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Serbia, Kragujevac
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"Kragujevac" (Serbian Cyrillic: Крагујевац, ) is the fourth largest city in Serbia after Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš, the main city of the Šumadija region and the administrative centre of Šumadija District. It is situated on the banks of the Lepenica River. The city was known as "Kraguyevca" or "Karacofça" during Ottoman rule.

Despite its relatively late foundation (1476), Kragujevac is the city of many firsts. Being the first capital of modern Serbia (1818- 1839), the first constitution in the Balkans was proclaimed in this city in 1835. Further on, the first full- fledged university in the newly independent Serbia was founded in 1838, preceded by the first grammar school ("Gimnazija"), Printworks (both in 1833), professional National theatre (1835) and the Military academy (1837).

Belgrade took the lead by becoming the seat of throne in 1841. The University of Kragujevac was not reestablished until 1976. Contemporary Kragujevac is known for its weapons, munition, and Zastava car factory, which produced the Yugo, Florida, Zastava 10 (Fiat Punto, by licence) and Skala automobiles until Fiat bought it in 2008. The new company, called "Fiat Serbia" thereafter, pledged to invest a total of 700 million euros in the region , with the government adding 200 million euros to this.

arly and medieva
Amidža castle, Balkan style architecture
The name of the town derived from the archaic Serbian word "kraguj", which is a name used for one sort of the bird (hunting hawk), thus the name means "hawk"s nesting place". Interestingly, old maps show the name as "Krakow".

Kragujevac experienced a lot of historical turbulence, not always without severe casualties. Over 200 archaeological sites in Šumadija confirm that the region"s first human settlements occurred 40,000 years ago, during the Paleolithic era. Kragujevac"s history runs deeper than that of Serbia"s capital city, Belgrade.Kragujevac was first mentioned in the medieval period as related to the public square built in a settlement, while the first written mention of the city was in the Turkish "Tapu-Defter" in 1476. Turkish documents from the 15th century refer to it as a "village of Kragujevdza". The town itself gained prominence during the Ottoman period (1459- 1804) as the central point in the Belgrade Pashaluk.

arly modern perio
The old bridge over Lepenica river

The city is located at crossroads. Given this location, the city has been devastated many times and has suffered great losses of life in a number of wars throughout history. It began to prosper after Serbia"s liberation from Turkish rule in 1818, when Prince Miloš Obrenović proclaimed it the capital of the new Serbian State. The first Serbian constitution was proclaimed here in 1835 and the first idea of independent electoral democracy. The first law on the printing press was passed in Kragujevac in 1870. Kragujevac, the capital, was developing and cherishing modern, progressive, free ideas and resembled many European capitals of that time.
Riverside and the "New Church" in the background
Apart from contemporary political influence, Kragujevac became the cultural and educational center of Serbia. Important institutions built during that time include Serbia"s first secondary school ("Gimnazija"), first pharmacy, and first printing press. Kragujevac gave rise to many international scholars, professors, academics, scientists, artists and statesmen.

The turning point in the overall development of Kragujevac was in 1851 when the Cannon Foundry began production, beginning a new era in the city’s economic development. The main industry of the 19th and 20th century was military production. Kragujevac became one of Serbia’s largest exporters in 1886, when the main Belgrade – Niš railway connected through Kragujevac.

New centuries brought new wars. During World War I, Kragujevac again became the capital of Serbia (1914-1915), and the seat of many state institutions - even the Supreme Army Command was housed within the Court House building. During the war, Kragujevac lost 15% of its population.

nterbellum perio
King Peter"s promenade in central Kragujevac

The social aspect, especially theater life in Kragujevac between the two wars was very vibrant. First cultural event in the liberated Kragujevac in 1918 was the establishment of the Theater Gundulic that worked only one season and moved to Belgrade,

Following the model of Academic Theater in Belgrade formation in 1924 at the initiative of Kragujevac scholars Academic Theater was established there, too that supported contemporary ideas, modern approach to stage, live word and repertoire, thus gaining the reputation of a serious art organization. There were many other cultural institutions in the city which began to grow into a large cultural and industrial hub of Central Serbia.

