ladislav Chudík, Slovak actor

aller

Image:Kremnicky_zamok.jpg|Town castle
Image:Kremnica.jpg|Main square
Image:Kermnica_Town_Sq_2.JPG|Plague column
Image:20060824_135042_IMG_6790_Kremnica_pomnik_SNP_a_Barbakan.jpg|Barbican
Image:Kremnica 1729 Rothenfels.jpg|Kremnica, 1729


nternational relation

win towns — Sister citie
Kremnica has six sister cities:
* - Fidenza, Italy
* - Herbolzheim, Germany
* - Kutná Hora, Czech Republic
* - Nový Jičín, Czech Republic
* - Šurany, Slovakia
* - Várpalota, Hungary

eference

*

xternal link
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* - 3D models, panoramas, photographs and more
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Category:Cities and towns in Slovakia
Category:Castles in Slovakia
Category:Gold mines in Slovakia
Category:Underground mines in Slovakia

cs:Kremnica
de:Kremnica
eo:Kremnica
fr:Kremnica
hr:Kremnica
it:Kremnica
hu:Körmöcbánya
nl:Kremnica
ja:クレムニツァ
pl:Kremnica
pt:Kremnica
ro:Kremnica
ru:Кремница
sk:Kremnica
Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 18.08.2019 07:34 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.
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