"Broken wing", WWII commemoration site

WII and the Kragujevac massacr

Kragujevac underwent a number of ordeals, the worst probably having been the October massacre during World War II. The Kragujevac massacre was the slaughter of 2,300 to 5,000 civilians—mostly Serbs and Roma, women and schoolchildren—in Kragujevac by Nazi soldiers between 20–21 October 1941. It was one of the worst crimes during the German military occupation of Serbia. Staniša Brkić, curator of The Museum of 21 October, published a book in 2007 where he listed names and personal data of 2,796 victims.
The killings went on from October 19 to October 21, 1941, in retaliation for a supposed partisan attack on German soldiers. 50 people were shot per wounded German soldier, while 100 for a dead soldier. Among the killed was a whole generation of boys taken directly from the school. The monument for the executed pupils is a symbol of the city. This atrocity has inspired a poem "Krvava bajka" ("Bloody fairy tale") by Desanka Maksimović, a well known Serbian poet from the former Yugoslavia.

ost-war cit
Panoramic night view over Kragujevac

In the post-war period, Kragujevac developed more industry. Its main exports were passenger cars, trucks and industrial vehicles, hunting arms, industrial chains, leather, and textiles. The biggest industry, and the city"s main employer was Zastava, which employed tens of thousands. The industry suffered under economic sanctions during the Milošević era, and was all but destroyed by the NATO bombing campaign in 1999. Despite a possible deal with the Italian auto manufacturer, Fiat, to reopen the factory, the city currently suffers from widespread unemployment.

Since 1976, Kragujevac has grown as a university centre. The University of Kragujevac includes the Faculties of Medicine, Engineering, Law, Economics, Philology, Arts, Natural Sciences and Mathematics.

Municipalities and settlements
The city of Kragujevac is divided into the following municipalities:
*Stari Grad


List of settlements in the municipalities of Kragujevac:

*Adžine Livade
*Velika Sugubina
*Velike Pčelice
*Veliki Šenj
*Gornja Sabanta
*Gornje Grbice
*Gornje Jarušice
*Gornje Komarice

*Donja Sabanta
*Donje Grbice
*Donje Komarice
*Mala Vrbica
*Mali Šenj

*Novi Milanovac

emographics (2002 census
Ethnic groups in the municipal area of Kragujevac (including all municipalities):


Seats in the municipality parliament won in the 2004 local elections:

* Together for Šumadija (28)
* Democratic Party (18)
* Serbian Radical Party (13)
* Socialist Party of Serbia (8)
* Democratic Party of Serbia (6)
* For our city (5)
* Serbian Strength Movement (5)
* New Serbia (4)

Votes and seats in the municipality parliament won in the 2008 local elections:

* G17 Plus-Together for Šumadija - Veroljub Verko Stevanovic 43306 (41)
* For a European Serbia - 14662 (14)
* Democratic Party of Serbia-New Serbia - Dr Vladan Vucicevic 6468 (6)
* Socialist Party of Serbia-Party of United Pensioners of Serbia-United Serbia, - Slavica Djukic-Dejanovic 8893 (8)
* Serbian Radical Party - 19451 (18)

Veroljub Stevanovic has said that, as his Together for Šumadija-G17+ coalition is three seats short of a majority, he will discuss possible coalition arrangements with the SPS-led coalition and the "For a European Serbia" coalition that his alliance participated in for the parliamentary elections.

otable buildings and monument
Museum of Genocide in Kragujevac

The architecture of Kragujevac displays a fusion of two different styles—traditional Turkish (nowadays almost completely gone) and 19th century Vienna Secession style. Modern conceptions also appear throughout the city, firstly in the shape of post-war concrete (usually apartments designed to house those left homeless during World War II), and secondly the up-to-date glass offices reflecting the ambitious business aspects of modern architects.

Some important buildings and institutions in Kragujevac include:
* The old church of Descent of the Holy Spirit was built in 1818, as a part of Prince Miloš" court. Its interior was decorated from 1818 to 1822. The new belfry was built in 1907.
* The Old Parliament was built in the court of the church where the first parliamentary meeting was held in 1859. Many events of great historical importance, such as verifying the Berlin Congress decision about the independence of Serbia, took place there. After undergoing reconstruction in 1992, the building was converted into a museum.
Kragujevac by night around Christmas
* The Amidža Konak was built by Prince Miloš in 1820 as a residential house. It is one of the finest examples of regional architecture in Serbia. It now houses an exhibition from the National Museum.
* The Prince Mihailo Konak was built in 1860. Its architecture blends local tradition with European architectural concepts. The building is now the National Museum.
* The High School (Gimnazija) was built between 1885 and 1887 according to designs from the Ministry of Civil Engineering. It is one of the city"s oldest edifices designed in a European style, in the tradition of the oldest Serbian Gimnazija from 1833. Some famous Serbian scientists, artists and politicians were educated in this school.
Knjaževsko-srpski teatar ("Serbian Principal Theatre"), 1835
* These institutions continue to promote cultural activities in modern-day Kragujevac: Knjaževsko-srpski teatar (founded in 1835), National Library "Vuk Karadžić" (1866), Cultural and Artistic Group "Abrasević" (1904).
* The "Kragujevac October" Memorial Park, located in Šumarice, commemorates the tragic events of October 21, 1941.
* The National Museum has various displays including those pertaining to archeology, ethnic diversity, the history of Kragujevac and Šumadija and many paintings. The archeology department has a rich collection of 10,000 display items and over 100,000 study items. The painting department has over 1,000 pieces of prominent Serbian art of extraordinary value.
* The "Zastava Museum" is located within the old gun foundry and exhibits the history of industrial development in Kragujevac and Serbia.
* The Historical Archives of Šumadija collects and files the archives and issues of the seven municipalities of Šumadija and has at its disposal 700 meters of archive issues with 780 registries and hundreds of thousands of original historical documents.
* Tourists may also be interested in the range of scenic attractions nearby, including the Aranđelovac, Vrnjačka Banja, and Mataruška Banja, Karađorđe"s castle, the Church of Saint George in Topola 40 km away, the Old Kalenić monastery 55 km away, the resorts of Rogot (28 km) and Stragari (34 km) with old monasteries of Blagoveštenje and Voljavca.

The city is home to the Bandy Federation of Serbia.

amous resident

* Miloš Obrenović
* Milan Obrenović II
* Mihailo Obrenović III
* Milan Obrenović
* Nikola Pašić
* Radomir Putnik
* Jovan Ristić
* Vuk Stefanović Karadžić
* Joakim Vujić
* Đura Jakšić
* Radoje Domanović
* Svetozar Marković
* Dragoslav Srejović
* Mija Aleksić
* Ljuba Tadić
* Draginja Adamović

* Dragan Todorović
* Radomir Mihailović Točak
* Slobodan Stojanović Kepa
* Dragomir Bojanić Gidra
* Vidosav Stevanović
* Predrag Đorđević
* Nikola Lončar
* Dejan Brđović
* Zoran Spasojević
* Gorica Popović
* Tomislav Nikolić
* Marija Šerifović
* Jelena Tomašević
* Milovan Ilić Minimaks
* Bora Dugić
* Ana Mihajlovic

nternational relation
Suresnes Twinning & Partnership agreement, as seen in Kragujevac city hall first floor.

win towns - Sister citie
Kragujevac is twinned with:

Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin/sister city programmes:
} © 2007-2009 Urząd Miasta Opola}}
* "Sinchon", South Korea

ocal Medi

ee als

*List of places in Serbia
*Šumarice Memorial Park
*Kragujevac massacre
*Museum of Genocide
*Knjaževsko-srpski teatar
*First Kragujevac Gymnasium
*Šumadija fairground
*Gruža lake


Dieser Artikel stammt aus der freien Enzyklopädie Wikipedia und kann dort bearbeitet werden. Der Text ist unter der Lizenz Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike verfügbar. Fassung vom 25.11.2015 13:15 von den Wikipedia-Autoren.


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